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Aramov, B. (1997). The Biology of the Snow Leopard in the Gissarsky Nature Reserve. In R. and A. A. Jackson (Ed.), (pp. 108–109). Lahore, Pakistan: Islt.
Keywords: breeding; diet; predator; prey; reserve; reserves; park; parks; refuge; livestock; marmot; goat; sheep; horse; ibex; habitat; Gissarsky; Tajikistan; Russia; Ussr; Soviet-Union; behavior; wolves; Dogs; herder; herders; protected-area; browse; soviet; union; soviet union; 2820
Aromov B. (1995). The Biology of the Snow Leopard in the Hissar Nature Reserve.
Abstract: The work contains data on biology snow leopard in Hissar nature reserve, Uzbekistan. The number of snow leopards in this reserve has increased from two or four in 1981 to between 13 and 17 individuals in 1994. Since 1981, snow leopards have been sighted 72 times and their tracks or pugmarks 223 times. In the Hissar Nature Reserve snow leopards largely feed on ibex. Over a period of 14 years, 92 kills and remains of ibex aged from one to thirteen years of age have been examined. Other records of predation, by the number of events observed, include 33 cases of juvenile and mature horses, 25 long-tailed marmot (Marmota caudata). 18 Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayemis), 17 domestic goat, 13 wild boar (Sus scrofa), five domestic sheep and three incidents involving cattle. Twenty-two attacks on domestic flocks were reported, and these occurred during both the daytime and at night. Snow leopards usually mate between the 20th of February and March 20th. The offspring are born in late April to May, and there are usually two per litter (23 encounters), although a single litter of three has also been recorded.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; snow leopard; Hissar ridge; Hissar nature reserve; number; diet; breeding.; 6070; Russian; work; Data; biology; snow; snow-leopard; leopard; nature; reserve; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; times; tracks; pugmarks; Feed; ibex; kills; kill; Age; records; predation; Case; horses; horse; marmot; Himalayan; domestic; goat; wild; wild boar; sheep; Cattle; attack
Bagchi, S., Mishra, C., & Bhatnagar, Y. (2004). Conflicts between traditional pastoralism and conservation of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Trans-Himalayan mountains. Animal Conservation, 7, 121–128.
Abstract: There is recent evidence to suggest that domestic livestock deplete the density and diversity of wild herbivores in the cold deserts of the Trans-Himalaya by imposing resource limitations. To ascertain the degree and nature of threats faced by Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) from seven livestock species, we studied their resource use patterns over space, habitat and food dimensions in the pastures of Pin Valley National Park in the Spiti region of the Indian Himalaya. Species diet profiles were obtained by direct observations. We assessed the similarity in habitat use and diets of ibex and livestock using Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling. We estimated the influence of the spatial distribution of livestock on habitat and diet choice of ibex by examining their co-occurrence patterns in cells overlaid on the pastures. The observed co-occurrence of ibex and livestock in cells was compared with null-models generated through Monte Carlo simulations. The results suggest that goats and sheep impose resource limitations on ibex and exclude them from certain pastures. In the remaining suitable habitat, ibex share forage with horses. Ibex remained relatively unaffected by other livestock such as yaks, donkeys and cattle. However, most livestock removed large amounts of forage from the pastures (nearly 250 kg of dry matter/day by certain species), thereby reducing forage availability for ibex. Pertinent conservation issues are discussed in the light of multiple-use of parks and current socio-economic transitions in the region, which call for integrating social and ecological feedback into management planning.
Keywords: conflicts; traditional pastoralism; himalayan ibex; ibex; capra sibirica; trans-himalayan mountains; pin valley national park; spiti region; non-metric multidimensional scaling; snow leopard; wolf; wild dog; Lynx; wild ass; Tibetan argali; Tibetan antelope; Tibetan gazelle; urial; bharal; Pin River; pin valley; Parahio; goat; sheep; Cattle; horses; yaks; donkeys; diet; free-ranging horses; herded horses; grazing; 5290
Braden, K. E. (1988). Economic Development in Six Regions of Snow Leopard Habitat in the U.S.S.R. In H.Freeman (Ed.), (pp. 227–246). India: International Snow Leopard Trust and the Wildlife Institute of India.
Abstract: The Disappearance of traditional ungulate prey of the snow leopard may be contributing to its endangered status in the wild. Soviet biologists have noted that wild sheep are a primary prey of the snow leopard in the southern Russian union republic and the Central Asian union republic of the U.S.S.R. While poaching appears to have had some impact on the status of these sheep, econmic pressures may be contributing to their decrease. Evidence presented for KAzakhstan and three regions of the Russian republic demonstrates that commercial sheep and goat production appears to be growing at a very high pace in these areas, thus consumming habitat otherwise available for wild herds.
Keywords: conservation; habitat; herders; livestock; sheep; goats; argali; herder; Russia; Soviet-Union; U.S.S.R.; Ussr; ungulates; ungulate; predator; prey; economics; economic; browse; soviet; union; 1800
Fox, J. L. (1997). Conflict between predators and people in Ladakh. Cat News, 17, 18.
Abstract: During a six-week period in Hemis National Park, Ladakh, India, snow leopards killed 10 sheep and goats and one leopard gained access to a livestock pen and killed many of the animals inside. Dholes also killed sheep and goats, and a wolf killed a young horse. Residents routinely remove snow leopard cubs from their dens to limit future damage by this species. How to deal with the plight of the people living in the area while still protecting the endangered species are major concerns of the International Snow Leopard Trust, which manages Hemis National Park. lgh.
Keywords: asia; India; behavior; endangered; threatened-species; mammals; management; predation; public relations; reserves; refuges; parks; wildlife; human-relationships; livestock; sheep; goats; prey; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; protected-area; Hemis; browse; Islt; International; snow; leopard; trust; public; Relations; Human; relationships; protected; 640
Gurung, G. T. K. (2004). Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) and Human Interaction in Phoo Village in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.
Abstract: Phoo village in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal is located at 4,052 m als physically
in the central north of the country. Livestock keeping is the main activity of the people for making a
living amidst a conflict with snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Each year snow leopard kills a number of
livestock resulting significant economic losses for the poor people living in this remote area. Unless
the people – snow leopard conflict is well understood and appropriate conflict management activities
are implemented, the long run co-existence between people and snow leopard – especially the
existence of snow leopard in this part of the world -will be in question. This has now become an
utmost important as the aspiration of the people for economic development has risen significantly and
the area has been opened to tourism since spring 2002. In addition to this, the globalisation process has
directly and indirectly affected the traditional resource management practices and co-existence
strategies of many traditional societies including Phoo.
The livestock depredation for 3 years (2001 – 2004) by snow leopard was studied by interviewing the
herders to understand the responsible and specific bio-physical and socio-economic factors. The study
revealed that goats are most depredated species followed by sheep. Winter months (January – April)
and winter pastures are most vulnerable to snow leopard predation. Presence of bushes, forest and
boulders make good hides for snow leopard resulting into high depredation. The study also showed
that a lax animal guarding system was significantly responsible for high livestock depredation by snow
The study showed that improvement in livestock guarding system should be adopted as the most
important activity. However despite the importance of livestock in the economy of Phoo it is still not
well understood why the herders neglect for proper livestock guarding. This requires further study.
Proper guarding system is required especially in winter season in winter pastures. It is also suggested
that there should be changes in the composition of livestock species by promoting more yaks and
discouraging or minimising goats. Yaks and large animals are less depredated and small animals like
goats and sheep are highly depredated by snow leopard. A trend was also observed in Phoo village
where there is an increase in the number of yaks and a decrease in the number of goats over last few
years. This could be a management response of the herders to livestock depredation. Other protective
measures of the livestock at the corrals have also been recommended including promotion of guard
dogs and other measures.
Since the area is opened for tourism, it is suggested that the tourism opportunity for the economic
development of the area should be grasped so that the heavy dependence on livestock raising would be
minimised. This will help minimise the number of human – snow leopard conflicts.
Keywords: phoo; annapurna conservation area; Nepal; livestock; human interaction; conflict management; yaks; goats; sheep; horse; corral; 5280
Harris, R. B. (1994). A note on snow leopards and local people in Nangqian County, Southern Qinghai Province. In J.L.Fox, & D. Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 79–84). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: China; Qinghai; attitude; local-peoples; herders; livestock; predator; prey; cub; capture; poaching; blue-sheep; Release; grazing; yaks; goats; horses; domestic; ungulates; hunting; bones; fur; pelts; coats; conservation; trapping; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; local; protected; area; peoples; 3250
Jackson, P. (1998). Villagers save predatory snow leopard. Cat News, 28, 12.
Abstract: A short report is presented on the capture and relocation of a snow leopard in northern Pakistan. Villagers discovered the leopard attacking their goats and captured it. WWF-Gilgit relocated the leopard to a remote area. slj.
Keywords: conservation education; damage; damage by wildlife; endangered; threatened species; mammals; management; wildlife; human relationships; relocation; goats; livestock; Pakistan; herders; prey; panthera uncia; browse; conservation; education; threatened; species; Human; relationships; panthera; uncia; 570
Jackson, R., & Wangchuk, R. (2004). A Community-Based Approach to Mitigating Livestock Depredation by Snow Leopards (Vol. 9).
Abstract: Livestock depredation by the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia) _is an increasingly contentious issue in Himalayan villages, especially in or near protected areas. Mass attacks in which as many as 100 sheep and goats are killed in a single incident inevitably result in retaliation by local villagers. This article describes a community-based conservation initiative to address this problem in Hemis National Park, India. Human-wildlife conflict is alleviated by predator-proofing villagers' nighttime livestock pens and by enhancing household incomes in environmentally sensitive and culturally compatible ways. The authors have found that the highly participatory strategy described here (Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action-APPA) leads to a sense of project ownership by local stakeholders, communal empowerment, self-reliance, and willingness to co-exist with
snow leopards. The most significant conservation outcome of this process is the protection from retaliatory poaching of up to five snow leopards for every village's livestock pens that are made predator-proof._
Keywords: snow leopard,depredation,human-wildlife conflict,participatory planning,India; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; endangered; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; panthera; panthera uncia; Panthera-uncia; uncia; Himalayan; protected; protected areas; protected area; protected-areas; protected-area; areas; area; attack; sheep; goats; goat; local; villagers; community-based; conservation; Hemis; national; national park; National-park; park; India; conflict; pens; income; participatory; strategy; planning; sense; project; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; protection; retaliatory; poaching
Kattel, B., & Bajimaya, S. S. (1997). Status and Conservation of Snow Leopard in Nepal. In R.Jackson, & A.Ashiq (Eds.), (pp. 21–27). Lahore, Pakistan: International Snow Leopard Trust.
Keywords: Nepal; conservation; status; management; predator; prey; blue-sheep; distribution; ecology; habitat; parks; park; reserves; reserve; refuge; livestock; herders; Dogs; herder; yak; goat; hunting; poaching; bone; trade; fur; pelt; pelts; coats; bones; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; protected; area; protected area; 2280