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Hanson, J. H., Schutgens, M., Baral, N. What explains tourists support for snow leopard conservation in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal? Human Dimensions of Wildlife, , 1–15.
Abstract: Wildlife tourism is increasingly important for the conservation of
threatened species such as snow leopards. However, what tourists
know or value about snow leopards, and to what extent they support
the conservation of this species, has received limited empirical attention.
This paper investigates tourist knowledge about snow leopards,
beliefs and values toward the species, and support for its conservation
in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. Survey data were
collected from 406 foreign tourists between March and May 2014.
Although knowledge about snow leopards varied among respondents,
there was widespread support for their conservation.
Knowledge about snow leopards was best explained by education
level and environmental organization membership. Improved knowledge
about the species, and a variety of intrinsic conservation values,
were found to increase tourist support for snow leopard conservation.
These results provide important insights to help tailor tourism
initiatives to support the conservation of snow leopards.
Klubnikin, K., Annett, C., Cherkasova, M., Shishin, M., & Fotieva, I. (2000). The sacred and the scientific: Traditional ecological knowledge in Siberian River conservation. Ecological-Applications., 10(5), 1296–1306.
Abstract: The Katun River originates in the steppe of the Altai Mountains in Siberia. One of the major headwaters of the Ob River, the Katun is considered central to the culture of the indigenous Altaians. The Katun Valley contains large numbers of important cultural sites, dating from the Neolithic and representing some of the earliest human settlement in Russia. Modern-day Altaians still observe traditional ceremonies honoring the river and springs throughout the watershed and utilize traditional ecological knowledge in their management of the land and water resources. Russian and international scientists have identified the Altai Mountains as a region of high plant diversity and endemism, and as important habitat for endangered species such as the snow leopard. The Katun River itself contains species of threatened and endangered fishes, and its headwaters are part of the unusual Mongolian ichthyofaunal province that is characterized by high levels of endemism. The same regions are considered by the Altaian people to be special or sacred and are recognized by Western scientists as having great value for conservation. During the era of perestroika, a hydroelectric dam was to be built on the Katun. The large dam, a vestige of the earlier Soviet plan for the Project of the Century, would have devastated significant agricultural, ecological, recreational, and cultural resources. The indigenous Altaian people would have lost much of their sacred and cultural landscape. The Katun dam project united indigenous people, well-known Siberian writers, and scientists in protest, which became so heated that it engaged the international community, with lasting effects on Russian society. The magnitude of the protest illustrates the importance of the Altai Mountain region to all of Russia. The active participation of indigenous Altaians reflected their traditional willingness to take action against political decisions that negatively impacted the environmental, cultural, and religious values of their homeland. Their involvement also reflected the new wave of awareness under perestroika that underscored a greater respect and autonomy for indigenous peoples in Russia.
McCarthy, T., Khan, J., Ud-Din, J., & McCarthy, K. (2007). First study of snow leopards using GPS-satellite collars underway in Pakistan. Cat News, 46(Spring), 22–23.
Abstract: Snow leopards (Uncia uncia) are highly cryptic and occupy remote inaccessible habitat, making studying the cats difficult in the extreme. Yet sound knowledge of the cat's ecology, behavior and habitat needs is required to intelligently conserve them. This information is lacking for snow leopards, and until recently so was the means to fill that knowledge gap. Two long-term studies of snow leopards using VHF radio collars have been undertaken in Nepal (1980s) and Mongolia (1990s) but logistical and technological constraints made the findings of both studies equivocal. Technological advances in the interim, such as GPS collars which report data via satellite, make studies of snow leopards more promising, at least in theory.
Ming, M., Munkhtsog, B., Xu, F., Turghan, M., Yin, S. -jing, & Wei, S. - D. (2005). Markings as Indicator of Snow Leopard in Field Survey, in Xinjiang.
Abstract: The Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) was a very rare species in China. The survey on the markings of Snow Leopard in Ahay and Tianshan Mountains is the major activity of the Project of Snow Leopard in Xinjiang, supported by International Snow Leopard Trust(ISLT)and Xinjiang Conservation Fund(XCF). During the field work from Sep to Nov 2004 the Xinjiang Snow Leopard Group(XSLG) set 67 transects of a total length of 47 776 m with mean transect length is 7 1 3 m at 9 locations.Total of 1 l 8 markings of Snow Leopards were found in 27 transects the mean density is 247km. The markings of Snow Leopard included the pug marks or footprints, scrapes, feces, bloodstain, scent spray, urine, hair or fur, claw rake, remains of prey corpse, sleep site, roar and others. From the quantity and locations of marks the XSLG got the information on habitat selection distribution region and relative abundance of the Snow Leopard in the study areas. The survey also provided knowledge on distribution and abundance of major prey potential conservation problems and human attitudes to Snow Leopards by taking 200 questionnaires in the study areas.
Namgail, T. (2004). Interactions between argali and livestock, Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary, Ladakh, India, Final Project Report.
Abstract: Livestock production is the major land-use in Ladakh region of the Indian Trans-Himalaya, and is a crucial sector that drives the region's economy (Anon, 2002). Animal products like meat and milk provide protein to the diet of people, while products like wool and pashmina (soft fibre of goats) find their way to the international market. Such high utility of livestock and the recent socio-economic changes in the region have caused an increase in livestock population (Rawat and Adhikari, 2002; Anon. 2002), which, if continue apace, may increase grazing pressure and deteriorate pasture conditions. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess the impact of such escalation in livestock population on the regions wildlife. Although, competitive interaction between wildlife and livestock has been studied elsewhere in the Trans-Himalaya (Bhatnagar et al., 2000; Mishra, 2001; Bagchi et al., 2002), knowledge on this aspect in the Ladakh region is very rudimentary. The rangelands of Ladakh are characterised by low primary productivity (Chundawat & Rawat, 1994), and the wild herbivores are likely to compete with the burgeoning livestock on these impoverished rangelands (Mishra et al., 2002). Thus, given that the area supports a diverse wild ungulate assemblage of eight species (Fox et al., 1991b), and an increasing livestock population (Rawat and Adhikari, 2002), the nature of interaction between wildlife and livestock needs to be assessed. During this project, we primarily evaluated the influence of domestic sheep and goat grazing on the habitat use of Tibetan argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni in a prospective wildlife reserve in Ladakh.
Rieger, I. (1980). Some aspects of the history of ounce knowledge. In L. Blomqvist (Ed.), International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards, Vol. 2 (Vol. 2, pp. 1–36). Helsinki: Helsinki Zoo.
Taubmann, J., Sharma, K., Uulu, K Z., Hines, J. E., Mishra, C. (2015). Status assessment of the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia and other large mammals in the Kyrgyz Alay, using community knowledge corrected for imperfect detection. Fauna & Flora International, , 1–11.
Abstract: The Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia occurs
in the Central Asian Mountains, which cover c.  million
km. Little is known about its status in the Kyrgyz Alay
Mountains, a relatively narrow stretch of habitat connecting
the southern and northern global ranges of the species. In
 we gathered information on current and past (,
the last year of the Soviet Union) distributions of snow leopards
and five sympatric large mammals across , km
of the Kyrgyz Alay.We interviewed  key informants from
local communities. Across  -km grid cells we obtained
, and  records of species occurrence (site
use) in  and , respectively. The data were analysed
using themulti-season site occupancy framework to incorporate
uncertainty in detection across interviewees and time
periods. High probability of use by snow leopards in the past
was recorded in .% of the Kyrgyz Alay. Between the two
sampling periods % of sites showed a high probability of
local extinction of snow leopard. We also recorded high
probability of local extinction of brown bear Ursus arctos
(% of sites) and Marco Polo sheep Ovis ammon polii
(% of sites), mainly in regions used intensively by people.
Data indicated a high probability of local colonization by
lynx Lynx lynx in % of the sites. Although wildlife has
declined in areas of central and eastern Alay, regions in
the north-west, and the northern and southern fringes
appear to retain high conservation value.