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Lovari, S., Ventimiglia, M., Minder, I. (2013). Food habits of two leopard species, competition, climate change and upper treeline: a way to the decrease of an endangered species? Ethology Ecology & Evolution, 25(4), 305–318.
Abstract: For carnivore species, spatial avoidance is one of the evolutionary solutions to
coexist in an area, especially if food habits overlap and body sizes tend to coincide.
We reviewed the diets of two large cats of similar sizes, the endangered snow leopard
(Panthera uncia, 16 studies) and the near-threatened common leopard (Panthera par-
dus, 11 studies), in Asia. These cats share ca 10,000 km2 of their mountainous range,
although snow leopards tend to occur at a significantly higher altitude than common
leopards, the former being a cold-adapted species of open habitats, whereas the latter
is an ecologically flexible one, with a preference for woodland. The spectrum of prey
of common leopards was 2.5 times greater than that of snow leopards, with wild prey
being the staple for both species. Livestock rarely contributed much to the diet. When
the breadth of trophic niches was compared, overlap ranged from 0.83 (weight categories)
to one (main food categories). As these leopard species have approximately
the same size and comparable food habits, one can predict that competition will arise
when they live in sympatry. On mountains, climate change has been elevating the
upper forest limit, where both leopard species occur. This means a habitat increase
for common leopards and a substantial habitat reduction for snow leopards, whose
range is going to be squeezed between the forest and the barren rocky altitudes, with
medium- to long-term undesirable effects on the conservation of this endangered cat
Lui, C. -guang, Zheng, C. -wu, & Ren, J. -rang. (2003). Research Foods and Food Sources About Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia) (Vol. 31).
Abstract: During 1984-1987, 1992-1995, and 1998-2001, the author researched snow leopard, white lipped deer, kiang, and argali in Qinghai, Gansu, Xingiang, and Sichuan. He collected 644 snow leopard droppings, and analyzed kinds of foods and sources from perch. Snow leopard's foods include most main foods, main foods, comparative foods and lesser foods. Studied one another
index of faunistic congruence of foods species that from various distribution and variation both perch vertical variety and foods of snow leopard.
Mallon, D. P., Jackson, R. M. (2017). A downlist is not a demotion: Red List status and reality. Oryx, , 1–5.
Abstract: Assessments of biodiversity status are needed to
track trends, and the IUCN Red List has become the accepted
global standard for documenting the extinction
risk of species. Obtaining robust data on population size is
an essential component of any assessment of a species� status,
including assessments for the IUCN Red List. Obtaining
such estimates is complicated by methodological and
logistical issues, which are more pronounced in the case of
cryptic species, such as the snow leopard Panthera uncia.
Estimates of the total population size of this species have,
to date, been based on little more than guesstimates, but a
comprehensive summary of recent field research indicates
that the conservation status of the snow leopard may be
less dire than previously thought. A revised categorization,
from Endangered to Vulnerable, on the IUCN Red List was
proposed but met some opposition, as did a recent, similar
recategorization of the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca.
Possible factors motivating such attitudes are discussed.
Downlisting on the IUCN Red List indicates that the species
concerned is further from extinction, and is always to be
welcomed, whether resulting from successful conservation
intervention or improved knowledge of status and trends.
Celebrating success is important to reinforce the message
that conservation works, and to incentivize donors.
Marma, B. B., Yunchis, V.V. (1969). Biology of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia uncia). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 47(11), 1689–1694.
Abstract: The methods to obtain progeny of the snow-leopard (Panthera uncia uncia) in captivity were being elaborated in the zoological garden of Kaunas, Lithuanian SSR. The blood characteristics for snow-leopards is given and compared to that for African lions and Sumatran tigers. A series of internal, external and clinical indices is established. The rut lasts for 5-7 day, the duration of pregnancy equals 98 days. The duration of lactation varies from 3 to 4 months. Sexual maturity is attained on the 3rd-4th year. From 1960 to 1967 in zoological ghardens of the world abuot 29 snow-leopards were born. 14 of them -- in the Kauna zoological garden.
Meiers, S. T. (1992). Habitat use by captive puma (Felis concolor) and snow leopards (Pathera uncia) at the Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois. Ph.D. thesis, DePaul University, .
Abstract: Between May 1990 and January 1991, behavioral observations were made of two captive pumas (Felis concolor Linnaeus), and two captive snow leopards (Panthera uncia Schreber) in their outdoor exhibits at the Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, Chicago, Illinois. Behaviors compared within and between species included: 1) time spend in the different habitat types; 2) time budgets for the different behaviors: laying, moving, sitting, standing, crouching, in the tree, drinking, urinating, defecating, within their inside dens, and “behavior not determined” when the identity or behavior of the individuals could not be determined; and 3) mobility of the animals within their exhibits. Also examined were: 4) preferences for different habitat types; 5) recommendations for future exhibit designs. Both species located themselves within their exhibits in a non-random manner. The majority of cats' time was spent in elevated locations (i.e., gunite ledges approximately 1-5.5 m above ground-level). Snow leopards exhibited this tendency to a greater extent than did the pumas. Both species also spent the majority of their time in the lying-down behavior; again snow leopards displayed this tendency significantly more than the pumas. Pumas were highly mobile and changed locations and behaviors in their exhibit significantly more than the snow leopards. No significant differences were noted between conspecifics in regard to habitat type preference, or mobility within the exhibit. Suggestions for future exhibit design include elevated locations for the cats to lay and look around within and outside their exhibits, caves for access to shade or relief from inclement weather, and ground surfaces to move about on. Features for exhibit design should take into consideration the natural habitat of the cat to occupy the exhibit.
Mishra, C., Suryawanshi, K. (2014). Managing conflicts over livestock depradation by Large Carnivores. In SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION – Human-Wildlife Conflict in the Mountains of SAARC Region – Compilation of Successful Management Strategies and Practices (pp. 27–47).
Abstract: Managing wildlife-caused damage to human interests has become an important aspect of contemporary conservation management. Conflicts between pastoralism and carnivore conservation over livestock depredation pose a serious challenge to endangered carnivores worldwide, and have become an important livelihood concern locally. Here, we first review the primary causes of these conflicts, their socio-ecological correlates, and commonly employed mitigation measures. We then describe a community-based program to manage conflicts over livestock depredation by snow leopards Panthera uncia and wolves Canis lupus. A threats-based conceptual model of conflict management is presented. Conflicts over livestock depredation are characterized by complex, multi-scale interactions between carnivore and livestock behavioral ecology, animal husbandry, human psyche, culture, world-views, and socio-economic and education levels of affected peoples. A diversity of commonly employed conflict-mitigation measures is available. They aim at (i) reducing livestock depredation through better livestock herding, use of physical, chemical or psychological barriers, removal of carnivores, and use of livestock guard animals, (ii) offsetting economic losses through damage compensation and insurance programmes, and (iii) increasing peoples’ tolerance of carnivores through indirect approaches such as conservation education and economic incentives. For effective management, conflicts need to be understood along two important dimensions, viz., the reality of damage caused to humans, and the psyche and perceptions of humans who suffer wildlife caused damage. The efficacy of commonly used mitigation measures is variable. A combination of measures that reduce the level of livestock depredation, share or offset economic losses, and improve the social carrying capacity for carnivores will be more effective in managing conflicts than standalone measures
Mishra, C., Young, J. C., Fiechter, M., Rutherford, B., Redpath, S. M. (2017). Building partnerships with communities for biodiversity conservation: lessons from Asian mountains. Journal of Applied Ecology, , 1–9.
Abstract: Applied ecology lies at the intersection of human societies and natural systems. Consequently, applied ecologists are constantly challenged as to how best to use ecological knowledge to influence the management of ecosystems (Habel et al. 2013). As Hulme (2011) has pointed out, to do so effectively we must leave our ivory towers and engage with stakeholders. This engagement is especially important and challenging in areas of the world where poverty, weak institutions and poor governance structures conspire to limit the ability of local communities to contribute to biodiversity conservation. These communities often bear disproportionate costs in the form of curtailed access to natural resources, ecosystem services, and developmental
programmes, and also suffer wildlife-caused damage, including injuries or loss of human life, and economic
and psychological impacts (Madhusudan & Mishra 2003). It is well-recognized that conservation efforts in large parts of the world historically have been perceived to be discriminatory by local people (Mishra 2016). The need for engagement with local communities is therefore embedded in the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets and is widely thought to be critical to the success of conservation efforts. However, although the need for engagement is clear, as ecologists and practitioners we often have little formal training in how we should engage with local communities and how we can recognize the pitfalls and opportunities provided by developing genuine partnerships. The practical challenges of achieving effective engagement are considerable (Agrawal & Gibson 1999; Waylen et al. 2010, 2013), and such forays are fraught with difficulties and ethical considerations (Chan et al. 2007). When they are done badly, conservation interventions
can damage relationships and trust, and lead to serious injustice to local people and setbacks for ecological
outcomes (Duffy 2010). Much has been written on knowledge exchange and participatory research approaches (e.g. Reed et al. 2014 and references therein). This Practitioner’s Perspective
seeks to focus on the next logical step: the elements that practitioners and researchers need to consider when
engaging with communities to effect conservation. Engagement around the management of protected areas
has been discussed and formalized (e.g. Dudley 2008). Considerable literature has also emerged, particularly
from Africa, on the use and co-management of natural resources, commonly referred to as community-based natural resource management or CBNRM (e.g. Fabricius 2004; Roe, Nelson & Sandbrook 2009; Child & Barnes
2010). There have been attempts to draw general principles for CBNRM (e.g. Thakadu 2005; Gruber 2010). In
the related field of community-based conservation, however, while there have been efforts to draw lessons (e.g. Berkes 2004), little exists in terms of frameworks or guidelines for effectively working with local communities to effect biodiversity conservation in multi-use landscapes
(Mishra 2016). The eight principles for community-based conservation outlined here (Fig. 1) build on ideas developed in fields as diverse as applied ecology, conservation and natural
resource management, community health, social psychology, rural development, negotiation theory, and ethics
(see Mishra 2016). They have been developed, challenged and tested through 20 years of community experience andour own research on the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia and its mountain ecosystems, in South and Central Asia. We suspect that with contextual adaptations, their relevance for applied ecologists and practitioners may be universal.
Murali, R., Redpath, S., Mishra, C. (2017). The value of ecosystem services in the high altitude Spiti Valley, Indian Trans-Himalaya. Elsevier, (28), 115–123.
Abstract: The high mountain ranges of South and Central Asia are increasingly being exposed to large-scale development
projects. These areas are home to traditional pastoralist communities and internationally important
biodiversity including the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia. Development projects rely on
economic cost-benefit analysis, but the ecosystem services in the high Himalayas are poorly understood
and are rarely accounted for. As a first step to fill this gap, we identified the main ecosystem services used
by local people in the Trans-Himalayan Spiti Valley (7591 km2), a region important for conservation of
snow leopards and high mountain biodiversity, and undertook an economic valuation. Stakeholders identified
a range of services, though these were dominated by provisioning services identified by 90% of
respondents. Only 5.4% of the respondents recognised regulatory services and 4.8% recognised cultural
services. The mean economic value of provisioning services was estimated at US$ 3622 ± 149 HH1
yr1, which was 3.8 times higher than the average annual household income. Our results underscore
the need to account for ecosystem services in the cost-benefit analyses of large-scale development projects
in addition to assessments of their environmental and social impact.
Oli, M. (1994). Snow leopards and blue sheep in Nepal: Densities and predator: Prey ratio (Vol. 75).
Abstract: I studied snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in Manang District, Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal, to estimate numbers and analyze predatorprey interactions. Five to seven adult leopards used the 105-km2 study area, a density of 4.8 to 6.7 leopards/100 km2. Density of blue sheep was 6.6-10.2 sheep/km2, and biomass density was 304 kg/km2. Estimated relative biomass consumed by snow leopards suggested that blue sheep were the most important prey; marmots (Marmota himalayana) also contributed significantly to the diet of snow leopards. Snow leopards in Manang were estimated to harvest 9-20% of total biomass and 11-24% of total number of blue sheep annually. Snow leopard :blue sheep ratio was 1 :1 14-1 :159 on a weight basis, which was considered sustainable given the importance of small mammals in the leopard's diet and the absence of other competing predators.
Oli, M. K. (1993). A key for the identification of the hair of mammals of a snow leopard (Panthera uncia) habitat in Nepal. Journal of Zoology London, 231(1), 71–93.
Abstract: Analysis of prey remains in scats, particularly hairs, in widely used to study diet of mammalian predators, but identification of hair is often difficult because hair structures vary considerably both within and between species. Use of photographic reference of diagnostically important hair structures from mammals occurring in a predator's habitat has been found to be convenient for routine identification. A photographic reference key was developed for the identification of hairs of the mammals known to occur in a snow leopard (Panthera uncia) habitat in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. The key included a photographic reference of the diagnostic hair structures of nine species of wild and five species of domestic mammals. The cross-sectional appearance, shape and arrangement of medulla, the ratio of cortex to medulla, and the form and distribution of pigment in medulla and cortex were important diagnostic aids in the identification of hairs.