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Allen, P. (2002). Conservation Increases Crafts Income (Vol. Winter, 2002).
Blower, J. H. (1986). Nature Conservation in Bhutan: Project Findings and Recommendations.
Abstract: Snow leopard is relatively common, but there is some destruction of its habitat in Northern Bhutan
Fox, J. L. (1989). An Annotated Bibliography of Literature on the Snow Leopard. Usa: Islt.
Guerrero, D. (1998). Animal behavior concerns & solutions: snow leopard (Uncia uncia) evaluation, zoo. Anim.Keepers' Forum, 25(2), 56–58.
Abstract: The author offers advice on how a captive-raised snow leopard cub could be acclimated to humans so it could be used as a zoo “ambassador”. The cub had negative experiences with humans and lacked socialization with other animals and conspecifics. Methods of avoiding and redirecting the cub's aggressive behavior are suggested. lgh.
Hol, E. H., Marden, T. B., & Roelke, M. E. (1994). The importance of ecotoxicological research in management of the snow leopard: lessons learned from the Florida panther. In J.L.Fox and D.Jizeng (Ed.), (pp. 113–125). Usa: Islt.
Kotlyar V.V. (1973). The Sary Chelek nature reserve.
Abstract: The author describes flora and fauna of the Sary Chelek nature reserve. There are 40 mammal species in the nature reserve. Encounters with snow leopard are rather rare. Normally, it preys on ibex, mainly destroying weakened animals.
Linnell, J., Swenson, J., Landa A., & and Kvam, T. (1998). Methods for monitoring European large carnivores – A worldwide review of relevant experience. NINA Oppdragsmelding, 549, 1–38.
Abstract: Against a background of recovering large carnivore populations in Norway, and many other areas of Europe, it is becoming increasingly important to develop methods to monitor their populations. A variety of parameters can monitored depending on objectives. These parameters include: presence/absense, distribution, population trend indices, minimum counts, statistical estimates of population size, reproductive parameters and health/condition. Three broad categories of monitoring techniques can be recognised each with increasing levels of fieldwork required. The first category includes those techniques that do not require original fieldwork. The second category involves fieldwork, but where individually recognisable carnivores are not available. The third category includes methods where fieldwork has recognisable individuals available. Different mehtods tend to have been used for different species, mainly because of limitations imposed by the different species' ecology. The most precise estimates of population size have been obtained in research projects with relatively small study sites and with the help of radio-telemetry. However, it may be difficult, or impossible, to apply these methods over large monitoring areas. Therefore, in terms of practical management, a combination of minimum counts, supported by an independent index may be more useful than statistical population estimates. All methods should be subject to a careful design process, and power analysis should be conducted to determine the sensitivity of the method to detect changes.
Based on the review of over 200 papers and reports we recommend a package of complementary monitoring methods for brown bear, wolverine, lynx and wolf in Norway. These include the use of observations from the public and reports of predation on livestock to determine broad patterns of distribution, and an index based on hunter observations per hunting day, for all four species. Minimum counts of reproductive units, natal dens, family groups, and packs, should be obtained from snow-tracking for wolverines, lynx and wolves respectively. In addition a track-count index should be obtained for wolverines and lynx. As much data as possible should be obtained of lynx and wolvereines killed in the annual harvest. Brown bears will be difficult to monitor without the use of radio-telemetry, therfore they may require periodic telemetry based, mark-recapture studies. Such a program can easily be constructed within existing central and regional wildlife management structures, but will require extensive involvement from hunters.
McCarthy, T., Fuller, T., & Munkhtsog, B. (2005). Movements and activities of snow leopards in Southwestern Mongolia (Vol. 124).
Abstract: Four adult (2M:2F) snow leopards (Uncia uncia) were radio-monitored (VHF; one also via satellite) year-round during 1994-1997 in the Altai Mountains of southwestern Mongolia where prey densities (i.e., ibex, Capra siberica) were relatively low (0.9/km2). Marked animals were more active at night (51%) than during the day (35%). Within the study area, marked leopards showed strong a.nity for steep and rugged terrain, high use of areas rich in ungulate prey, and a.nity for habitat edges. The satellite-monitored leopard moved more than 12 km on 14% of consecutive days monitored. Home ranges determined by standard telemetry techniques overlapped substantially and were at least 13-141 km2in size. However, the satellite-monitored individual apparently ranged over an area of at least 1590 km2, and perhaps over as much as 4500 km2. Since telemetry attempts from the ground were
frequently unsuccessful dx¬ 72%_, we suspect all marked animals likely had large home ranges. Relatively low prey abundance in the area also suggested that home ranges of >500 km2were not unreasonable to expect, though these are >10-fold larger than measured in any other part of snow leopard range. Home ranges of snow leopards may be larger than we suspect in many areas, and thus estimation of snow leopard conservation status must rigorously consider logistical constraints inherent in telemetry studies, and the relative abundance of prey.
Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association. (2010). Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association Report March 2010.
Abstract: In accordance with order of the Ministry of Nature and Tourism,
zoologists of our association have made surveys in three ways such as
reasons why snow leopards attack domestic animals, “Snow leopard” trial
operation to count them and illegal hunting in territories of Khovd,
Gobi-Altai, Bayankhongor, Uvurkhangai and Umnugobi provinces from
September 2009 to January 2010. As result of these surveys it has made
the following conclusions in the followings: Reason to hunt them illegally: the principal reason is that
administrative units have been increased and territories of
administrative units have been diminished. There have been four
provinces in 1924 to 1926, 18 since 1965, 21 since 1990. Such situation
limits movements of herdsmen completely and pastures digressed much than
ever before. As result of such situation, 70% of pastures become desert.
Such digression caused not only heads of animals and also number of
species. Guarantee is that birds such as owls, cuckoo, willow grouse in
banks of Uyert river, Burkhanbuudai mountain, located in Biger soum,
Gobi-Altai province, which are not hunted by hunters, are disappearing
in the recent two decades. For that reason we consider it is urgently
necessary for the government to convert administrative unit structures
into four provinces. This would influence herdsmen moving across
hundreds km and pastures could depart from digression.
Second reason: cooperative movement won. The issues related to management and strengthening of national
cooperatives, considered by Central Committee of Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party in the meeting in March 1953 was the start of
cooperatives' movement. Consideration by Yu. Tsedenbal, chairman of
Ministers Council, chairman of the MPRP, on report "Result of to unify
popular units and some important issues to maintain entity management of
agricultural cooperatives" in the fourth meeting by the Central
Committee of Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party /MPRP/ on December
16-17, 1959, proclaimed complete victory of cooperative. At the end of
1959, it could unify 767 small cooperative into 389 ones, unify 99.3 %
of herdsmen and socialize 73.3 % of animals. The remaining of animals
amount 6 million 163 thousands animals, and equals to 26.7% of total
animals. This concerned number of animals related to the article
mentioned that every family should have not more that 50 animals in
Khangai zone and not more 75 animals in Gobi desert. It shows that such
number could not satisfy needs of family if such number is divided into
five main animals in separating with reproduction animals and adult
animals. So herdsmen started hunt hoofed animals secretly and illegally
in order to satisfy their meat needs. Those animals included main food
of snow leopard such as ibex, wild sheep, and marmot. Third reason is that the state used to hunt ibex, which are main
nutrition of snow leopards, every year. The administrative unit of the
soum pursued policy to hunt ibex in order to provide meat needs of
secondary schools and hospitals. That's why this affected decrease of
ibex population. Preciously from 1986 to 1990 the permissions to hunt
one thousands of wild sheep and two thousands of ibexes were hunt for
domestic alimentary use every year. Not less than 10 local hunters of every soum used to take part in big
game of ibexes. Also they hunted many ibexes, chose 3-10 best ibexes and
hid them in the mountains for their consummation during hunting.
Fourth reason: hunting of wolves. Until 1990 the state used to give
prizes to hunter, who killed a wolf in any seasons of the year. Firstly
it offered a sheep for the wolf hunter and later it gave 25 tugrugs /15
USD/. Every year, wolf hunting was organized several times especially
picking wolf-cubs influenced spread and population of wolves. So snow
leopard came to the places where wolves survived before and attack
domestic animals. Such situation continued until 1990. Now population of
ibexes has decreased than before 1990 since the state stopped hunting
wolves, population of wolves increased in mountainous zones. We didn't
consider it had been right since it was natural event. However
population of ibexes decreased. Fifth reason: Global warming. In recent five years it has had a drought
and natural disaster from excessive snow in the places where it has
never had such natural disasters before. But Mongolia has 40 million
heads of domestic animals it has never increased like such quantity in
its history before. We consider it is not incorrect that decrease of
domestic animals could give opportunities to raise population of wild
animals. Our next survey is to make attempt to fix heads of snow leopards
correctly with low costs.
Paul, H. A., Bargar, W. L., & Leininger, R. (1985). Total hip replacement in a snow leopard. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 187(11), 1262–1263.