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Ale, S., & Brown, J. (2007). The contingencies of group size and vigilance (Vol. 9).
Abstract: Background: Predation risk declines non-linearly with one's own vigilance and the vigilance of others in the group (the 'many-eyes' effect). Furthermore, as group size increases, the individual's risk of predation may decline through dilution with more potential victims, but may increase if larger groups attract more predators. These are known, respectively, as the dilution effect and the attraction effect.
Assumptions: Feeding animals use vigilance to trade-off food and safety. Net feeding rate declines linearly with vigilance.
Question: How do the many-eyes, dilution, and attraction effects interact to influence the relationship between group size and vigilance behaviour?
Mathematical methods: We use game theory and the fitness-generating function to determine the ESS level of vigilance of an individual within a group.
Predictions: Vigilance decreases with group size as a consequence of the many-eyes and dilution effects but increases with group size as a consequence of the attraction effect, when they act independent of each other. Their synergetic effects on vigilance depend upon the relative strengths of each and their interactions. Regardless, the influence of other factors on vigilance – such as encounter rate with predators, predator lethality, marginal value of energy, and value of vigilance – decline with group size.
Aryal, A. (2009). Final Report On Demography and Causes of Mortality of Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve in Nepal.
Abstract: A total of 206 individual Blue sheep Pseudois nayaur were estimated in Barse and Phagune blocks of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR) and population density was 1.8 Blue sheep/sq.km. There was not significant change in population density from last 4 decades. An average 7 animals/herd (SD-5.5) were classified from twenty nine herds, sheep per herds varying from 1 to 37. Blue sheep has classified into sex ratio on an average 75 male/100females was recorded in study area. The sex ratio was slightly lower but not significantly different from the previous study. Population of Blue sheep was seen stable or not decrease even there was high poaching pressure, the reason may be reducing the number of predators by poison and poaching which has
supported to increase blue sheep population. Because of reducing the predators Wolf Canis lupus, Wild boar population was increasing drastically in high rate and we can observed wild boar above the tree line of DHR. The frequency of occurrence of different prey species in scats of different predators shows that, excluding zero values, the frequencies of different prey species were no significantly different (ö2= 10.3, df = 49, p > 0.05). Most of the scats samples (74%) of Snow leopard, Wolf, Common Leopard, Red fox's cover one prey species while two and three species were present in 18% and 8%, respectively. Barking deer Muntiacus muntjak was the most frequent (18%) of total diet composition of common leopards. Pika Ochotona roylei was the most frequent (28%), and Blue sheep was in second position for diet of snow leopards which cover 21% of total diet composition. 13% of diet covered non-food item such as soil, stones, and vegetable. Pika was most frequent on Wolf and Red fox diet which covered 32% and 30% respectively. There was good positive relationship between the scat density and Blue sheep consumption rate, increasing the scat density, increasing the Blue sheep consumption rate. Blue sheep preference by different predators such as Snow leopard, Common leopard, Wolf and Red fox were 20%, 6%, 13% and 2% of total prey species respectively.
Gromov I.M. (1963). Felis (Uncia) uncia Schreber (1776) leopard or irbis (Vol. Part.2.).
Abstract: An identification table for genus and species of mammals of USSR is given. The taxonomy, morphology, distribution and life history are described. The features of snow leopard Felis (Uncia) uncia, distribution, biology and practical value are described.
Li, J., Yin, H., Wang, D., Jiagong, Z., Lu, Zhi. (2013). Human-snow leopard conflicts in the Sanjiangyuan Region of the Tibetan Plateau. Biological Conservs, (166), 118–123.
Abstract: Conflicts between humans and snow leopards are documented across much of their overlapping distribution
in Central Asia. These conflicts manifest themselves primarily in the form of livestock depredation
and the killing of snow leopards by local herders. This source of mortality to snow leopards is a key conservation concern. To investigate human-snow leopard conflicts in the Sanjiangyuan Region of the Tibetan Plateau, we conducted household interviews about local herders’ traditional use of snow leopard
parts, livestock depredation, and overall attitudes towards snow leopards. We found most respondents
(58%) knew that snow leopard parts had been used for traditional customs in the past, but they claimed
not in the past two or three decades. It may be partly due to the issuing of the Protection of Wildlife Law
in 1998 by the People’s Republic of China. Total livestock losses were damaging (US$ 6193 per household
in the past 1 year), however snow leopards were blamed by herders for only a small proportion of those
losses (10%), as compared to wolves (45%) and disease (42%). Correspondingly, the cultural images of
snow leopards were neutral (78%) and positive (9%) on the whole. It seems that human-snow leopard
conflict is not intense in this area. However, snow leopards could be implicated by the retaliatory killing
of wolves. We recommend a multi-pronged conservation program that includes compensation, insurance
programs, and training local veterinarians to reduce livestock losses.
Schutgens, M. G., Hanson, J. H., Baral, N., Ale, S. B. (2018). Visitors’ willingness to pay for snow leopard Panthera uncia conservation in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Oryx, , 1–10.
Abstract: The Vulnerable snow leopard Panthera uncia experiences
persecution across its habitat in Central Asia, particularly
from herders because of livestock losses. Given the
popularity of snow leopards worldwide, transferring some
of the value attributed by the international community to
these predators may secure funds and support for their conservation.
We administered contingent valuation surveys to
 international visitors to the Annapurna Conservation
Area, Nepal, between May and June , to determine
their willingness to pay a fee to support the implementation
of a Snow Leopard Conservation Action Plan. Of the %of
visitors who stated they would pay a snow leopard conservation
fee in addition to the existing entry fee, the mean
amount that they were willing to pay was USD  per trip.
The logit regression model showed that the bid amount, the
level of support for implementing the Action Plan, and the
number of days spent in the Conservation Area were significant
predictors of visitors’ willingness to pay. The main reasons
stated by visitors for their willingness to pay were a
desire to protect the environment and an affordable fee. A
major reason for visitors’ unwillingness to pay was that
the proposed conservation fee was too expensive for them.
This study represents the first application of economic valuation
to snow leopards, and is relevant to the conservation of
threatened species in the Annapurna Conservation Area
Zakhidov T.Z. (1960). Irbis (Felis uncia) Ilvrs.
Abstract: The author provides information about snow leopard taxonomy, distribution, habitat and appearance. Biology of this animal is understudied. Snow leopard is able to make long jumps. It feeds upon ibex, wild sheep, marmots, partridge, and sometimes livestock, but never man. Gestation period is three months, at the end of May female gives birth to two or three cubs. Being very occasional, purchase of skin is of no practical value.
Zakhidov T.Z.Meklenburtsev R.N., B. O. P. (1971). Snow leopard Uncia uncia Schreb. Distribution of fauna elements over Central Asia (Vol. Vol. 2. Vertebrate animals.).
Abstract: Snow leopard inhabits the mountainous ecosystems from Tarbagatai to Hissar and Pamir. It feeds upon large animals such as ibex, argali, roe deer, and sometimes domestic sheep, rodents, and birds (most frequently snow cock). The skin of this animal is not of significant value and is rarely an item of trade. In many countries, zoos will readily buy snow leopards. There is no danger for a man to catch snow leopard since even being wounded during a hunt, the animal would never attack the man. An encounter with snow leopard in the mountains will always end safely for human being, as it is always first to spot a man and go away unnoticed.