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|Hunter, D. O. (1991). GIS Tracks the Snow Leopard (Vol. ix). Seattle: International Snow Leopard Trust.|
Sundberg, J. P., Van Ranst, M., Montali, R., Homer, B. L., Miller, W. H., Rowland, P. H., et al. (2000). Feline papillomas and papillomaviruses. Vet Pathol, 37(1), 1–10.
Abstract: Papillomaviruses (PVs) are highly species- and site-specific pathogens of stratified squamous epithelium. Although PV infections in the various Felidae are rarely reported, we identified productive infections in six cat species. PV-induced proliferative skin or mucous membrane lesions were confirmed by immunohistochemical screening for papillomavirus-specific capsid antigens. Seven monoclonal antibodies, each of which reacts with an immunodominant antigenic determinant of the bovine papillomavirus L1 gene product, revealed that feline PV capsid epitopes were conserved to various degrees. This battery of monoclonal antibodies established differential expression patterns among cutaneous and oral PVs of snow leopards and domestic cats, suggesting that they represent distinct viruses. Clinically, the lesions in all species and anatomic sites were locally extensive and frequently multiple. Histologically, the areas of epidermal hyperplasia were flat with a similarity to benign tumors induced by cutaneotropic, carcinogenic PVs in immunosuppressed human patients. Limited restriction endonuclease analyses of viral genomic DNA confirmed the variability among three viral genomes recovered from available frozen tissue. Because most previous PV isolates have been species specific, these studies suggest that at least eight different cat papillomaviruses infect the oral cavity (tentative designations: Asian lion, Panthera leo, P1PV; snow leopard, Panthera uncia, PuPV-1; bobcat, Felis rufus, FrPV; Florida panther, Felis concolor, FcPV; clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, NnPV; and domestic cat, Felis domesticus, FdPV-2) or skin (domestic cat, F. domesticus, FdPV-1; and snow leopard, P. uncia, PuPV-2).
Keywords: Animal; Antibodies; Monoclonal; Carnivora; pathology; virology; Cats; Dna; Viral; chemistry; Epitope; Mapping; veterinary; Female; Immunohistochemistry; Lions; Male; Microscopy; Electron; Papilloma; Papillomavirus; Papovaviridae; Infections; skin; neoplasms; Tongue; browse; 120
Thapa, K., Jackson, R., Gurung, L, Acharya, H. B., Gurung, R. K.,. (2021). Applying the double observer methodology for assessing blue sheep population size in Nar Phu valley, Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Wildlife Biology, , 1–11.
Abstract: This study was undertaken in spring, 2019 to assess the applicability of the double-observer survey method for estimating blue sheep Pseudois nayaur abundance in Nar-Phu valley of Manang District located in Annapurna Conservation Area of northern Nepal. Since counting large mammals in rugged mountain habitat poses a special challenge, we tested the efficacy of the double observer method for generating robust population estimates for this important protected area. The overall detection probability for observers (O1 and O2) was 0.94 and 0.91 for a total of 106 groups comprised of 2059 individual blue sheep. We estimated the area’s blue sheep population at 2070 (SE ± 168.77; 95% CI 2059–2405) for the 246.2 km2 of sampled habitat. We determined blue sheep to be widely distributed within the study area with a mean density of 8.4 individuals per km2 based on a total study area of 246.2 km2. We discuss demographic population structure and identify limitations when applying the double observer approach, along with recommending viewshed mapping for ensuring more robust density estimates of mountain-dwelling ungulates like blue sheep or ibex that inhabit extremely heterogeneous terrain which strongly influences sighting distances and overall animal detection rates.
Keywords: blue sheep, density estimation, double observer counts, Nepal, Panthera uncia, prey abundance, Pseudois nayaur, snow leopard, viewshed mapping