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Zhiryakov V.A. (1990). Wolves' role in biocenosis of the Almaty nature reserve (North Tien Shan) (Vol. Vol. II.).
Abstract: The quantity of ungulates is high in the nature reserve: moral (100-120), roe deer (500-650), Siberian ibex (660-700), and wild boar (50-80). Moreover some 5,000 heads of livestock (mostly sheep) are grazed in a buffer zone in summer. Among big predators (snow leopard, bear, lynx) wolf kills about 40 percent of ungulates.
Keywords: Kazakhstan; Almaty nature reserve; ungulates; number; livestock; red deer; roe deer; ibex; wild boar; predators; brown bear; wolf; snow leopard.; 8780; Russian