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Farrington, J. (2005). A Report on Protected Areas, Biodiversity, and Conservation in the Kyrgyzstan Tian Shan with Brief Notes on the Kyrgyzstan Pamir-Alai and the Tian Shan Mountains of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and China. Ph.D. thesis, , Kyrgyzstan.
Abstract: Kyrgyzstan is a land of towering mountains, glaciers, rushing streams, wildflowercovered meadows, forests, snow leopards, soaring eagles, and yurt-dwelling nomads. The entire nation lies astride the Tian Shan1, Chinese for “Heavenly Mountains”, one of the world's highest mountain ranges, which is 7439 m (24,400 ft) in elevation at its highest point. The nation is the second smallest of the former Soviet Central Asian republics. In
spite of Kyrgyzstan's diverse wildlife and stunning natural beauty, the nation remains little known, and, as yet, still on the frontier of international conservation efforts. The following report is the product of 12 months of research into the state of conservation and land-use in Kyrgyzstan. This effort was funded by the Fulbright Commission of the U.S. State Department, and represents the most recent findings of the author's personal environmental journey through Inner Asia, which began in 1999. When I first started my preliminary research for this project, I was extremely surprised to learn that, even though the Tian Shan Range has tremendous ecological significance for conservation efforts in middle Asia, there wasn't a single major international conservation organization with an office in the former Soviet Central Asian republics. Even more surprising was how little awareness there is of conservation issues in the Tian Shan region amongst conservation workers in neighboring areas who are attempting to preserve similar species assemblages and ecosystems to those found in the Tian Shan. Given this lack of awareness, and the great potential for the international community to make a positive contribution towards improving the current state of biodiversity conservation in Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia, I have summarized my findings on protected areas and conservation in Kyrgyzstan and the Tian Shan of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Xinjiang in the chapters below. The report begins with some brief background information on geography and society in the Kyrgyz Republic, followed by an overview of biodiversity and the state of conservation in the nation, which at the present time closely parallels the state of conservation in the other former Soviet Central Asian republics. Part IV of the report provides a catalog of all major protected areas in Kyrgyzstan and the other Tian Shan nations, followed by a list of sites in Kyrgyzstan that are as yet unprotected but merit protection. In the appendices the reader will find fairly comprehensive species lists of flora and fauna found in the Kyrgyz Republic, including lists of mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, trees and shrubs, wildflowers, and endemic plants. In addition, a
draft paper on the history and current practice of pastoral nomadism in Kyrgyzstan has been included in Appendix A. While the research emphasis for this study was on eastern Kyrgyzstan, over the course of the study the author did have the opportunity to make brief journeys to southern Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Xinjiang. While falling short of being a definitive survey of protected areas of the Tian Shan, the informational review which
follows is the first attempt at bringing the details of conservation efforts throughout the entire Tian Shan Range together in one place. It is hoped that this summary of biodiversity and conservation in the Tian Shan will generate interest in the region amongst conservationists, and help increase efforts to protect this surprisingly unknown range that forms an island of meadows, rivers, lakes, and forests in the arid heart of Asia.
Koshkarev E.P. (1990). Key areas of snow leopard's habitat as main conservation objects (Vol. Part. 1.).
Abstract: The most vulnerable key areas within the snow leopard habitat are East Kazakhstan (an area of 48,000 square km) with no protected areas network established, and South Siberia (131,000 square km), where snow leopard is protected in three nature reserves. These areas are distant from main part of the habitat, isolated and have more extreme conditions. In Central Asia's key area (213,000 square km) linked to a main Chinese-Afghani part of the habitat, snow leopard was found in 11 nature reserves and two national parks. For reliable protection of this species it would be expedient to strengthen the role of the mountain nature reserves by means of extension and amalgamation of the areas, and other measures.
Maheshwari, A., Niraj, S. K. (2018). Monitoring illegal trade in snow leopards: 2003e2014. Elsevier, , 1–6.
Abstract: Illegal trade in snow leopards (Panthera uncia) has been identified as one of the major
threats to long-term survival of the species in the wild. To quantify severity of the threats
to dwindling snow leopard population, we examined market and questionnaire surveys,
and information from the published and unpublished literature on illegal trade and
poaching of snow leopards.We collected information from 11 of the 12 snow leopard range
counties in central and southern Asia, barring Kazakhstan, and reported 439 snow leopards
(88 records) in illegal trade during 2003e2014, which represents a loss of approximately
8.4%e10.9% snow leopard population (assuming mid-point population of 5240 to
minimum population of 4000 individuals) in a period of 12 years. Our data suggested a 61%
decadal increase in snow leopard trade during 2003e2012 compared with 1993e2002,
while taking the note of significant strengthening of wildlife enforcement and crime
control network in the decades of 2000s and 2010s. We found 50% prosecution rate of
snow leopard crimes resulting in only 20% conviction rate globally. Many limitations e.g.,
secretive nature of illegal trade, ill developed enforcement mechanism, poor and passive
documentation of snow leopards' seizures, restricted us to reflect actual trend of snow
leopards' illegal trade. Even on a conservative scale the present situation is alarming and
may detrimental to snow leopard conservation. We propose an effective networking of
enforcement efforts and coordination among the law enforcement agencies, efficient
collection of data and data management, and sharing of intelligence in snow leopard range
countries, could be useful in curbing illegal trade in snow leopards in central and southern
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2002). Visitor Satisfaction and Opportunity Survey, Manang, Nepal: Market Opportunities for Linking Community-Based Ecotourism with the Conservation of Snow Leopards in the Annpurna Conservation Area. Report prepared for WWF-Nepal Programme (Vol. SLC Field Document Series No 3).
Abstract: For the past two decades, the Manang or Nyeshang Valley has become one of the most popular
trekking routes in Nepal, attracting over 15,000 trekkers annually (Ale, 2001). The 21-day
circular trek takes the visitor from the lush southern slopes of the Annapurna massif around to
its dry northern slopes more reminiscent of Tibet, through a landscape of spectacular mountain
scenes, interesting villages and diverse cultures. The Manang region also offers prime habitat
for the endangered snow leopard, supporting an estimated 4.8 – 6.7 snow leopards per 100 sq.
km (Oli 1992). This high density has been attributed to the abundance of blue sheep, the snow
leopard's primary large prey species across the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau.
Trepanier, L. A., Cribb, A. E., Spielberg, S. P., & Ray, K. (1998). Deficiency of cytosolic arylamine N-acetylation in the domestic cat and wild felids caused by the presence of a single NAT1-like gene. Pharmacogenetics, 8(2), 169–179.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis for a relative deficiency in the cat of cytosolic arylamine N- acetyltransferase (NAT), an enzyme family that is important in the metabolism of xenobiotics and that normally consists of at least two related enzymes, NAT1 and NAT2. N-acetyltransferase in feline liver showed high affinity (mean Km = 2.1 microM) for p-aminobenzoic acid, an NAT1 selective substrate in humans and rabbits, but showed a very poor affinity (mean Km > 10 mM) for sulfamethazine, an NAT2 selective substrate in humans and rabbits. Immunoreactive N-acetyltransferase was detected in feline liver, bladder and colon using an NAT1-specific antipeptide antibody, but was not detected in any tissues using an NAT2- specific antibody. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA demonstrated a single band in domestic cats using each of six restriction digests; single bands were also found on Southern blot analysis of six wild felids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the central portion of feline N-acetyltransferase, obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification in both domestic cats and seven wild felids (lion, tiger, lynx, snow leopard, bobcat, Asian leopard cat and cheetah), contained three residues, Phe125, Arg127, and Tyr129, which determine NAT1-like substrate specificity in humans. These results support the conclusion that cytosolic arylamine N-acetylation activity is low in the cat because of the presence of a single N-acetyltransferase that has substrate specificity, immunogenicity and sequence characteristics similar to human NAT1, and that the unusual presence of only a single N- acetyltransferase gene appears to be a family wide trait shared by other felids.