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Gurung, C. P. (1997). Ecotourism: Nepal's Experience. In R.Jackson, & A.Ahmad (Eds.), (pp. 170–177). Lahore, Pakistan: Islt.
Hussain, I. (1999). Conserving Biodiversity through Institutional Diversity: Concept Paper.
Hussain, S. (2000). Protecting the snow leopard and enhancing farmers' livelihoods: A pilot insurance scheme in Baltistan. Mountain-Research-and-Development., 20, 226–231.
Abstract: Snow leopards that prey on poor farmers' livestock pose a twofold problem: they endanger farmers' precarious mountain livelihoods as well as the survival of the snow leopard as a unique species since farmers engage in retaliatory killings. Project Snow Leopard (PSL), a recent pilot initiative in Baltistan, involves a partnership between local farmers and private enterprise in the form of an insurance scheme combined with ecotourism activities. Farmers jointly finance the insurance scheme through the payment of premiums per head of livestock they own, while the remaining funds are provided by profits from trekking expeditions focusing on the snow leopard. The insurance scheme is jointly managed by a village management committee and PSL staff. The scheme is structured in such a way that villagers monitor each other and have incentives to avoid cheating the system.
Maheshwari, A., Sathyakumar, S. (2019). Snow leopard stewardship in mitigating human-wildlife conflict in Hemis National Park, Ladakh, India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, , 1–5.
Abstract: Among large predators, snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and co-predators (e.g., wolves
Canis lupus, lynx Lynx lynx) often cause economic losses, engendering animosity from
local communities in the mountain ecosystem across south and central Asia (Din et al.,
2017; Jackson & Lama, 2016; Maheshwari, Takpa, Kujur, & Shawl, 2010; Schaller, 2012).
These economic losses range from around US $50 to nearly $300 per household,
a significant sum given per capita annual incomes of $250 – $400 (Jackson & Wangchuk,
2004; Mishra, 1997). Recent efforts such as improved livestock husbandry practices
(predator-proof livestock corrals – closed night shelters with covered roof with wiremesh
and a closely fitting iron or wooden door that can be securely locked at night) and
community-based ecotourism (e.g., home stays, guides, porters, pack animals, campsites)
are providing alternative livelihood opportunities and mitigating large carnivores – human
conflict in the snow leopard habitats (Hanson, Schutgens, & Baral, 2018; Jackson, 2015;
Jackson & Lama, 2016; Vannelli, Hampton, Namgail, & Black, 2019). Snow leopard-based
ecotourism provides an opportunity to secure livelihoods and reduce poverty of the
communities living in ecotourism sites across Ladakh (Chandola, 2012; Jackson, 2015).
To understand the role of snow leopard-based ecotourism in uplifting the financial profile
of local communities, mitigating large carnivore – human conflict and eventually changing
attitudes towards large carnivores in Hemis National Park, Ladakh, India, we compared
the estimated financial gains of a snow leopard-based ecotourism to stated livestock
predation losses by snow leopards and wolves.
Riddell, M. L. G. (2004). Snow Leopard Expedition Kazakhstan 2004.
Abstract: This Newcastle University Expedition reviewed the conflict between man and snow leopard in the region east of Tekeli in the Dzhungarian Alatau range, Kazakhstan. After the soviet state breakup in 1991 snow leopards in Kazakhstan and in the other Asian republics were subjected to high levels of persecution. There are thought to be between 180-200 snow leopards in Kazakhstan, of which 37-40 individuals inhabit the Dzhungarian Mountains. No work has been done previously to review the present snow leopard-human conflicts in this region, and this project looked to update previous reports from Central Asia about predominant conflicts in these regions. The expedition team worked with the Institute of Zoology in Kazakhstan and two of the six person team were Kazakh students. Methods comparable to those used in previous studies were used to map and rank the threats in the western area of the range, over an eight week period. The expedition team lived in the mountains for periods of two-three weeks, carrying all their food and equipment and using local vehicles, horses and trekking to move from pasture to pasture. Semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews and prey counts were used to assess snow leopard-human conflicts including poaching of snow leopard, poaching of leopard wild prey, human disturbance and livestock overgrazing. The results from the report support much previous work from Kazakhstan and other areas in Central Asia, but serve as a useful update shedding light on an optimistic future for snow leopard conservation while highlighting what the expedition team perceives to be the major threats to snow leopards. The threats to snow leopards, in order of relevance from most to least, are loss of prey predominantly through hunting by local people (both legal and illegal), direct hunting of snowleopard for pelt/medicine, disturbance by herders on the pastures, snow leopard habitat fragmentation around the mountain bases, and least importantly overgrazing by domestic livestock. Retaliatory kills by herders are not a threat in the region and on livestock were killed by snow leopards. Levels of all hunting, legal and illegal, need to be reduced in the range until wildlife populations have recovered significantly from the mid-1990's over-hunting period. Levels of rural corruption among many stakeholders were high around the mountain region, and are thought to contribute negatively to wildlife conservation in the area. Ecotourism in the area, that incorporates local people around the mountain region, is proposed as a solution to offer local people's incentives to lower hunting levels. This report makes the following main recommendations:
ÿStrengthening law enforcement capacity
ÿIncreasing the number of ecological rangers
ÿIncreasing incentives of ecological rangers to prevent poaching
ÿEquipping the ecological rangers more sufficiently
ÿMore effective communication between ranger and National Park administrative regions
ÿThe involvement of all stakeholders in wildlife conservation including military officials and local herders
ÿWhistle blower policies to prevent illegal trade in all animals in the region
ÿMore geographic consistency between present and proposed protected areas in the region
Accurate snow leopard monitoring to build on valuable information previously collected in Kazakhstan
Provision of local incentives (ecotourism and community based hunting reserves) to reduce local hunting and local unemployment around the mountains
Increased interest and technical assistance in Kazakhstan from conservation International Non-Governmental Organizations
More government fund for the Institute of Zoology
Stronger cross border (Kazakhstan-China) legislation implementation Further research could involve establishing an annual, standardized, snow leopard
survey in the range, or could compare these findings of threats to snow leopards to other regions in Kazakhstan (eg. The Altai) or Central Asia.
This report has been replicated for all the expedition sponsors, put on the internet, and
distributed among contacts in the snow leopard conservation community.
The expedition team also spent some time exploring and photographing some of the remoter valleys around the study pastures, and made a short video of the teams exploits. Links were made between KIMEP University in Almaty, and Newcastle University, registered a research centre with the Royal Geographical Society, and lectured about the Dzhungarian range and snow leopard conservation at; the Royal Geographical Society, Newcastle University, Royal Zoological Society for Scotland(Edinburgh Zoo), and Wilderness Lecturers (Bristol).
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2002). A Learning Tour of the CBN (Corbett, Nainital and Binsar) Eco-tourism Initiative Sites by Villagers from Hemis National Park and the Surrounding Area (18-28th November 2002) (R. Wangchuk, & J. Dadul, Eds.) (Vol. SLC Field Document Series No 5). Leh, Ladakh, India.
Abstract: Ladakh lies between the Great Himalayas and the formidable Karakoram mountains.
Its unique landscape and rich cultural heritage have been a great attraction to tourists all over
the world. Apart from its uniqueness it has a rich Trans-Himalayan bio-diversity and is home
to the rare and elusive snow leopard. It opened to tourism in 1974 with a handful of tourists
and has gone up to the present number of about 18,000 visitors annually. Ecotourism started in Ladakh in mid 80s in the form of conservation of traditional
architecture when local communities realized the importance of their rich culture and
traditions being valued by the visiting tourists. However, while tourism became a major
source of income to people in Leh, most of the benefits stayed with outside (Delhi) based
travel agents thus leaving out the rural masses. During the last three years Snow Leopard Conservancy and The Mountain Institute have been
initiating ecotourism activities with local communities in the Hemis National Park as an
alternate livelihood and an indirect way to compensate losses of livestock from predatory
animals. However, local people while venturing into such new initiatives have tended to be
like blind men that are being led by NGO's so that they do not stumble along their paths.
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2002). A Survey of Kathmandu-based Trekking Agencies: Market Opportunities for Linking Community-Based Ecotourism with the Conservation of Snow Leopard in the Annapurna Conservation Area. Report prepared for WWF-Nepal Programme (Vol. SLC Field Series Document No. 4). Los Gatos, California.
Abstract: In 2001 the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation (KMTNC), Annapurna Conservation Area (ACAP), Snow Leopard Conservancy (SLC) and WWF-Nepal initiated a collaborative project aimed at enhancing ecotourism in the Manang area, in ways that strengthen benefits to local communities while also protecting the environment and the local culture. Manang is known for its relatively dense snow leopard population, along with supporting good numbers of blue sheep, the endangered cat's principal prey through much of the Himalaya. However, snow leopards periodically kill many livestock, leading to retributive killing by herders along with other associated people-wildlife conflict. In order to encourage the local people to better co-exist with snow leopards and other wildlife, SLC, WWF-Nepal and ACAP agreed to explore ways of providing tourism benefits to local communities as an incentive to protect this rare predator and conserve its alpine habitat. Key in this regard is the possibility of developing locally guided nature treks, and accordingly, this survey was conducted in order to assess existing market opportunities and constraints to such ecotourism enterprise.
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2002). Visitor Satisfaction and Opportunity Survey, Manang, Nepal: Market Opportunities for Linking Community-Based Ecotourism with the Conservation of Snow Leopards in the Annpurna Conservation Area. Report prepared for WWF-Nepal Programme (Vol. SLC Field Document Series No 3).
Abstract: For the past two decades, the Manang or Nyeshang Valley has become one of the most popular
trekking routes in Nepal, attracting over 15,000 trekkers annually (Ale, 2001). The 21-day
circular trek takes the visitor from the lush southern slopes of the Annapurna massif around to
its dry northern slopes more reminiscent of Tibet, through a landscape of spectacular mountain
scenes, interesting villages and diverse cultures. The Manang region also offers prime habitat
for the endangered snow leopard, supporting an estimated 4.8 – 6.7 snow leopards per 100 sq.
km (Oli 1992). This high density has been attributed to the abundance of blue sheep, the snow
leopard's primary large prey species across the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau.
Yangzom, D. (1997). Qomolangma National Nature Preserve in Tibet. In R.Jackson, & A.Ahmad (Eds.), (pp. 216–217). Lahore, Pakistan: Islt.