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Blomqvist, L., & Dexel, B. (2006). In Focus: Declining numbers of wild snow leopards.
Abstract: International collaboration to ensure the long-term survival of snow leopards (Uncia uncia) in the wild is today more acutely needed than ever! Trade in live snow leopards, their skins and bones, has during the last decade reached such extensiveness that the species is in danger of being wiped out from many of its former habitats. All recent surveys support declining populations throughout most of their range.
Inayat, S. (2002). Role of Women In Conservation of Snow Leopard In Pakistan.. Islt: Islt.
Abstract: Generally speaking, men and women are the two wheels of the same vehicle. Women's
participation and involvement in the conservation of snow leopards is as indispensable as it is to
any other discipline. Unfortunately, their dual role was not exploited and so the involvement of
women in nature conservation is considered almost inappropriate and not up to the mark.
Mountainous people still live with their centuries old traditions and culture. Although with the
passage of time they are leaning towards modernization, still most of them are associated with
the centuries-old tradition of keeping livestock. These people take their livestock to the pastures
and thus share in the snow leopard's habitat. A large number of livestock grazing in the snow
leopard's habitat attracts this opportunistic animal to attack domestic animals. This is the point
where the conflict between snow leopards and livestock owners starts, with the snow leopard
killed in retaliation. Snow leopard depredation causes economic losses to the herders and
women, being the managers of the house, take the maximum impact. Keeping this fact in view,
a study was undertaken in the two demonstration sites of the snow leopard project in Chitral and
Gilgit. A specific questionnaire was used and information was collected from all the women
herders in the two demo sites. The study revealed that women have positive attitudes toward and
feel love for this precious animal.
Jackson, R. (1999). Snow Leopards, Local People and Livestock Losses: Finding solutions using Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action (APPA) in the Markha Valley of Hemis National Park, Ladakh, October 6-26, 1999. Cat News, 31(Autumn), 22–23.
Abstract: Livestock depredation is emerging as a significant issue across the Himalaya, including the Hemis National Park (HNP) in Ladakh. Some consider that this protected area harbors the best snow leopard population in India, but local herders perceive the endangered snow leopard as a serious threat to their livelihood.
Jamtsho, Y., Katel, O. (2019). Livestock depredation by snow leopard and Tibetan wolf: Implications for herders� livelihoods in Wangchuck Centennial National Park, Bhutan. Springer Open, (9:1), 1–10.
Abstract: Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is a serious problem in many parts of the world, and Bhutan�s Wangchuck Centennial
National Park (WCNP) is no exception. Located in the remote alpine areas of the eastern Himalaya, wildlife species
such as snow leopard (SL) and Tibetan wolf (TW) are reported to kill livestock in many parts of the Park. Such
depredation is believed to have affected the livelihoods of high-altitude herding communities, resulting in conflicts
between them. This study provides analysis on the extent of livestock depredation by wildlife predators such as SL
and TW and examines its implications for the livelihoods of herding communities of Choekhortoe and Dhur regions
of WCNP. Using semi-structured questionnaires, all herders (n = 38) in the study area were interviewed. The questions
pertained to livestock population, frequency of depredation and income lost due to depredation in the last five years
from 2012 to 2016. This study recorded 2,815 livestock heads in the study area, with an average herd size of 74.1 stock.
The average herd size holding showed a decreasing trend over the years, and one of the reasons cited by the herders
is depredation by SL and TW and other predators. This loss equated to an average annual financial loss equivalent to
10.2% (US$837) of their total per capita cash income. Such losses have resulted in negative impacts on herders�
livelihood; e.g. six herders (2012-2016) even stopped rearing livestock and resorted to an alternate source of cash
income. The livestock intensification programmes, including pasture improvement through allowing controlled
burning, and financial compensation, may be some potential short-term solutions to reduce conflict between herders
and predators. Issuing permits for cordyceps (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) collection only to the herders and instilling the
sense of stewardship to highland herders may be one of the long-term solutions.
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2001). Visitor Attitude and Market Survey for Planning Community-based Tourism Initiatives in Rural Ladakh (Vol. SLC Field Series Document No. 2.). Los Gatos, California.
Abstract: Bounded by two of the world's highest mountain ranges, the Great Himalaya and the Karakoram, Ladakh is a land of exhilarating mountain landscapes, rocky gorges and a unique cultural heritage. It is also home to distinctive wildlife such as the snow leopard, blue sheep and Tibetan wild ass, all living in a unique high altitude desert ecosystem. Not surprisingly, Ladakh is becoming a sought after tourist destination for international and domestic visitors alike. Over the past two decades tourism has grown substantially, although erratically, with both positive and less positive results for Ladakh's environment and people. People are recognizing that it is important to act now and engage in an informed dialogue in order to conserve the natural and cultural resources on which the future of tourism and related incomes depend. The Snow Leopard Conservancy (SLC) is working in collaboration with local communities and nongovernmental organizations to foster co-existence between people and predators like the endangered snow leopard by reducing livestock depredation losses and improving household incomes in environmentally friendly, socially responsible and economically viable ways. Well-balanced tourism is one income generating option.
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2002). A Learning Tour of the CBN (Corbett, Nainital and Binsar) Eco-tourism Initiative Sites by Villagers from Hemis National Park and the Surrounding Area (18-28th November 2002) (R. Wangchuk, & J. Dadul, Eds.) (Vol. SLC Field Document Series No 5). Leh, Ladakh, India.
Abstract: Ladakh lies between the Great Himalayas and the formidable Karakoram mountains.
Its unique landscape and rich cultural heritage have been a great attraction to tourists all over
the world. Apart from its uniqueness it has a rich Trans-Himalayan bio-diversity and is home
to the rare and elusive snow leopard. It opened to tourism in 1974 with a handful of tourists
and has gone up to the present number of about 18,000 visitors annually. Ecotourism started in Ladakh in mid 80s in the form of conservation of traditional
architecture when local communities realized the importance of their rich culture and
traditions being valued by the visiting tourists. However, while tourism became a major
source of income to people in Leh, most of the benefits stayed with outside (Delhi) based
travel agents thus leaving out the rural masses. During the last three years Snow Leopard Conservancy and The Mountain Institute have been
initiating ecotourism activities with local communities in the Hemis National Park as an
alternate livelihood and an indirect way to compensate losses of livestock from predatory
animals. However, local people while venturing into such new initiatives have tended to be
like blind men that are being led by NGO's so that they do not stumble along their paths.
ud Din, J. (2008). Assessing the Status of Snow Leopard in Torkhow Valley, District Chitral, Pakistan: Final Technical Report.
Abstract: This study was aimed at assessing the status of Snow leopard, its major prey base, and the extent of human-Snow leopard conflict and major threats to the wildlife in north Chitral (Torkhow valley) Pakistan. Snow leopard occurrence was conformed through sign transect surveys i.e. SLIMS. Based on the data collected the number of Snow leopards in this survey block (1022 Kmý) is estimated to be 2-3 animals. Comparing this estimate with the available data from other parts of the district the population of snow leopard in Chitral district was count to be 36 animals. Livestock depredation reports collected from the area reflect the existence of human-snow leopard conflict and 138 cases were recorded affecting 102 families (in a period of eight years, 2001-2008). Ungulates (Himalayan Ibex) rut season surveys were conducted in coordination with NWFP Wildlife department. A total of 429 animals were counted using direct count (point method) surveys. Other snow leopard prey species recorded include marmot, hare, and game birds. Signs of other carnivores i.e. wolf, jackal, and fox were also noticed. Major threats to the survival of wildlife especially snow leopard reckoned include retaliatory killing (Shooting, Poisoning), poaching, loss of natural prey, habitat degradation (over grazing, fodder and fuel wood collection), lack of awareness, and over population. GIS map of the study area was developed highlighting the area searched for Snow leopard and its prey species. Capacity of the Wildlife Department staff was built in conducting SLIMS and ungulate surveys through class room and on field training. Awareness regarding the importance of wildlife conservation was highlighted to the students, teachers and general community through lectures and distribution of resource materials developed by WWF-Pakistan.
Wangchuk, R., & Jackson, R. (2009). A Community-based Approach to Mitigating Livestock-Wildlife Conflict in Ladakh, India.
Abstract: Livestock depredation by snow leopard and wolf is widespread across the Himalayan region (Jackson et al. 1996, Jackson and Wangchuk 2001; Mishra 1997, Oli et al 1994). For example, in India's Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary, Mishra (1997) reported losses amounting to 18% of the livestock holdings and valued at about US $138 per household. The villagers claimed predation rates increased after establishment of the sanctuary, but
surveys indicated a dramatic increase in livestock numbers accompanying changes in animal husbandry systems (Mishra 2000).