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Bagchi, S., Mishra, C., & Bhatnagar, Y. (2004). Conflicts between traditional pastoralism and conservation of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Trans-Himalayan mountains. Animal Conservation, 7, 121–128.
Abstract: There is recent evidence to suggest that domestic livestock deplete the density and diversity of wild herbivores in the cold deserts of the Trans-Himalaya by imposing resource limitations. To ascertain the degree and nature of threats faced by Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) from seven livestock species, we studied their resource use patterns over space, habitat and food dimensions in the pastures of Pin Valley National Park in the Spiti region of the Indian Himalaya. Species diet profiles were obtained by direct observations. We assessed the similarity in habitat use and diets of ibex and livestock using Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling. We estimated the influence of the spatial distribution of livestock on habitat and diet choice of ibex by examining their co-occurrence patterns in cells overlaid on the pastures. The observed co-occurrence of ibex and livestock in cells was compared with null-models generated through Monte Carlo simulations. The results suggest that goats and sheep impose resource limitations on ibex and exclude them from certain pastures. In the remaining suitable habitat, ibex share forage with horses. Ibex remained relatively unaffected by other livestock such as yaks, donkeys and cattle. However, most livestock removed large amounts of forage from the pastures (nearly 250 kg of dry matter/day by certain species), thereby reducing forage availability for ibex. Pertinent conservation issues are discussed in the light of multiple-use of parks and current socio-economic transitions in the region, which call for integrating social and ecological feedback into management planning.
Bhatnagar, Y. V., Mathur, V. B., & McCarthy, T. (2002). A Regional Perspective for Snow Leopard Conservation In the Indian Trans-Himalaya.. Islt: Islt.
Abstract: The Trans-Himalaya is a vast biogeographic region in the cold and arid rain-shadow of
the Greater Himalaya and is spread over three Indian states. From the conservation
standpoint this region has several unique characteristics. Unlike most other
biogeographic regions of the country, it has wildlife, including large mammals, spread
over the entire region. Another feature is that the harsh climate and topography
provides limited agricultural land and pastures, all of which are currently utilized by
people. The harsh environment has given rise to a specialized assemblage of flora and fauna in
the region that include the endangered snow leopard, a variety of wild sheep and goat,
Tibetan antelope, Tibetan gazelle, kiang and wild yak. The snow leopard is one of the
most charismatic species of the Trans-Himalaya. This apex predator, with a wide
distribution, has ecological importance and international appeal, and is eminently
suitable to be used as both a 'flagship' and an 'umbrella species' to anchor and guide
conservation efforts in the Trans-Himalayan region. Among the 10 Biogeographic Zones in the country, the Trans-Himalaya has a
comparatively large Protected Area (PA) coverage, with over 15,000 km2 (8.2 %) of
the geographical area under the network. In spite of this, the bulk of the large mammal
populations still exist outside the PAs, which include highly endangered species such
as snow leopard, chiru, wild yak, Ladakh urial, kiang and brown bear. Given the sparse resource availability in the Trans-Himalaya and the existing human
use patterns, there are few alternatives that can be provided to resource dependent
human communities in and around PAs. The existing PAs themselves pose formidable
conservation challenges and a further increase in their extent is impractical. The
problem is further compounded by the fact that some of the large PAs have unclear
boundaries and include vast stretches that do not have any direct wildlife values. These
issues call for an alternative strategy for conservation of the Trans-Himalayan tracts
based on a regional perspective, which includes reconciling conservation with
development. In this paper we stress that conservation issues of this region, such as competition for
forage between wild and domestic herbivores and human-wildlife conflicts need to be
addressed in a participatory manner. We suggest an alternative scheme to look at the
zonation of existing PAs and also the Trans-Himalayan region as a whole, to facilitate
better conservation in the region. Also, we emphasize that there is a vital need for
additional resources and a formal setup for regional planning and management under a
centrally sponsored scheme such as the 'Project Snow Leopard'.
Gurung, G. T. K. (2004). Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) and Human Interaction in Phoo Village in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.
Abstract: Phoo village in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal is located at 4,052 m als physically
in the central north of the country. Livestock keeping is the main activity of the people for making a
living amidst a conflict with snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Each year snow leopard kills a number of
livestock resulting significant economic losses for the poor people living in this remote area. Unless
the people – snow leopard conflict is well understood and appropriate conflict management activities
are implemented, the long run co-existence between people and snow leopard – especially the
existence of snow leopard in this part of the world -will be in question. This has now become an
utmost important as the aspiration of the people for economic development has risen significantly and
the area has been opened to tourism since spring 2002. In addition to this, the globalisation process has
directly and indirectly affected the traditional resource management practices and co-existence
strategies of many traditional societies including Phoo.
The livestock depredation for 3 years (2001 – 2004) by snow leopard was studied by interviewing the
herders to understand the responsible and specific bio-physical and socio-economic factors. The study
revealed that goats are most depredated species followed by sheep. Winter months (January – April)
and winter pastures are most vulnerable to snow leopard predation. Presence of bushes, forest and
boulders make good hides for snow leopard resulting into high depredation. The study also showed
that a lax animal guarding system was significantly responsible for high livestock depredation by snow
The study showed that improvement in livestock guarding system should be adopted as the most
important activity. However despite the importance of livestock in the economy of Phoo it is still not
well understood why the herders neglect for proper livestock guarding. This requires further study.
Proper guarding system is required especially in winter season in winter pastures. It is also suggested
that there should be changes in the composition of livestock species by promoting more yaks and
discouraging or minimising goats. Yaks and large animals are less depredated and small animals like
goats and sheep are highly depredated by snow leopard. A trend was also observed in Phoo village
where there is an increase in the number of yaks and a decrease in the number of goats over last few
years. This could be a management response of the herders to livestock depredation. Other protective
measures of the livestock at the corrals have also been recommended including promotion of guard
dogs and other measures.
Since the area is opened for tourism, it is suggested that the tourism opportunity for the economic
development of the area should be grasped so that the heavy dependence on livestock raising would be
minimised. This will help minimise the number of human – snow leopard conflicts.
Harris, R. B. (1994). A note on snow leopards and local people in Nangqian County, Southern Qinghai Province. In J.L.Fox, & D. Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 79–84). Usa: Islt.
Harris, R. B., Pletscher, D. H., Loggers, C. O., & Miller, D. J. (1999). Status and trends of Tibetan plateau mammalian fauna, Yeniugou, China. Biological Conservation, 87, 13–19.
Abstract: We conducted surveys focusing on the unique and vulnerable ungulate species in Yeniugou, Qinghai province, China, during September 1997 to compare population estimates with those from the early 1990s. The status of two ungulate species appeared essentially unchanged since 1990ñ1992: wild yak Bos grunniens (about 1200 to 1300 animals) and Tibetan gazelle Procapra picti- caudata. The status of one ungulate species, the white-lipped deer Cervus albirostris, appeared to improve, from a very few to close to 100. We are unsure how the status of the Tibetan wild ass Equus kiang compares with that of the early 1990s. The status of three species declined during the period: blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and argali Ovis ammon declined slightly (possibly due to a weather event), and the Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni declined dramatically (probably due primarily to poaching), from over 2000 estimated in 1991 to only two seen during 1997. Poaching of antelope has become a serious problem throughout the Tibetan plateau in recent years, and this survey provides evidence that an entire subpopulation can disappear (either through mortality, movement away from human disturbance or a combination) within a relatively short time-frame. That some species (e.g. wild yak, white-lipped deer) continue to thrive in Yeniugou is heartening, but even they remain vulnerable to market-driven poaching.#1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ikeda, N. (2004). Economic impacts of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia in the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal Himalaya (Vol. 31).
Abstract: It is necessary to fully understand the economic conditions of local herders in order to find solutions to the conflicts between wildlife conservation and livestock rearing in remote areas of low-income countries. In the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Nepal, livestock depredation by snow leopards impacts on yak herders' livelihoods. Retaliatory killings of snow leopard by the herders have been reported and the concerned authorities recently initiated snow leopard conservation programmes. In 2001, interviews with the yak herders who used the pastures in the Ghunsa valley in the preceding year collected data on the incidence of livestock death caused by snow leopards. The annual net cash income of the yak herders was estimated by obtaining baseline values of sales and expenditure per livestock head through field measurement of dairy products and interviews with a sample of herders. As yet, the average annual damage does not appear to have adversely affected fundamental livelihoods in households with an average herd size (36.6 head). However, in the worst scenario of livestock depredation, households with medium or small-sized herds (<40 head) might risk their living conditions becoming unsustainable or having to withdraw from yak pastoralism. A supplementary interview showed that the majority of the herders, except those who took completely neutral attitudes towards the regional conservation and development programme, had negative views of the snow leopard conservation policy. For the snow leopard conservation programme in the KCA to be a success, there must be a system to compensate the herders' households for livestock damage.
Kashkarov, E. (2017). ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERIES IN WESTERN BERINGIA.208–217.
Abstract: Among zoogeographical discoveries of the frontier of XXI century there is nothing more interesting
than discoveries of Rodion Sivolobov in Western Beringia. Beringia has surprised us by
paleontological discoveries many centuries ago, and also surprised by modern one. Somehow they
came out of attention of all International environmental foundations and Academies of the world, as
if on purpose to show their professional incompetence. It is the only way to describe the
organization, not to notice the appearance of such big cats as the Snow leopard and Amur tiger for
5,000 kilometers from the border of main range, as well as large Pleistocene relict � the Irkuyembear.
All three endangered species of mammals found by Sivolobov in Koryakia and Chukotka, and
for the snow leopard he took the world's first photo in Beringia.
New facts suggests two things: (1) the ancient refuges of big cats locate to Koryakia and
Chukotka much closer of main ranges, (2) global warming, changing natural environment on the
waves of hundred-year rhythms, periodically pushing irbis and tiger on the ways of ancient
Beringian migrations stored in their genetic memories. Irkuyem is a contemporary of the mammoth.
Unlike it, this bear lived up to our days, but remained undetected even by the large “mammoths” of
Kattel, B., & Bajimaya, S. S. (1997). Status and Conservation of Snow Leopard in Nepal. In R.Jackson, & A.Ashiq (Eds.), (pp. 21–27). Lahore, Pakistan: International Snow Leopard Trust.
Miller, D. J., & Jackson, R. (1994). Livestock and Snow Leopards:making room for competing users on the Tibetian Plateau. In J.L.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 315–328). Usa: Islt.
Norbu, U. P. (1997). Status and Conservation of Snow Leopard In Bhutan. In R.Jackson, & A.Ahmad (Eds.), (pp. 28–34). Lahore, India: International Snow Leopard Trust.
Oli, M. K., Taylor, I. R., & Rogers, M. K. (1993). Diet of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Journal of Zoology London, 231(3), 365–370.
Abstract: The diet of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) was studied from 213 scats collected between April 1990 and February 1991 in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Seven species of wild and five species of domestic mammals were taken, as well as an unidentified mammal and birds. Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) were the most frequently eaten prey. Himalayan marmots (Marmota himalayana) were also important, except in winter when they were hibernating. During winter, snow leopards ate more Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) and domestic livestock. Yaks were eaten more frequently than other livestock types.
Sarkar, P., Takpa, J., Ahmed, R., Tiwari, S. K., Pendharkar, A., ul-Haq, S., Miandad, J., Upadhyay, A., Kaul, R. (2008). Mountain Migrants. Survey of Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) and Wild Yak (Bos grunniens) in Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir, India. India.
Abstract: The Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii), locally called chiru, is mainly confined to the Tibetan plateau in China. A small population migrates into Chang Thang in eastern Ladakh in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India. The chiru has a geographical range extending approximately 1,600 km across the Tibetan Plateau, with an eastern limit near Ngoring Hu (Tibet Autonomous Region) and a western limit in Ladakh (India). Large-scale hunting for wool and meat has resulted in a decline of its population and only an estimated 75,000 individuals of this species survive in the world today. Its status in India has not been studied in any detail, although sporadic spot surveys have been done in the past. Similarly, very little information is available on status of wild yak (Bos grunniens), the progenitor (closest ancestor) of the domestic yak in India. The animal is distributed mainly in the highlands of the Tibetan plateau including the Qinghai province, Tibetan and Xinjiang autonomous regions and the Quilian mountains in the Gansu province. Small nomadic isolated populations are reported from Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), and even smaller numbers occasionally from Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh in India. To obtain further information primarily about these two species, the Department of Wildlife Protection, Jammu & Kashmir (DWP) along with the Wildlife Trust of India (WTI) and the Indian Army initiated surveys in Ladakh in the years 2005 and 2006. Surveys were conducted in the Chang Thang and Karakoram Wildlife Sanctuaries of Ladakh in Jammu & Kashmir. The Chang Chenmo (Chang Thang) area lies in the eastern part of Ladakh just north of the famous Pangong Lake, while the Karakoram WLS lies in the north-eastern part of Ladakh, south of the Karakoram Pass. The team found 250 – 300 chiru in the Karakoram area in addition to other mammal species. Both male and female chiru were sighted here between altitudes of 4735 m and 5336 m. A total of 230 individuals were sighted (after deleting double counts) in the year 2005 and 45 individuals in 2006. Based on this, it is estimated that between 250-300 individuals occur in this area. Mean group size of chiru was 4.66±0.435 and varied between one to 34 individuals during 2005, and 4.5 ± 2.77 (SE) during 2006. Apart from chiru, other species encountered from the area includes Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus chanco), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), pale or mountain weasel (Mustela altaica), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), Ladakh urial (Ovis vignei), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), woolly hare (Lepus oiostolus), Ladakh pika (Ochotona ladacensis), Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei), Nubra pika (Ochotona nubrica), plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), Stoliczka's mountain vole (Alticola stoliczkanus) and silvery mountain vole (Alticola argentatus).
Schaller, G. (1988). Wildlife Survey in Tibet, Report #8.
Shrestha, B. (2008). Prey Abundance and Prey Selection by Snow Leopard (uncia uncia) in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal.
Abstract: Predators have significant ecological impacts on the region's prey-predator dynamic and community structure through their numbers and prey selection. During April-December 2007, I conducted a research in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (SNP) to: i) explore population status and density of wild prey species; Himalayan tahr, musk deer and game birds, ii) investigate diet of the snow leopard and to estimate prey selection by snow leopard, iii) identify the pattern of livestock depredation by snow leopard, its mitigation, and raise awareness through outreach program, and identify the challenge and opportunities on conservation snow leopard and its co-existence with wild ungulates and the human using the areas of the SNP. Methodology of my research included vantage points and regular monitoring from trails for Himalayan tahr, fixed line transect with belt drive method for musk deer and game birds, and microscopic hair identification in snow leopard's scat to investigate diet of snow leopard and to estimate prey selection. Based on available evidence and witness accounts of snow leopard attack on livestock, the patterns of livestock depredation were assessed. I obtained 201 sighting of Himalayan tahr (1760 individuals) and estimated 293 populations in post-parturient period (April-June), 394 in birth period (July -October) and 195 November- December) in rutting period. In average, ratio of male to females was ranged from 0.34 to 0.79 and ratio of kid to female was 0.21-0.35, and yearling to kid was 0.21- 0.47. The encounter rate for musk deer was 1.06 and density was 17.28/km2. For Himalayan monal, the encounter rate was 2.14 and density was 35.66/km2. I obtained 12 sighting of snow cock comprising 69 individual in Gokyo. The ratio of male to female was 1.18 and young to female was 2.18. Twelve species (8 species of wild and 4 species of domestic livestock) were identified in the 120 snow leopard scats examined. In average, snow leopard predated most frequently on Himalayan tahr and it was detected in 26.5% relative frequency of occurrence while occurred in 36.66% of all scats, then it was followed by musk deer (19.87%), yak (12.65%), cow (12.04%), dog (10.24%), unidentified mammal (3.61%), woolly hare (3.01%), rat sp. (2.4%), unidentified bird sp. (1.8%), pika (1.2%), and shrew (0.6%) (Table 5.8 ). Wild species were present in 58.99% of scats whereas domestic livestock with dog were present in 40.95% of scats. Snow leopard predated most frequently on wildlife species in three seasons; spring (61.62%), autumn (61.11%) and winter (65.51%), and most frequently on domestic species including dog in summer season (54.54%). In term of relative biomass consumed, in average, Himalayan tahr was the most important prey species contributed 26.27% of the biomass consumed. This was followed by yak (22.13%), cow (21.06%), musk deer (11.32%), horse (10.53%), wooly hare (1.09%), rat (0.29%), pika (0.14%) and shrew (0.07%). In average, domestic livestock including dog were contributed more biomass in the diet of snow leopard comprising 60.8% of the biomass consumed whilst the wild life species comprising 39.19%. The annual prey consumption by a snow leopard (based on 2 kg/day) was estimated to be three Himalayan tahr, seven musk deer, five wooly hare, four rat sp., two pika, one shrew and four livestock. In the present study, the highest frequency of attack was found during April to June and lowest to July to November. The day of rainy and cloudy was the more vulnerable to livestock depredation. Snow leopard attacks occurred were the highest at near escape cover such as shrub land and cliff. Both predation pressure on tahr and that on livestock suggest that the development of effective conservation strategies for two threatened species (predator and prey) depends on resolving conflicts between people and predators. Recently, direct control of free – ranging livestock, good husbandry and compensation to shepherds may reduce snow leopard – human conflict. In long term solution, the reintroduction of blue sheep at the higher altitudes could also “buffer” predation on livestock.
Sivolobov, R. (2017). ENDANGERED SPECIES OF KORYAKIA AND CHUKOTKA: IRBIS, TIGER AND THE IRKUYEM-BEAR.225–233.
Abstract: After 30 years of searching for the mysterious Beringian snow cat in vast space of Koryakia and Chukotka
one of the five cameras recorded finally this beast at night in September 2014. This is not so much a
sensation as a real scientific discovery, saying that the hearts of the snow leopard population resettlement are
not in 5000 km from the main range boundaries, but much closer. Where? � will show further studies.
In addition to the snow leopard in the North-Eastern Asia, it found two more endangered large
mammal species: the Amur tiger and the relict of the Ice Age � the Irkuyem-bear. Author has given these
animals his life and his article devoted to this topic.
Thapa, K., Schmitt, N., Pradhan, N. M. B., Acharya, H. R., Rayamajhi, S. (2021). No silver bullet? Snow leopard prey selection in Mt. Kangchenjunga, Nepal. Ecology and Evolution, , 1–13.
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the impact of domestic and wild prey availability on snow leopard prey preference in the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area of eastern Nepal-a region where small domestic livestock are absent and small wild ungulate prey are present. We took a comprehensive approach that combined fecal genetic sampling, macro- and microscopic analyses of snow leopard diets, and direct observation of blue sheep and livestock in the KCA. Out of the collected 88 putative snow leopard scat samples from 140 transects (290km) in 27 (4x4km2) sampling grid cells, 73 (83%) were confirmed to be from snow leopard. The genetic analysis accounted for 19 individual snow leopards (10 males and 9 females), with a mean population size estimate of 24 (95% CI: 19-29) and an average density of 3.9 snow leopards/100km2 within 609km2. The total available prey biomass of blue sheep and yak was estimated at 355,236 kg (505 kg yak/km2 and 78kg blue sheep/km2). From the available prey biomass, we estimated snow leopards consumed 7% annually, which comprised wild prey (49%), domestic livestock (45%). and 6% unidentified items. the estimated 47,736 kg blue sheep biomass gives a snow leopard-to-blue sheep ratio of 1:59 on a weight basis. The high preference of snow leopard to domestic livestock appears to be influenced by a much smaller available biomass of wild prey then in other regions of Nepal (e.g., 78kg/km2 in the KCA compared with a range of 200-300 kg/km2 in other regions of Nepal?. Along with livestock insurance scheme improvement, there needs to be a focus on improved livestock guarding, predator-proof corrals as well as engaging and educating local people to be citizen scientists on the importance of snow leopard conservation, involving them in long-term monitoring programs and promotion of ecotourism.