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Hussain, S. (2000). Protecting the snow leopard and enhancing farmers' livelihoods: A pilot insurance scheme in Baltistan. Mountain-Research-and-Development., 20, 226–231.
Abstract: Snow leopards that prey on poor farmers' livestock pose a twofold problem: they endanger farmers' precarious mountain livelihoods as well as the survival of the snow leopard as a unique species since farmers engage in retaliatory killings. Project Snow Leopard (PSL), a recent pilot initiative in Baltistan, involves a partnership between local farmers and private enterprise in the form of an insurance scheme combined with ecotourism activities. Farmers jointly finance the insurance scheme through the payment of premiums per head of livestock they own, while the remaining funds are provided by profits from trekking expeditions focusing on the snow leopard. The insurance scheme is jointly managed by a village management committee and PSL staff. The scheme is structured in such a way that villagers monitor each other and have incentives to avoid cheating the system.
Keywords: Uncia-uncia; snow-leopard; Felidae; protection; Human; Hominidae; farmer; livestock; Mammalia; Project-snow-leopard; economic-evaluation; ecotourism-activities; farmer-livelihood; insurance-scheme; mountain-livelihood; retaliatory-killings; snow leopard; browse; Uncia uncia; uncia; project snow leopard; economic evaluation; evaluation; economic; ecotourism activities; ecotourism; activities; farmer livelihood; livelihood; mountain livelihood; mountain; retaliatory killings; retaliatory; killings; 20
Jain, N., Wangchuk, R., & Jackson, R. (2003). An Assessment of CBT and Homestay Sites in Spiti District, Himachal Pradesh.
Abstract: The survey described in this report builds upon prior CBT activities undertaken by The Mountain Institute (TMI) in partnership with the Snow Leopard Conservancy (SLC) in Ladakh, supported by a grant from UNESCO (with co-financing from SLC). Under the evolving concept of “Himalayan Homestays”, initially developed and tested in Ladakh, it is proposed that activities be expanded to selected states in India in a strategic and effective way. Himalayan Homestays are part of a larger integrated program to link snow leopard conservation with local livelihoods in Asia.
Keywords: assessment; Himachal; himachal pradesh; Himachal-Pradesh; United; Organization; survey; Report; activities; activity; mountain; Tmi; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; Snow Leopard Conservancy; leopard; Ladakh; States; India; Himalayan; program; conservation; local; livelihood; asia
Namgay, K. (2007). Snow Leopard and Prey Population Conservation in Bhutan.
Abstract: Snow leopard conservation work in Bhutan dates back to 1999 and 2000 when the International Snow Leopard Trust-in collaboration with the Royal Government of Bhutan and World Wildlife Fund-initiated a training workshop. More than 30 government staff were trained in SLIMS survey techniques. As a part of the training exercise, a preliminary survey on snow leopard was also carried out using the SLIMS methods in Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Park. Based on the survey results, we estimated there was a population of 100 snow leopards in the wild and 10,000 km2 of habitat. In 2005, World Wildlife Fund (WWF) organized the WWF/South Asia Regional Workshop on Snow leopard Conservation in Bhutan. Both regional (Bhutan, India, China, Nepal and Pakistan) and international experts revisited the snow leopard programs and developed a work plan for the overall conservation of the snow leopard in the region. This led to WWF's Regional Snow leopard Conservation Strategy. WWF is pleased to submit our final report to the International Snow Leopard Trust on the oneyear, $8,000 grant in support of Snow Leopard and Prey Population Conservation in Bhutan. With the support of the Snow Leopard Trust, we have made great strides towards achieving our goal for this project: To determine the current status of snow leopard and ungulate prey populations in prime snow leopard habitats. Major accomplishments and activities completed thanks to the generous support of the International Snow Leopard Trust include:
Signed of a Terms of Reference between Royal Government, International Snow Leopard
Trust – India, World Wildlife Fund and International Snow Leopard Trust -US;
Developed a joint revised project work plan; and
Purchased basic field supplies and equipment needed for the surveys planned.
Keywords: 2000; 30; activities; activity; asia; Bhutan; China; conservation; dates; Dorji; field; government; habitat; habitats; India; International; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; international snow leopard trust; Jigme; Jigme-Dorji; leopard; leopards; methods; national; National-park; national park; Nepal; Pakistan; park; plan; population; populations; prey; program; programs; project; region; regional; Report; Slims; snow; snow-leopard; snow-leopards; snow leopard; snow leopards; staff; status; strategy; Support; survey; surveys; techniques; training; trust; ungulate; us; using; wild; wildlife; work; workshop; world-wildlife-fund; world wildlife fund; Wwf
Raghavan, B., Bhatnagar, Y., & Qureshi, Q. (2003). Interactions between livestock and Ladakh urial (Ovis vignei vignei); final report.
Abstract: The Ladakh urial (Ovis vignei vignei) is a highly endangered animal (IUCN Red List 2000) listed in the Appendix 1 of CITES and Schedule 1 of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972. Its numbers had been reduced to a few hundred individuals in the 1960s and 70s through hunting for trophies and meat (Fox et al. 1991, Mallon 1983, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, IUCN Red List 2000). However, with the protection bestowed by the IWPA 1972, and resultant decrease in hunting, the population seems to have shown a marginal increase to about 1000-1500 individuals in its range in Ladakh (Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, IUCN Red List 2000). Although the species had in the past, been able to coexist with the predominantly Buddhist society of Ladakh, the recent increase in the population of both humans and their livestock has placed immense pressures on its habitat (Shackleton 1997, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). This is especially important considering that the Ladakh urial habitat coincides with the areas of maximum human activity in terms of settlements, agriculture, pastoralism and development, in Ladakh (Fox et al. 1991, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). Increased developmental activities such as construction of roads, dams, and military bases in these areas have also increased the access to their habitat. This has consequently made the species more vulnerable to the threats of poaching and habitat destruction (Fox et al. 1991, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2002). Pressure from increased livestock grazing is one of the major threats faced by the species today (Shackleton 1997, Fox et al. 1991, Mallon 1983, IUCN Red List 2000 Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). In the impoverished habitat provided by the Trans-Himalayas, there is great competition for the scarce resources between various animal species surviving here (Fox 1996, Mishra 2001). The presence of livestock intensifies this competition and can either force the species out of its niche (competitive exclusion) by displacing it from that area or resource, or lead to partitioning of resources between the species, spatially or temporally, for coexistence (Begon et al. 1986, Gause 1934).
Keywords: Interactions; interaction; livestock; Ladakh; urial; ovis; endangered; Animal; Iucn; 2000; Cites; indian; wildlife; protection; number; 1960; 70; hunting; meat; fox; Chundawat; population; range; species; recent; humans; Human; Pressure; habitat; areas; area; human activity; activity; activities; agriculture; pastoralism; development; dam; Base; threats; threat; poaching; grazing; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya; Competition; resource; presence; India; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trust; program
Sloane, A., Kelly, C., McDavitt, S., & Marples, N. (1998). Big cats in captivity: a quantitative analysis of enrichment. Adv.Etho, 33, 43.
Abstract: Studies on three species of big cats at Dublin Zoo have led to firm conclusions about the effects of certain forms of enrichment, some of which will be presented here. Lions, jaguars, and snow leopards were studied over two years and their behaviours quantified using focal animal sampling during selected hours during daylight. By comparison of these activity budgets with and without the enrichments being present, it was possible to identify the exact behavioural changes caused by each enrichment method, and to quantify these changes. In this contribution we present results showing that the presence of a platform in both lion and jaguar enclosures dramatically reduced stereotypic pacing behaviour. We will demonstrate that the effects of short term enrichment devices may have a wide range of effects on behaviours which outlast the presence of the stimulus. For instance scents added to the cage, or food/play items such as horse hides, hidden fish or ice-blocks often reduce pacing and increase resting later in the day, even after the cats have ceased using the enrichment items. This reduction in pacing and increase in resting time often meant that the amount of the enclosure used per hour was actually reduced with the presence of new stimuli, as result opposite to what might have been expected. The results of these studies will be discussed in relation to effective animal management.
Keywords: abnormal-behavior; behavior; captive-animal-care; endangered; threatened-species; zoos; enrichment; abnormal; captive; Animal; care; threatened; species; browse; 1280; study; big; big cats; Cats; cat; zoo; effects; Lions; lion; jaguar; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; behaviour; using; activity; activities; change; presence; enclosures; range; scent; cage; horse; hides; management
Subbotin, A. E., & Istomov, S. V. (2009). The population status of snow leopards Uncia uncia (Felidae, Carnivora) in the western Sayan Mountain Ridge. Doklady Biologicl Sciences, 425, 183–186.
Abstract: The snow leopard (Uncia uncial Schreber, 1776) is the most poorly studied species of the cat family in the world and, in particular, in Russia, where the northern periphery of the species area (no more than 3% of it) is located in the Altai-Hangai-Sayan range . It is generally known that the existing data on the Russian part of the snow leopard population have never been a result of targeted studies; at best, they have been based on recording the traces of the snow leopard vital activity . This is explained by the snow leopard's elusive behavior, inaccessibility of its habitats for humans, and its naturally small total numbers in the entire species area. All published data on the population status of the snow leopard in Russia, from the first descriptions of the species [3-6] to the latest studies [7, 8] are subjective, often speculative, and are not confirmed by
quantitative estimates. It is obvious, however, that every accurate observation of this animal is of particular interest . The purpose of our study was to determine the structure and size of the population group presumably inhabiting the Western Sayan mountain ridge at the northern boundary of the species area
Keywords: population; status; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Felidae; Carnivora; Sayan; mountain; Russian; Test; species; cat; Russia; area; range; Data; study; activity; activities; behavior; habitats; habitat; humans; Human; number; description; Animal; structure
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2002). A Learning Tour of the CBN (Corbett, Nainital and Binsar) Eco-tourism Initiative Sites by Villagers from Hemis National Park and the Surrounding Area (18-28th November 2002) (R. Wangchuk, & J. Dadul, Eds.) (Vol. SLC Field Document Series No 5). Leh, Ladakh, India.
Abstract: Ladakh lies between the Great Himalayas and the formidable Karakoram mountains.
Its unique landscape and rich cultural heritage have been a great attraction to tourists all over
the world. Apart from its uniqueness it has a rich Trans-Himalayan bio-diversity and is home
to the rare and elusive snow leopard. It opened to tourism in 1974 with a handful of tourists
and has gone up to the present number of about 18,000 visitors annually. Ecotourism started in Ladakh in mid 80s in the form of conservation of traditional
architecture when local communities realized the importance of their rich culture and
traditions being valued by the visiting tourists. However, while tourism became a major
source of income to people in Leh, most of the benefits stayed with outside (Delhi) based
travel agents thus leaving out the rural masses. During the last three years Snow Leopard Conservancy and The Mountain Institute have been
initiating ecotourism activities with local communities in the Hemis National Park as an
alternate livelihood and an indirect way to compensate losses of livestock from predatory
animals. However, local people while venturing into such new initiatives have tended to be
like blind men that are being led by NGO's so that they do not stumble along their paths.
Keywords: Ladakh; Himalayas; Himalaya; Karakoram; mountains; mountain; landscape; tourists; trans-himalayan; transhimalayan; biodiversity; home; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; tourism; number; ecotourism; 80; conservation; traditional; local; community; Culture; income; people; leh; travel; rural; Snow Leopard Conservancy; ecotourism activities; ecotourism-activities; activities; activity; Hemis; national; national park; National-park; park; livelihood; loss; livestock; Animals; Animal; local people; NGO's; eco-tourism; villagers; area
|Xu, F., Ma, M., & Wu, Y. - Q. (2006). Winter Daily Activity Rhythm and Time Budget of Ibex(Capra ibex).|