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Hussain, S. (2000). Protecting the snow leopard and enhancing farmers' livelihoods: A pilot insurance scheme in Baltistan. Mountain-Research-and-Development., 20, 226–231.
Abstract: Snow leopards that prey on poor farmers' livestock pose a twofold problem: they endanger farmers' precarious mountain livelihoods as well as the survival of the snow leopard as a unique species since farmers engage in retaliatory killings. Project Snow Leopard (PSL), a recent pilot initiative in Baltistan, involves a partnership between local farmers and private enterprise in the form of an insurance scheme combined with ecotourism activities. Farmers jointly finance the insurance scheme through the payment of premiums per head of livestock they own, while the remaining funds are provided by profits from trekking expeditions focusing on the snow leopard. The insurance scheme is jointly managed by a village management committee and PSL staff. The scheme is structured in such a way that villagers monitor each other and have incentives to avoid cheating the system.
Jain, N., Wangchuk, R., & Jackson, R. (2003). An Assessment of CBT and Homestay Sites in Spiti District, Himachal Pradesh.
Abstract: The survey described in this report builds upon prior CBT activities undertaken by The Mountain Institute (TMI) in partnership with the Snow Leopard Conservancy (SLC) in Ladakh, supported by a grant from UNESCO (with co-financing from SLC). Under the evolving concept of “Himalayan Homestays”, initially developed and tested in Ladakh, it is proposed that activities be expanded to selected states in India in a strategic and effective way. Himalayan Homestays are part of a larger integrated program to link snow leopard conservation with local livelihoods in Asia.
Kanderian, N., Lawson, D., Zahler, P. (2011). Current status of wildlife and conservation in Afghanistan. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 68(3), 281–298.
Abstract: Afghanistan’s position in latitude, geography and at the intersection of three biogeographic realms has resulted in a surprising biodiversity. Its wildlife includes species such as the snow leopard, Asiatic black bear, Marco Polo sheep, markhor and greater flamingo. Principal threats include high levels of deforestation, land encroachment and hunting for food and trade. Continuing security issues have also made it difficult to monitor species abundance and population trends. Over the last decade, however, survey efforts have provided the first collection of species and habitat data since the late 1970s. Initial findings are enabling the Government and rural communities to begin implementing important conservation measures. This process has included policy development and protected area planning, promoting alternative livelihoods and responsible community management, and continuing research into the status of biodiversity in the field.
Maheshwari, A., Sathyakumar, S. (2019). Snow leopard stewardship in mitigating human-wildlife conflict in Hemis National Park, Ladakh, India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, , 1–5.
Abstract: Among large predators, snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and co-predators (e.g., wolves
Canis lupus, lynx Lynx lynx) often cause economic losses, engendering animosity from
local communities in the mountain ecosystem across south and central Asia (Din et al.,
2017; Jackson & Lama, 2016; Maheshwari, Takpa, Kujur, & Shawl, 2010; Schaller, 2012).
These economic losses range from around US $50 to nearly $300 per household,
a significant sum given per capita annual incomes of $250 – $400 (Jackson & Wangchuk,
2004; Mishra, 1997). Recent efforts such as improved livestock husbandry practices
(predator-proof livestock corrals – closed night shelters with covered roof with wiremesh
and a closely fitting iron or wooden door that can be securely locked at night) and
community-based ecotourism (e.g., home stays, guides, porters, pack animals, campsites)
are providing alternative livelihood opportunities and mitigating large carnivores – human
conflict in the snow leopard habitats (Hanson, Schutgens, & Baral, 2018; Jackson, 2015;
Jackson & Lama, 2016; Vannelli, Hampton, Namgail, & Black, 2019). Snow leopard-based
ecotourism provides an opportunity to secure livelihoods and reduce poverty of the
communities living in ecotourism sites across Ladakh (Chandola, 2012; Jackson, 2015).
To understand the role of snow leopard-based ecotourism in uplifting the financial profile
of local communities, mitigating large carnivore – human conflict and eventually changing
attitudes towards large carnivores in Hemis National Park, Ladakh, India, we compared
the estimated financial gains of a snow leopard-based ecotourism to stated livestock
predation losses by snow leopards and wolves.
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2002). A Learning Tour of the CBN (Corbett, Nainital and Binsar) Eco-tourism Initiative Sites by Villagers from Hemis National Park and the Surrounding Area (18-28th November 2002) (R. Wangchuk, & J. Dadul, Eds.) (Vol. SLC Field Document Series No 5). Leh, Ladakh, India.
Abstract: Ladakh lies between the Great Himalayas and the formidable Karakoram mountains.
Its unique landscape and rich cultural heritage have been a great attraction to tourists all over
the world. Apart from its uniqueness it has a rich Trans-Himalayan bio-diversity and is home
to the rare and elusive snow leopard. It opened to tourism in 1974 with a handful of tourists
and has gone up to the present number of about 18,000 visitors annually. Ecotourism started in Ladakh in mid 80s in the form of conservation of traditional
architecture when local communities realized the importance of their rich culture and
traditions being valued by the visiting tourists. However, while tourism became a major
source of income to people in Leh, most of the benefits stayed with outside (Delhi) based
travel agents thus leaving out the rural masses. During the last three years Snow Leopard Conservancy and The Mountain Institute have been
initiating ecotourism activities with local communities in the Hemis National Park as an
alternate livelihood and an indirect way to compensate losses of livestock from predatory
animals. However, local people while venturing into such new initiatives have tended to be
like blind men that are being led by NGO's so that they do not stumble along their paths.
Wingard, J. R., & Zahler, P. (2006). Silent Steppe: The Illegal Wildlife Trade Crisis in Mongolia (East Asia and Pacific Environment and Social Development Department, Ed.). Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Abstract: The current study in Mongolia is truly groundbreaking, in that it shows that the problem of commercial wildlife trade is also vast, unsustainable, and a major threat to wildlife populations in other areas. This paper's Executive Summary briefs the topics of wildlife trade in Mongolia, fur trade, medicinal trade, game meat trade, trophy and sport hunting, trade chains and markets, trade sustainability, impacts of wildlife trade on biodiversity conservation, impacts of trade on rural livelihoods, enabling wildlife management, and management recommendations. The main content of the paper includes: wildlife trade survey methods, a history of wildlife trade in Mongolia, wildlife take and trade today, enabling wildlife management, and recommendations and priority actions. The recommendations have been divided into six separate sections, including (1) cross-cutting recommendations, (2) international trade enforcement, (3) domestic trade enforcement, (4) hunting management, (5) trophy and sport hunting management, and (6) community-based approaches. Each section identifies short-term, long-term, and regulatory goals in order of priority within each subsection.