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Namgail, T. (2004). Interactions between argali and livestock, Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary, Ladakh, India, Final Project Report.
Abstract: Livestock production is the major land-use in Ladakh region of the Indian Trans-Himalaya, and is a crucial sector that drives the region's economy (Anon, 2002). Animal products like meat and milk provide protein to the diet of people, while products like wool and pashmina (soft fibre of goats) find their way to the international market. Such high utility of livestock and the recent socio-economic changes in the region have caused an increase in livestock population (Rawat and Adhikari, 2002; Anon. 2002), which, if continue apace, may increase grazing pressure and deteriorate pasture conditions. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess the impact of such escalation in livestock population on the regions wildlife. Although, competitive interaction between wildlife and livestock has been studied elsewhere in the Trans-Himalaya (Bhatnagar et al., 2000; Mishra, 2001; Bagchi et al., 2002), knowledge on this aspect in the Ladakh region is very rudimentary. The rangelands of Ladakh are characterised by low primary productivity (Chundawat & Rawat, 1994), and the wild herbivores are likely to compete with the burgeoning livestock on these impoverished rangelands (Mishra et al., 2002). Thus, given that the area supports a diverse wild ungulate assemblage of eight species (Fox et al., 1991b), and an increasing livestock population (Rawat and Adhikari, 2002), the nature of interaction between wildlife and livestock needs to be assessed. During this project, we primarily evaluated the influence of domestic sheep and goat grazing on the habitat use of Tibetan argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni in a prospective wildlife reserve in Ladakh.
Namgay, K. (2007). Snow Leopard and Prey Population Conservation in Bhutan.
Abstract: Snow leopard conservation work in Bhutan dates back to 1999 and 2000 when the International Snow Leopard Trust-in collaboration with the Royal Government of Bhutan and World Wildlife Fund-initiated a training workshop. More than 30 government staff were trained in SLIMS survey techniques. As a part of the training exercise, a preliminary survey on snow leopard was also carried out using the SLIMS methods in Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Park. Based on the survey results, we estimated there was a population of 100 snow leopards in the wild and 10,000 km2 of habitat. In 2005, World Wildlife Fund (WWF) organized the WWF/South Asia Regional Workshop on Snow leopard Conservation in Bhutan. Both regional (Bhutan, India, China, Nepal and Pakistan) and international experts revisited the snow leopard programs and developed a work plan for the overall conservation of the snow leopard in the region. This led to WWF's Regional Snow leopard Conservation Strategy. WWF is pleased to submit our final report to the International Snow Leopard Trust on the oneyear, $8,000 grant in support of Snow Leopard and Prey Population Conservation in Bhutan. With the support of the Snow Leopard Trust, we have made great strides towards achieving our goal for this project: To determine the current status of snow leopard and ungulate prey populations in prime snow leopard habitats. Major accomplishments and activities completed thanks to the generous support of the International Snow Leopard Trust include:
Signed of a Terms of Reference between Royal Government, International Snow Leopard
Trust – India, World Wildlife Fund and International Snow Leopard Trust -US;
Developed a joint revised project work plan; and
Purchased basic field supplies and equipment needed for the surveys planned.
Nath, A. (1982). Some observations on wildlife in the Upper Suru/Northern Zanskar/Markha Valley of Ladakh. In L. Blomqvist (Ed.), International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards, Vol. 3 (Vol. 3, pp. 11–24). Helsinki: Helsinki Zoo.
Pedevillano, C. (1996). Stalking the snow leopard's haunts.
Raghavan, B., Bhatnagar, Y., & Qureshi, Q. (2003). Interactions between livestock and Ladakh urial (Ovis vignei vignei); final report.
Abstract: The Ladakh urial (Ovis vignei vignei) is a highly endangered animal (IUCN Red List 2000) listed in the Appendix 1 of CITES and Schedule 1 of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972. Its numbers had been reduced to a few hundred individuals in the 1960s and 70s through hunting for trophies and meat (Fox et al. 1991, Mallon 1983, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, IUCN Red List 2000). However, with the protection bestowed by the IWPA 1972, and resultant decrease in hunting, the population seems to have shown a marginal increase to about 1000-1500 individuals in its range in Ladakh (Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, IUCN Red List 2000). Although the species had in the past, been able to coexist with the predominantly Buddhist society of Ladakh, the recent increase in the population of both humans and their livestock has placed immense pressures on its habitat (Shackleton 1997, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). This is especially important considering that the Ladakh urial habitat coincides with the areas of maximum human activity in terms of settlements, agriculture, pastoralism and development, in Ladakh (Fox et al. 1991, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). Increased developmental activities such as construction of roads, dams, and military bases in these areas have also increased the access to their habitat. This has consequently made the species more vulnerable to the threats of poaching and habitat destruction (Fox et al. 1991, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2002). Pressure from increased livestock grazing is one of the major threats faced by the species today (Shackleton 1997, Fox et al. 1991, Mallon 1983, IUCN Red List 2000 Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). In the impoverished habitat provided by the Trans-Himalayas, there is great competition for the scarce resources between various animal species surviving here (Fox 1996, Mishra 2001). The presence of livestock intensifies this competition and can either force the species out of its niche (competitive exclusion) by displacing it from that area or resource, or lead to partitioning of resources between the species, spatially or temporally, for coexistence (Begon et al. 1986, Gause 1934).
Rana, B. S. (1997). Distinguishing kills of two large mammalian predators in Spiti Valley Himachal Pradesh. J.Bombay Nat.Hist.Soc, 94(3), 553.
Abstract: The author studied livestock killed by predators in the Spiti Valley, India, to determine what species had killed yaks, horses, donkeys, and other domestic animals. Eleven of the kills examined were made by snow leopards and six by the Tibetan wolf. Wolves were involved in surplus killings, while snow leopards kill as food is needed. lgh
Rosen, T. (2010). From Yellowstone to the Karakorums: A journey to understand conflicts with large carnivores. NRCC News, 23(1), 12–13.
Rovero, F., Augugliaro, C., Havmoller, R. W., Groff, C., Zimmerman, F., Oberosler, V., Tenan, S. (2018). Co-occurrence of snow leopard Panthera uncia, Siberian ibex Capra sibirica and livestock: potential relationships and effects. Oryx, , 1–7.
Abstract: Understanding the impact of livestock on native
wildlife is of increasing conservation relevance. For the
Vulnerable snow leopard Panthera uncia, wild prey reduction,
intensifying human�wildlife conflicts and retaliatory
killings are severe threats potentially exacerbated by the
presence of livestock. Elucidating patterns of co-occurrence
of snow leopards, wild ungulate prey, and livestock, can be
used to assess the compatibility of pastoralism with conservation.
We used camera trapping to study the interactions of
livestock, Siberian ibex Capra sibirica and snow leopards in
a national park in the Altai mountains, Mongolia. We obtained
 detections of wild mammals and  of domestic
ungulates, dogs and humans. Snow leopards and Siberian
ibex were recorded  and  times, respectively. Co-occurrence
modelling showed that livestock had a higher estimated
occupancy (.) than ibex, whose occupancy was
lower in the presence of livestock (.) than in its absence
(.�. depending on scenarios modelled). Snow leopard
occupancy did not appear to be affected by the presence of
livestock or ibex but the robustness of such inference was
limited by uncertainty around the estimates. Although our
sampling at presumed snow leopard passing sites may have
led to fewer ibex detections, results indicate that livestock
may displace wild ungulates, but may not directly affect
the occurrence of snow leopards. Snow leopards could still
be threatened by livestock, as overstocking can trigger
human�carnivore conflicts and hamper the conservation
of large carnivores. Further research is needed to assess
the generality and strength of our results.
Schaller, G. B. (1977). Mountain Monarchs: Wild Sheep and Goats of the Himalaya (Wildlife Behavior & Ecology). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Abstract: Describes snow leopard status and field observations from studies in Pakistan and Nepal. Review provides some data on snow leopard marking behavior, social relations, food habits and predator behavior.
Schutgens, M. G., Hanson, J. H., Baral, N., Ale, S. B. (2018). Visitors’ willingness to pay for snow leopard Panthera uncia conservation in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Oryx, , 1–10.
Abstract: The Vulnerable snow leopard Panthera uncia experiences
persecution across its habitat in Central Asia, particularly
from herders because of livestock losses. Given the
popularity of snow leopards worldwide, transferring some
of the value attributed by the international community to
these predators may secure funds and support for their conservation.
We administered contingent valuation surveys to
 international visitors to the Annapurna Conservation
Area, Nepal, between May and June , to determine
their willingness to pay a fee to support the implementation
of a Snow Leopard Conservation Action Plan. Of the %of
visitors who stated they would pay a snow leopard conservation
fee in addition to the existing entry fee, the mean
amount that they were willing to pay was USD  per trip.
The logit regression model showed that the bid amount, the
level of support for implementing the Action Plan, and the
number of days spent in the Conservation Area were significant
predictors of visitors’ willingness to pay. The main reasons
stated by visitors for their willingness to pay were a
desire to protect the environment and an affordable fee. A
major reason for visitors’ unwillingness to pay was that
the proposed conservation fee was too expensive for them.
This study represents the first application of economic valuation
to snow leopards, and is relevant to the conservation of
threatened species in the Annapurna Conservation Area