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Ale S. (2005). Have snow leopards made a comeback to the Everest region of Nepal?.
Abstract: In the 1960s, the endangered snow leopard was locally extirpated from the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) region of Nepal. In this Sherpa-inhabited high Himalaya, the flourishing tourism since the ascent of Mt Everest in 1953, has caused both prosperity and adverse impacts, the concern that catalyzed the establishment of Mt. Everest National Park in the region in 1976. In the late 1980s, there were reports that some transient snow leopards may have visited the area from adjoining Tibet, but no biological surveys exist to confirm the status of the cats and their prey. Have snow leopards finally returned to the top of the world? Exploring this question was the main purpose of this research project. We systematically walked altogether 24 sign transects covering over 13 km in length in three valleys, i.e. Namche, Phortse and Gokyo, of the park, and counted several snow leopard signs. The results indicated that snow leopards have made a comeback in the park in response to decades of protective measures, the virtual cessation of hunting and the recovery of the Himalayan tahr which is snow leopard's prey. The average sign density (4.2 signs/km and 2.5 sign sites/km) was comparable to that reported from other parts of the cats' range in the Himalaya. On this basis, we estimated the cat density in the Everest region between 1 to 3 cats per 100 sq km, a figure that was supported by different sets of pugmarks and actual sightings of snow leopards in the 60 km2 sample survey area. In the study area, tahr population had a low reproductive rate (e.g. kids-to-females ratio, 0.1, in Namche). Since predators can influence the size and the structure of prey species populations through mortality and through non-lethal effects or predation risk, snow leopards could have been the cause of the population dynamics of tahr in Sagarmtha, but this study could not confirm this speculation for which further probing may be required.
Keywords: snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; region; Nepal; Report; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; 1960; endangered; Sagarmatha; High; Himalaya; tourism; impact; establishment; national; national park; National-park; park; 1980; area; Tibet; surveys; survey; status; Cats; cat; prey; research; project; sign; transects; transect; length; valley; Response; hunting; recovery; Himalayan; tahr; density; densities; range; pugmarks; sighting; 60; study; population; predators; predator; structure; prey species; prey-species; species; populations; mortality; effects; predation; population dynamics
Anonymous. (1994). Resolutions Conservation of Snow Leopard, Seventh International Snow Leopard Symposium. In J.L.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 329–331). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: resolutions; conservation; management; Khunjerab; Taxkorgan; Sagarmatha; Makalu-Barun; Qomolangma; Transboundry; protected-areas; parks; reserves; refuge; Nepal; Tibet; China; Pakistan; Cites; Slims; eco-development; livestock; herders; conflict; siberia; gobi; Altay; Altai; Mongolia; Arksai; Liqaru; Arba; Ganzi; Baoxin; pollution; pesticides; toxicity; cooperation; status; zoos; zoological-gardens; browse; protected; area; areas; protected area; protected areas; eco development; eco; development; zoological; gardens; zoological gardens; 3530
Bagchi, S., Mishra, C., & Bhatnagar, Y. (2004). Conflicts between traditional pastoralism and conservation of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Trans-Himalayan mountains. Animal Conservation, 7, 121–128.
Abstract: There is recent evidence to suggest that domestic livestock deplete the density and diversity of wild herbivores in the cold deserts of the Trans-Himalaya by imposing resource limitations. To ascertain the degree and nature of threats faced by Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) from seven livestock species, we studied their resource use patterns over space, habitat and food dimensions in the pastures of Pin Valley National Park in the Spiti region of the Indian Himalaya. Species diet profiles were obtained by direct observations. We assessed the similarity in habitat use and diets of ibex and livestock using Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling. We estimated the influence of the spatial distribution of livestock on habitat and diet choice of ibex by examining their co-occurrence patterns in cells overlaid on the pastures. The observed co-occurrence of ibex and livestock in cells was compared with null-models generated through Monte Carlo simulations. The results suggest that goats and sheep impose resource limitations on ibex and exclude them from certain pastures. In the remaining suitable habitat, ibex share forage with horses. Ibex remained relatively unaffected by other livestock such as yaks, donkeys and cattle. However, most livestock removed large amounts of forage from the pastures (nearly 250 kg of dry matter/day by certain species), thereby reducing forage availability for ibex. Pertinent conservation issues are discussed in the light of multiple-use of parks and current socio-economic transitions in the region, which call for integrating social and ecological feedback into management planning.
Keywords: conflicts; traditional pastoralism; himalayan ibex; ibex; capra sibirica; trans-himalayan mountains; pin valley national park; spiti region; non-metric multidimensional scaling; snow leopard; wolf; wild dog; Lynx; wild ass; Tibetan argali; Tibetan antelope; Tibetan gazelle; urial; bharal; Pin River; pin valley; Parahio; goat; sheep; Cattle; horses; yaks; donkeys; diet; free-ranging horses; herded horses; grazing; 5290
Bhatnagar, Y. V., Mathur, V. B., & McCarthy, T. (2002). A Regional Perspective for Snow Leopard Conservation In the Indian Trans-Himalaya.. Islt: Islt.
Abstract: The Trans-Himalaya is a vast biogeographic region in the cold and arid rain-shadow of
the Greater Himalaya and is spread over three Indian states. From the conservation
standpoint this region has several unique characteristics. Unlike most other
biogeographic regions of the country, it has wildlife, including large mammals, spread
over the entire region. Another feature is that the harsh climate and topography
provides limited agricultural land and pastures, all of which are currently utilized by
people. The harsh environment has given rise to a specialized assemblage of flora and fauna in
the region that include the endangered snow leopard, a variety of wild sheep and goat,
Tibetan antelope, Tibetan gazelle, kiang and wild yak. The snow leopard is one of the
most charismatic species of the Trans-Himalaya. This apex predator, with a wide
distribution, has ecological importance and international appeal, and is eminently
suitable to be used as both a 'flagship' and an 'umbrella species' to anchor and guide
conservation efforts in the Trans-Himalayan region. Among the 10 Biogeographic Zones in the country, the Trans-Himalaya has a
comparatively large Protected Area (PA) coverage, with over 15,000 km2 (8.2 %) of
the geographical area under the network. In spite of this, the bulk of the large mammal
populations still exist outside the PAs, which include highly endangered species such
as snow leopard, chiru, wild yak, Ladakh urial, kiang and brown bear. Given the sparse resource availability in the Trans-Himalaya and the existing human
use patterns, there are few alternatives that can be provided to resource dependent
human communities in and around PAs. The existing PAs themselves pose formidable
conservation challenges and a further increase in their extent is impractical. The
problem is further compounded by the fact that some of the large PAs have unclear
boundaries and include vast stretches that do not have any direct wildlife values. These
issues call for an alternative strategy for conservation of the Trans-Himalayan tracts
based on a regional perspective, which includes reconciling conservation with
development. In this paper we stress that conservation issues of this region, such as competition for
forage between wild and domestic herbivores and human-wildlife conflicts need to be
addressed in a participatory manner. We suggest an alternative scheme to look at the
zonation of existing PAs and also the Trans-Himalayan region as a whole, to facilitate
better conservation in the region. Also, we emphasize that there is a vital need for
additional resources and a formal setup for regional planning and management under a
centrally sponsored scheme such as the 'Project Snow Leopard'.
Keywords: snow; leopard; India; indian; Himalaya; Himalayan; conservation; region; regional; climate; topography; flora; fauna; Tibet; tibetan; protected; area; planning; management; manage; biogeographic; gazelle; kiang; yak; predator; 4900
|Burrard, G. (1925). Big Game Hunting in the Himalayas and Tibet. London: H. Jenkinns.|
|Feng, Z. (1986). The mammals of Tibet. Beijing: Science Press.|
Fox, J. L. (1994). Snow leopard conservation in the wild – a comprehensive perspective on a low density and highly fragmented population. In J.Fox, & J.Du (Eds.), (pp. 3–15). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: conservation; habitat; distribution; range; tibetan-plateau; Himalaya; Taklimakan-desert; Karakoram; Hindu-kush; Pamir; Kun-Lun; Tien-Shan; Altay; Cites; status; Afghanistan; Bhutan; China; India; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; Nepal; Pakistan; Russia; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan; protected-area; parks; park; reserve; refuge; research; management; kazakstan; browse; tibetan; plateau; taklimakan; desert; hindu; protected; area; 2630
Fox, J. L., & Chundawat, R. S. (1995). Wolves in the Transhimalayan region of India: The continued survival of a low-density population. Canadian Circumpolar Institute Occasional Publication No.35; Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world, 35, 95–103.
Abstract: Canadian Cirumpolar Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada/Second North American Symposium on Wolves, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, August 25-27, 1992
Keywords: Competition; Population-Density; Tibetan-Wolf; Transhimalayan-Region; Wildlife-Management; browse; population; density; tibetan; wolf; wildlife; management; transhimalayan; region; 710
|Fox, J. L., Nurbu, C., & Chundawat, R. S. (1991). Tibetian Argali (Ovis ammon hodgsoni). Mammalia, , 48–51.|
|Ganguli-Lachungpa, U. (1999). Dead snow leopard (Uncia uncia) at Yabuk, Dongkung (5500M) in North Sikkim.|
Harris, R. B., Pletscher, D. H., Loggers, C. O., & Miller, D. J. (1999). Status and trends of Tibetan plateau mammalian fauna, Yeniugou, China. Biological Conservation, 87, 13–19.
Abstract: We conducted surveys focusing on the unique and vulnerable ungulate species in Yeniugou, Qinghai province, China, during September 1997 to compare population estimates with those from the early 1990s. The status of two ungulate species appeared essentially unchanged since 1990ñ1992: wild yak Bos grunniens (about 1200 to 1300 animals) and Tibetan gazelle Procapra picti- caudata. The status of one ungulate species, the white-lipped deer Cervus albirostris, appeared to improve, from a very few to close to 100. We are unsure how the status of the Tibetan wild ass Equus kiang compares with that of the early 1990s. The status of three species declined during the period: blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and argali Ovis ammon declined slightly (possibly due to a weather event), and the Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni declined dramatically (probably due primarily to poaching), from over 2000 estimated in 1991 to only two seen during 1997. Poaching of antelope has become a serious problem throughout the Tibetan plateau in recent years, and this survey provides evidence that an entire subpopulation can disappear (either through mortality, movement away from human disturbance or a combination) within a relatively short time-frame. That some species (e.g. wild yak, white-lipped deer) continue to thrive in Yeniugou is heartening, but even they remain vulnerable to market-driven poaching.#1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: argali; blue sheep; China; conservation; Qinghai; survey; Tibetan antelope; Tibetan gazelle; Tibetan wild ass; white-lipped deer; wild; yak; Yeniugou; 5210
|Hunter, D. O. (1991). GIS Tracks the Snow Leopard (Vol. ix). Seattle: International Snow Leopard Trust.|
|International Snow Leopard Trust. (1999). International Snow Leopard Trust, Conservation and Education Program for 1999.|
|Jackson, R. (1991). A wildlife survey of the Qomolangma Nature Preserve, Tibetian Autonomous Region, Peoples Republic of China. Franklin, West Virginia: Woodlands Mountain Institute.|
Jackson, R. (1998). People-Wildlife Conflict Management in the Qomolangma Nature Preserve, Tibet. In W. Ning, D. Miller, L. Zhu, & J. Springer (Eds.), (pp. 40–46). Tibet's Biodiversity: Conservation and Management.. China: Tibet Forestry Department and World Wide Fund for Nature. China Forestry Publishing House.
Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to report on people-wildlife conflicts arising from crop damage and livestock depredation in the Qomolangma Reserve, with special reference to the management of protected and endangered mammals.
Keywords: conflict; conflict management; management; Qomolangma; nature; preserve; Tibet; primary; Report; conflicts; damage; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; reserve; protected; endangered; endangered mammals; mammals; biodiversity; conservation
Jackson, R. (1999). Managing people-wildlife conflict in Tibet's Qomolangma National Nature Preserve.
Keywords: Qomolangma; livestock; Tibet; predator; predation; prey; protected-areas; parks; reserves; conflict; corrals; pens; depredation; livestock-depredation; browse; livestock depredation; protected; area; areas; protected area; protected areas; 4020
Jackson, R. (2000). Linking Snow Leopard Conservation and People-Wildlife Conflict Resolution, Summary of a multi-country project aimed at developing grass-roots measures to protect the endangered snow leopard from herder retribution. Cat News, 33, 12–15.
Keywords: livestock-depredation; livestock; pastoralists; herders; Pakistan; Nepal; Tibet; Mongolia; India; protected-areas; parks; reserves; refuge; snow-leopard-incentive-program; economics; tourism; pens; corrals; enclosures; trapping; poisoning; killing; cubs; dens; retribution; behavior; predator; prey; Qomolangma; habitat; feces; fecal-analysis; compensation; Dogs; guard-dogs; religion; conservation; browse; depredation; snow; leopard; incentive; program; fecal; analysis; guard; Dog; 4000
Jackson, R., & Fox, J. L. (2000). Report on Fifth Slims Training Workshop (Nepal) (Vol. xvii). Seattle: International Snow Leopard Trust.
Abstract: Nepal's snow leopards (Uncia uncia) are mostly found along the northern border with Tibet (China). The largest populations are in Dolpa, Mugu, Manang, and Myagdi Districts. Potential habitat totals about 30,000 square kilometers. Numbers are estimated at 300-500, but surveys are urgently needed to confirm this rough guess. Like elsewhere, the primary threats center on poaching, depletion of natural prey, livestock depredation and resultant retributive killing of snow leopards by herders, and the lack of public awareness and support for conserving snow leoaprds, especially among local herders.
Keywords: Slims; Nepal; training; techniques; Gps; field-work; surveys; Tibet; habitat; China; hunting; poaching; livestock; population; Shey-Phoksundo; parks; protected-area; reserves; annapurna; Dhorpatan; Manaslu; Sagarmatha; Langtang; Islt; Wwf; Hmg; Dnpwc; browse; 4460
Jackson, R., Zongyi, W., Xuedong, L., & Yun, C. (1994). Snow Leopards in the Qomolangma Nature Preserve of Tibet Autonomous Region. In J.L.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 85–95). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: Qomolangma; protected-area; parks; preserves; refuge; Nepal; Tibet; China; field-study; blue-sheep; scrapes; sprays; scat; feces; pug-marks; sign; transects; interviews; herders; livestock; predation; predator; traps; trapping; habitat; status; distribution; threats; hunting; pelts; skins; fur; coats; poaching; bones; medicine; Cites; conflict; trade; conservation; management; protected area; protected; area; areas; protected areas; field study; field; study; pug marks; blue; sheep; browse; pug; marks; 3490
Jackson. R. (2012). Fostering Community-Based Stewardship of Wildlife in Central Asia: Transforming Snow Leopards from Pests into Valued Assets. In Springer Science and Business Media (pp. 357–380).
Abstract: Book Title: Rangeland Stewardship in Central Asia: Balancing Improved Livelihoods, Biodiversity Conservation and Land Protection, 2012. Edited by Victor Squires. Published Springer Science+Business Media. 458 p. 91 illus., 61 in color.
Addressing human–wildlife conflict is an important requisite to managing
rangelands for livestock and wildlife. Despite high altitudes, aridity, and relatively
low primary productivity, the rangelands of Central Asia support a rich and diverse
biodiversity—including the endangered snow leopard that many herders perceive
as a predator to be eliminated. Conserving this and other wildlife species requires
carefully crafted interventions aimed at curbing depredation losses and/or reducing
competition for forage, along with offering locally sustainable, environmentally
friendly income-generating activities for supplementing pastoral household livelihoods.
This is best achieved through a combination of incentives designed to foster
sound rangeland and wildlife stewardship, along penalties or disincentives targeting
herders who violate mutually agreed rules and regulations (including grazing norms
and wildlife disturbance or poaching).
When working toward the harmonious coexistence of people and wildlife,
conservationists and rangeland practitioners need to seek the cooperation and
build goodwill among herders and other stakeholders, including local government
and private industry (especially the livestock production, mining, and tourism
Keywords: Gurvan Saikhan National Park,Annapurna National Park,Nepal,Pakistan,India,Mongolia,China,Tibet,Mining,Poaching,PRA,Holistic,Community engagement,Fuel,Habitat fragmentation
Jiang, Z. (2005). Snow leopards in the Dulan International Hunting Ground, Qinghai, China.
Abstract: From March to May, 2006œªwe conducted extensive snow leopard surveys in the Burhanbuda Mountain Kunlun Mountains, Qinghai Province, China. 32 linear transect of 5~15 km each, which running through each vegetation type, were surveyed within the study area. A total of 72 traces of snow leopard were found along 4 transects (12.5% of total transects). The traces included pug marks or footprints, scrapes and urine marks. We estimated the average density of wild ungulates in the region was 2.88ñ0.35 individuals km-2(n=29). We emplaced 16 auto2 trigger cameras in different environments and eight photos of snow leopard were shot by four cameras and the capture rate of snow leopard was 71.4%. The minimum snow leopard population size in the Burhanbuda Mountain was two, because two snow leopards were phototrapped by different cameras at almost same time. Simultaneously, the cameras also shot 63 photos of other wild animals, including five photos are unidentified wild animals, and 20 photos of livestock. We evaluated the human attitudes towards snow leopard by interviewing with 27 Tibetan householders of 30 householders live in the study area. We propose to establish a nature reserve for protecting and managing snow leopards in the region. Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is considered as a unique species because it lives above the snow line, it is endemic to alpines in Central Asia, inhabiting in 12 countries across Central Asia (Fox, 1992). Snow leopard ranges in alpine areas in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Gansu and Sichuan in western China (Liao, 1985, 1986; Zhou, 1987; Ma et al., 2002; Jiang & Xu, 2006). The total population and habitat of snow leopards in China are estimated to be 2,000~2,500 individuals and 1,824,316 km2, only 5% of which is under the protection of nature reserves. The cat's current range is fragmented (Zou & Zheng, 2003). Due to strong human persecutions, populations of snow leopards decreased significantly since the end of the 20th century. Thus, the
snow leopards are under the protection of international and domestic laws. From March to May, 2006, we conducted two field surveys in Zhiyu Village, Dulan County in Burhanbuda Mountain, Kunlun Mountains, China to determine the population, distribution and survival status of snow leopards in the area. The aim of the study was to provide ecologic data for snow leopard conservation.
Keywords: snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; International; hunting; Qinghai; China; project; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; surveys; survey; mountains; mountain; province; transect; study; area; transects; pug; pug marks; pug-marks; marks; scrapes; scrape; density; densities; wild; ungulates; ungulate; region; camera; environment; photo; capture; population; population size; population-size; Animals; Animal; 20; livestock; Human; attitudes; attitude; tibetan; 30; nature; reserve; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; species; snow line; snow-line; endemic; alpine; central; Central Asia; asia; countries; country; fox; range; areas; Xinjiang; inner; Inner-Mongolia; Mongolia; Tibet; gansu; Sichuan; habitat; protection; nature reserves; reserves; cat; populations; domestic; laws; law; field; field surveys; field survey; field-surveys; field-survey; Kunlun; distribution; survival; status; Data; conservation
Jizeng, D., Ji-peng, J., Chang-xin, Z., & Freeman, H. (1994). Opening Remarks to Seventh International Snow Leopard Symposium. In J.L.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.),. Usa: Islt.
Keywords: conservation; ecology; biology; habitat; protected-areas; parks; reserves; preserves; refuge; zoos; captivity; breeding; distribution; status; Russia; Soviet-Union; Ussr; Afghanistan; Mongolia; Pakistan; Nepal; India; China; Tajikistan; Kazakhstan; Qinghai; Tibet; kazakstan; browse; protected; area; soviet; union; 3780
Lama, R. P., Ghale, T. R., Suwal, M. K., Ranabhat, R., Regmi, G. R. (2018). First photographic evidence of Snow Leopard Panthera uncia (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) outside current protected areas network in Nepal Himalaya. Journal of Threatened Taxa, , 12086–12090.
Abstract: The Snow Leopard Panthera uncia is a rare top predator of high-altitude ecosystems and insufficiently surveyed outside of protected areas in Nepal. We conducted a rapid camera-trapping survey to assess the presence of Snow Leopard in the Limi valley of Humla District. Three individuals were recorded in two camera locations offering the first photographic evidence of this elusive cat outside the protected area network of Nepal. In addition to Snow Leopard, the Blue Sheep Pseudois nayaur, Beech Marten Martes foina, Pika Ochotona spp. and different species of birds were also detected by camera-traps. More extensive surveys and monitoring are needed for reliably estimating the population size of Snow Leopard in the area. The most urgent needs are community-based conservation activities aimed at mitigating immediate threats of poaching, retaliatory killing, and rapid prey depletion to ensure the survival of this top predator in the Himalaya.
Keywords: Camera-trapping, conservation, Humla, livestock depredation, monasteries, non-timber forest products, retaliatory killing, Tibetan Buddhism.
Li, J. S., G, B. McCarthy, T. M. Wang, D. Jiagong, Z. Cai, P. Basang, L. Lu, Z. (2012). A Communal Sign Post of Snow Leopards (Panthera uncial) and Other Species on the Tibetan Plateau China. International Journal of Biodiversity, 2013, 1:8.
Abstract: The snow leopard is a keystone species in mountain ecosystems of Central Asia and the Tibetan Plateau, However, little is known about the interactions between snow leopards and sympatric carnivores. Using infrared cameras, we found a rocky junction of two valleys in Sanjiangyuan area on the Tibetan Plateau where many mammals in this area passed and frequently marked and sniffed the site at the junction. We suggest that this site serves as a sign post to many species in this area, especially snow leopards and other carnivores. The marked signs may also alert the animals passing by to temporally segregate their activities to avoid potential conflicts. We used the Schoener index to measure the degree of temporal segregation among the species captured by infrared camera traps at this site. Our research reveals the probable ways of both intra- and interspecies competition. This is an important message to help understand the structure of animal communities. Discovery of the sign post clarifies the importance of identifying key habitas ad sites of both snow leopards and other species for more effective conservation.
Lutz, H., Hofmann-Lehmann, R., Fehr, D., Leutenegger, C., Hartmann, M., Ossent, P., et al. (1996). Liberation of the wilderness of wild felids bred under human custody: Danger of release of viral infections. Schweizer Archiv fuer Tierheilkunde, 138(12), 579–585.
Abstract: There are several felidae amongst the numerous endangered species. Means of aiding survival are the reintroduction to the wild of animals bred under the auspices of man and their relocation from densely populated to thinly populated areas. It is unlikely that the dangers of such reintroduction or relocation projects have been examined sufficiently in respect to the risks of virus infections confronting individuals kept in zoos or similar situations. This report presents infections may be expected to occur when relo- three examples to illustrate that accidental virus cating and reintroducing wild cats. The first example is the reintroduction of captive snow leopards. Zoo bred snow leopards may be infected with FIV, a virus infection that is highly unlikely to occur in the original hirnalayan highlands of Tibet and China. A second example is of several cases of FIP that occured in European wild cats bred in groups in captivity. The third example mentioned is the relocation of hons from East Africa where all the commonly known feline viruses are wide-spread to the Etosha National Park. In the latter, virus infections such as FIV, FCV and FPV do not occur. The indiscriminate relocation and reintroduction of the wild cats mentioned here harbours a potential of undesirable consequences.
Keywords: endangered-species; European-Wild-Cat; Fiv; Fpv; Host; Human-Custody; infection; Pathogen; Reintroduction-Projects; Relocation-Projects; survival; Tibet; Veterinary-Medicine; Viral-Disease; Viral-Infection; Wild-Felid; Wild-Felid-Breeding; Wilderness-Liberation; Wildlife-Management; browse; endangered; species; european; wild; cat; Human; custody; reintroduction; project; relocation; veterinary; medicine; Viral; Disease; wild felid; breeding; wilderness; liberation; management; 690