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Ale S. (2005). Have snow leopards made a comeback to the Everest region of Nepal?.
Abstract: In the 1960s, the endangered snow leopard was locally extirpated from the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) region of Nepal. In this Sherpa-inhabited high Himalaya, the flourishing tourism since the ascent of Mt Everest in 1953, has caused both prosperity and adverse impacts, the concern that catalyzed the establishment of Mt. Everest National Park in the region in 1976. In the late 1980s, there were reports that some transient snow leopards may have visited the area from adjoining Tibet, but no biological surveys exist to confirm the status of the cats and their prey. Have snow leopards finally returned to the top of the world? Exploring this question was the main purpose of this research project. We systematically walked altogether 24 sign transects covering over 13 km in length in three valleys, i.e. Namche, Phortse and Gokyo, of the park, and counted several snow leopard signs. The results indicated that snow leopards have made a comeback in the park in response to decades of protective measures, the virtual cessation of hunting and the recovery of the Himalayan tahr which is snow leopard's prey. The average sign density (4.2 signs/km and 2.5 sign sites/km) was comparable to that reported from other parts of the cats' range in the Himalaya. On this basis, we estimated the cat density in the Everest region between 1 to 3 cats per 100 sq km, a figure that was supported by different sets of pugmarks and actual sightings of snow leopards in the 60 km2 sample survey area. In the study area, tahr population had a low reproductive rate (e.g. kids-to-females ratio, 0.1, in Namche). Since predators can influence the size and the structure of prey species populations through mortality and through non-lethal effects or predation risk, snow leopards could have been the cause of the population dynamics of tahr in Sagarmtha, but this study could not confirm this speculation for which further probing may be required.
Keywords: snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; region; Nepal; Report; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; 1960; endangered; Sagarmatha; High; Himalaya; tourism; impact; establishment; national; national park; National-park; park; 1980; area; Tibet; surveys; survey; status; Cats; cat; prey; research; project; sign; transects; transect; length; valley; Response; hunting; recovery; Himalayan; tahr; density; densities; range; pugmarks; sighting; 60; study; population; predators; predator; structure; prey species; prey-species; species; populations; mortality; effects; predation; population dynamics
Allen, P., & Macray, D. (2002). Snow Leopard Enterprises Description and Summarized Business Plan.. Seattle: Islt.
Abstract: The habitat for both humans and snow leopards in Central Asia is marginal, the ecosystem fragile. The struggle for humans to survive has often, unfortunately, brought them into conflict with the region's dwindling snow leopard populations. Herders commonly see leopards as a threat to their way of life and well-being. Efforts to improve the living conditions of humans must consider potential impacts on the environment. Likewise, conservation initiatives cannot ignore humans as elements of the landscape with a right to live with dignity and pride. Based on these principles, the International Snow Leopard Trust has developed a new conservation model that addresses the needs of all concerned.
We call it Snow Leopard Enterprises..
Keywords: snow; leopard; enterprises; buisness; plan; habitat; humans; conflict; irbis; products; wool; conservation; marketing; Mongolia; social; economic; conflicts; country; countries; socks; hats; gloves; 4890; Human; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; central; Central Asia; asia; ecosystem; region; populations; population; herders; herder; threat; potential; impact; environment; Elements; landscape; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; snow-leopard-enterprises
|Dhungel, S. K. (1982). A glimpse of Sagarmatha: world's highest national park. Tigerpaper, IX(2), 11–14.|
Dyikanova, C. (2004). A public awareness outreach programme on Snow Leopards for the Kyrgyz Republic, Final Report.
Abstract: The principle goal of the project was to raise awareness of local people, staff of frontier posts,
customs and foreign military base on snow leopard, and its conservation. In the framework of the
project the following steps were to be executed:
A) To disseminate printing materials: a booklet, poster, card and calendar.
b) To publish articles on snow leopard ecology and conservation issues and threats in
Kyrgyzstan regional newspapers (Issyk-Kul, Osh, and Chui areas)
C) To hold follow-up meeting with target groups
D) To evaluate project results
Keywords: project; awareness; local; local people; people; staff; Base; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; conservation; ecology; threats; threat; Kyrgyzstan; regional; areas; area; public; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; Kyrgyz; Kyrgyz-Republic; republic; Report; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; community
Fox, J. L. (1997). Conflict between predators and people in Ladakh. Cat News, 17, 18.
Abstract: During a six-week period in Hemis National Park, Ladakh, India, snow leopards killed 10 sheep and goats and one leopard gained access to a livestock pen and killed many of the animals inside. Dholes also killed sheep and goats, and a wolf killed a young horse. Residents routinely remove snow leopard cubs from their dens to limit future damage by this species. How to deal with the plight of the people living in the area while still protecting the endangered species are major concerns of the International Snow Leopard Trust, which manages Hemis National Park. lgh.
Keywords: asia; India; behavior; endangered; threatened-species; mammals; management; predation; public relations; reserves; refuges; parks; wildlife; human-relationships; livestock; sheep; goats; prey; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; protected-area; Hemis; browse; Islt; International; snow; leopard; trust; public; Relations; Human; relationships; protected; 640
|Gundersen, S., & Jackson, R. (1999). Snow Leopard in Nepal (S. Gundersen, Ed.).|
Jiang, Z. (2005). Snow leopards in the Dulan International Hunting Ground, Qinghai, China.
Abstract: From March to May, 2006œªwe conducted extensive snow leopard surveys in the Burhanbuda Mountain Kunlun Mountains, Qinghai Province, China. 32 linear transect of 5~15 km each, which running through each vegetation type, were surveyed within the study area. A total of 72 traces of snow leopard were found along 4 transects (12.5% of total transects). The traces included pug marks or footprints, scrapes and urine marks. We estimated the average density of wild ungulates in the region was 2.88ñ0.35 individuals km-2(n=29). We emplaced 16 auto2 trigger cameras in different environments and eight photos of snow leopard were shot by four cameras and the capture rate of snow leopard was 71.4%. The minimum snow leopard population size in the Burhanbuda Mountain was two, because two snow leopards were phototrapped by different cameras at almost same time. Simultaneously, the cameras also shot 63 photos of other wild animals, including five photos are unidentified wild animals, and 20 photos of livestock. We evaluated the human attitudes towards snow leopard by interviewing with 27 Tibetan householders of 30 householders live in the study area. We propose to establish a nature reserve for protecting and managing snow leopards in the region. Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is considered as a unique species because it lives above the snow line, it is endemic to alpines in Central Asia, inhabiting in 12 countries across Central Asia (Fox, 1992). Snow leopard ranges in alpine areas in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Gansu and Sichuan in western China (Liao, 1985, 1986; Zhou, 1987; Ma et al., 2002; Jiang & Xu, 2006). The total population and habitat of snow leopards in China are estimated to be 2,000~2,500 individuals and 1,824,316 km2, only 5% of which is under the protection of nature reserves. The cat's current range is fragmented (Zou & Zheng, 2003). Due to strong human persecutions, populations of snow leopards decreased significantly since the end of the 20th century. Thus, the
snow leopards are under the protection of international and domestic laws. From March to May, 2006, we conducted two field surveys in Zhiyu Village, Dulan County in Burhanbuda Mountain, Kunlun Mountains, China to determine the population, distribution and survival status of snow leopards in the area. The aim of the study was to provide ecologic data for snow leopard conservation.
Keywords: snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; International; hunting; Qinghai; China; project; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; surveys; survey; mountains; mountain; province; transect; study; area; transects; pug; pug marks; pug-marks; marks; scrapes; scrape; density; densities; wild; ungulates; ungulate; region; camera; environment; photo; capture; population; population size; population-size; Animals; Animal; 20; livestock; Human; attitudes; attitude; tibetan; 30; nature; reserve; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; species; snow line; snow-line; endemic; alpine; central; Central Asia; asia; countries; country; fox; range; areas; Xinjiang; inner; Inner-Mongolia; Mongolia; Tibet; gansu; Sichuan; habitat; protection; nature reserves; reserves; cat; populations; domestic; laws; law; field; field surveys; field survey; field-surveys; field-survey; Kunlun; distribution; survival; status; Data; conservation
Khan, A. (2004). Snow Leopard Occurrence in Mankial Valley, Swat: Final report.
Abstract: Mankial is a sub-valley of the Swat Kohistan. Temperate ecosystem of the valley is intact to a greater extent, which provides habitat to a variety of species of plants, animals and birds. Snow leopard is reported from the valley. To confirm its occurrence, the HUJRA (Holistic Understanding for Justified Research and Action), conducted the study titled “Snow Leopard Survey in Mankial Valley, district Swat, NWFP”. The author provided technical support, while ISLT (The International Snow Leopard Trust) funded the project under its small grants program. The World Wide Fund for Nature-Pakistan (WWF-Pakistan) and the Mankial Community Organization (MCO) facilitated surveys under the project. Surveys revealed that Snow leopard visits parts of the Mankial valley in winter months. Information from the local community shows that Snow leopard remains in the Serai (an off-shoot of the Mankial Valley) from early winter to early spring. Intensive surveys of the prime snow leopard winter habitat in the valley found several snow leopard signs including pugmarks, feces, and scrapes. The study also found occurrence of prey species through indirect evidence though. However, information from the local community confirmed that in the recent past there was a good population of markhor in the valley, which is now reduced to less than 50, mostly due to hunting and habitat disturbance. Hunting is part of the local culture and lifestyle. During winter months hunting pressure is low, as most of the local community migrates to warmer plain areas than Mankial Valley. However, those who live in the area lop oak branches for feeding their livestock and cut trees for burning, in addition to hunting prey species of snow leopard. This has resulted in stunted oak vegetation in most of the lower reaches of the valley and decline of the markhor population.
Keywords: snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; valley; Report; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; ecosystem; habitat; species; plants; plant; Animals; Animal; birds; research; action; study; survey; Support; Islt; community; Organization; surveys; winter; information; local; sign; pugmarks; feces; scrapes; scrape; prey; prey species; prey-species; recent; population; markhor; hunting; Culture; Pressure; areas; area; feeding; livestock; burning; decline
|Khan, A. A. (2001). Strategic plan for the conservation of the snow leopard in Pakistan. Pakistan: WWF Pakistan & International Snow Leopard Trust.|
|Kyes, R., & Chalise, M. K. (2003). Snow Leopard Study Summary 2003, Langtang National Park, Nepal.|
Kyes, R., & Chalise, M. K. (2005). Assessing the Status of the Snow Leopard Population in Langtang National Park, Nepal.
Abstract: This project is part of an ongoing snow leopard study established in 2003 with support from the ISLT. The study involves a multifaceted approach designed to provide important baseline data on the status of the snow leopard population in Langtang National Park (LNP), Nepal and to generate long-term support and commitment to the conservation of snow leopards in the park. The specific aims include: 1) conducting a population survey of the snow leopards in LNP, focusing on distribution and abundance; 2) assessing the status of prey species populations in the park; and 3) providing educational outreach programs on snow leopard conservation for local school children (K-8) living in the park. During the 2004 study period, snow leopard signs were observed (including pugmarks and scats) although somewhat fewer than in 2003. Similarly, the average herd size of the snow leopards' primary prey species in LNP (the Himalayan thar) was a bit lower than in 2003. There is speculation that the thar populations and the snow leopards may be moving to more remotes areas of the park perhaps in response to increasing pressure from domestic livestock grazing. This possibility is being addressed during the 2005 study period.
Keywords: status; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; population; Langtang; national; national park; National-park; park; Nepal; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; biodiversity; research; study; Support; Islt; approach; Data; conservation; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; survey; distribution; abundance; prey; prey species; prey-species; species; populations; programs; local; sign; pugmarks; scats; scat; primary; Himalayan; areas; area; Response; Pressure; domestic; domestic livestock; livestock; grazing
Namgail, T. (2004). Interactions between argali and livestock, Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary, Ladakh, India, Final Project Report.
Abstract: Livestock production is the major land-use in Ladakh region of the Indian Trans-Himalaya, and is a crucial sector that drives the region's economy (Anon, 2002). Animal products like meat and milk provide protein to the diet of people, while products like wool and pashmina (soft fibre of goats) find their way to the international market. Such high utility of livestock and the recent socio-economic changes in the region have caused an increase in livestock population (Rawat and Adhikari, 2002; Anon. 2002), which, if continue apace, may increase grazing pressure and deteriorate pasture conditions. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess the impact of such escalation in livestock population on the regions wildlife. Although, competitive interaction between wildlife and livestock has been studied elsewhere in the Trans-Himalaya (Bhatnagar et al., 2000; Mishra, 2001; Bagchi et al., 2002), knowledge on this aspect in the Ladakh region is very rudimentary. The rangelands of Ladakh are characterised by low primary productivity (Chundawat & Rawat, 1994), and the wild herbivores are likely to compete with the burgeoning livestock on these impoverished rangelands (Mishra et al., 2002). Thus, given that the area supports a diverse wild ungulate assemblage of eight species (Fox et al., 1991b), and an increasing livestock population (Rawat and Adhikari, 2002), the nature of interaction between wildlife and livestock needs to be assessed. During this project, we primarily evaluated the influence of domestic sheep and goat grazing on the habitat use of Tibetan argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni in a prospective wildlife reserve in Ladakh.
Keywords: Interactions; interaction; argali; livestock; Gya-Miru; wildlife; sanctuary; sanctuaries; Ladakh; India; project; Report; land-use; land use; region; indian; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya; economy; Animal; products; meat; diet; people; wool; goats; goat; International; High; recent; change; population; grazing; Pressure; pasture; impact; 2000; knowledge; primary; Chundawat; wild; area; Support; ungulate; species; fox; nature; domestic; sheep; habitat; habitat use; use; tibetan; Tibetan argali; ovis; Ovis ammon hodgsoni; ammon; reserve; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trust; program
Namgay, K. (2007). Snow Leopard and Prey Population Conservation in Bhutan.
Abstract: Snow leopard conservation work in Bhutan dates back to 1999 and 2000 when the International Snow Leopard Trust-in collaboration with the Royal Government of Bhutan and World Wildlife Fund-initiated a training workshop. More than 30 government staff were trained in SLIMS survey techniques. As a part of the training exercise, a preliminary survey on snow leopard was also carried out using the SLIMS methods in Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Park. Based on the survey results, we estimated there was a population of 100 snow leopards in the wild and 10,000 km2 of habitat. In 2005, World Wildlife Fund (WWF) organized the WWF/South Asia Regional Workshop on Snow leopard Conservation in Bhutan. Both regional (Bhutan, India, China, Nepal and Pakistan) and international experts revisited the snow leopard programs and developed a work plan for the overall conservation of the snow leopard in the region. This led to WWF's Regional Snow leopard Conservation Strategy. WWF is pleased to submit our final report to the International Snow Leopard Trust on the oneyear, $8,000 grant in support of Snow Leopard and Prey Population Conservation in Bhutan. With the support of the Snow Leopard Trust, we have made great strides towards achieving our goal for this project: To determine the current status of snow leopard and ungulate prey populations in prime snow leopard habitats. Major accomplishments and activities completed thanks to the generous support of the International Snow Leopard Trust include:
Signed of a Terms of Reference between Royal Government, International Snow Leopard
Trust – India, World Wildlife Fund and International Snow Leopard Trust -US;
Developed a joint revised project work plan; and
Purchased basic field supplies and equipment needed for the surveys planned.
Keywords: 2000; 30; activities; activity; asia; Bhutan; China; conservation; dates; Dorji; field; government; habitat; habitats; India; International; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; international snow leopard trust; Jigme; Jigme-Dorji; leopard; leopards; methods; national; National-park; national park; Nepal; Pakistan; park; plan; population; populations; prey; program; programs; project; region; regional; Report; Slims; snow; snow-leopard; snow-leopards; snow leopard; snow leopards; staff; status; strategy; Support; survey; surveys; techniques; training; trust; ungulate; us; using; wild; wildlife; work; workshop; world-wildlife-fund; world wildlife fund; Wwf
Raghavan, B., Bhatnagar, Y., & Qureshi, Q. (2003). Interactions between livestock and Ladakh urial (Ovis vignei vignei); final report.
Abstract: The Ladakh urial (Ovis vignei vignei) is a highly endangered animal (IUCN Red List 2000) listed in the Appendix 1 of CITES and Schedule 1 of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972. Its numbers had been reduced to a few hundred individuals in the 1960s and 70s through hunting for trophies and meat (Fox et al. 1991, Mallon 1983, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, IUCN Red List 2000). However, with the protection bestowed by the IWPA 1972, and resultant decrease in hunting, the population seems to have shown a marginal increase to about 1000-1500 individuals in its range in Ladakh (Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, IUCN Red List 2000). Although the species had in the past, been able to coexist with the predominantly Buddhist society of Ladakh, the recent increase in the population of both humans and their livestock has placed immense pressures on its habitat (Shackleton 1997, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). This is especially important considering that the Ladakh urial habitat coincides with the areas of maximum human activity in terms of settlements, agriculture, pastoralism and development, in Ladakh (Fox et al. 1991, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). Increased developmental activities such as construction of roads, dams, and military bases in these areas have also increased the access to their habitat. This has consequently made the species more vulnerable to the threats of poaching and habitat destruction (Fox et al. 1991, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2002). Pressure from increased livestock grazing is one of the major threats faced by the species today (Shackleton 1997, Fox et al. 1991, Mallon 1983, IUCN Red List 2000 Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). In the impoverished habitat provided by the Trans-Himalayas, there is great competition for the scarce resources between various animal species surviving here (Fox 1996, Mishra 2001). The presence of livestock intensifies this competition and can either force the species out of its niche (competitive exclusion) by displacing it from that area or resource, or lead to partitioning of resources between the species, spatially or temporally, for coexistence (Begon et al. 1986, Gause 1934).
Keywords: Interactions; interaction; livestock; Ladakh; urial; ovis; endangered; Animal; Iucn; 2000; Cites; indian; wildlife; protection; number; 1960; 70; hunting; meat; fox; Chundawat; population; range; species; recent; humans; Human; Pressure; habitat; areas; area; human activity; activity; activities; agriculture; pastoralism; development; dam; Base; threats; threat; poaching; grazing; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya; Competition; resource; presence; India; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trust; program
Thapa, K. (2005). Is their any correlation between abundance of blue sheep population and livestock depredation by snow leopards in the Phu Valley, Manang District, Annapurna Conservation Area? Final report.
Abstract: This study was undertaken in the Phu valley of Manang district in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal,
Spring, 2004 and 2005. I used the Snow Leopard Management Information System (“second order” survey technique), to determine
the relative abundance of snow leopards in delineated areas in Phu valley. Transects routes were plotted by
randomly selected feasible landforms such as along ridgelines, cliff bases and river bluffs where snow
leopards sign is likely to be found. Altogether, 16 transects (total length of 7.912 km) were laid down (mean
transect length=0.495 km). They revealed, 54 sign sites (both relic and non-relic) and altogether 88 signs (72
scrapes, 11 feces, 3 scent mark, 2 pugmarks and 1 hair) were recorded (6.8 site/km and 11.1 signs/km). There
were 61.1% non-relic and 38.9% relic sites. The density of snow leopards in Phu Valley may be 4-5 snow
leopards/100 kmý.It was found that the Ghyo block had the highest sign density (13.6 mean sign item/km)
and Phu block (9.8 mean sign item/km) and the lowest in Ngoru block (3.9 mean sign item/km.). For blue sheep, direct count method was applied from different appropriate vantage points (fixed-point
count). I counted total individuals in each herd and classified all individuals whenever possible, using 8 X24
binocular and 15-60x spotting scope. A total 37 blue sheep herds and 1209 individuals were observed in
192.25 kmý of the study area (blue sheep density, 6.3 kmý). Average herd size was 32.68. Herd size varied
from 1 to 103 animals (the largest so far recorded). The average sex ratio male to female for the entire survey
area was 0.67. Recruitment rate was 47.13. The ratio of yearlings to adult female was 0.45. In Ghyo block
had total 168 blue sheep (area, 44.08 km2 or 3.8/ km2 i.e. 137.2 kg/ kmý). Blue sheep density in Ngoru block
showed 4.7/km2 (area, 65.47 km2). Highest density of blue sheep among three blocks was recorded in Phu
block, 8.9/km2 (or 320 kg/km2) in its 82.70 km2 area. A standard questionnaire was designed, and interviews conducted for relevant information was collected on
livestock depredation patterns (total household survey). Out of 33 households surveyed, 30 reported that they
had livestock depredation by the snow leopard in 2004. Altogether 58 animals were reportedly lost to snow
leopards (3.1% of the total mortality). Out of the estimated standing available biomass (1, 83,483kg) in the
Phu valley at least 2220 kg or 1.3% of the total livestock biomass was consumed by snow leopards in the
year of our study (2004). It was estimated that in the Phu valley annually 1.8 animals were lost per household
to snow leopards. This means approx. Rs.413560 (US$ 5,908) is lost annually in the valley (US$
179/household/annum). Ghyo block, had the highest animals loss (53.4%), followed by Phu block (36.2%)
and Ngoru block (10.3%) to snow leopards. There is positive correlation among the densities of blue sheep, relative abundance of the snow leopard and
livestock depredation. Blue sheep is the main prey species of the snow leopard in Phu valley and its
conservation therefore matters to reduce livestock depredation. A general patterns appears here that shows
that blue sheep (prey) abundance determine snow leopard (predator) abundance and that livestock
depredation by snow leopards may be minimal where there is good population of blue sheep, and vice versa.
Keywords: abundance; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; population; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; valley; Manang; annapurna; annapurna conservation area; Annapurna-Conservation-Area; conservation; area; Report; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; Nepal
Vashetko, E., Esipov A., Bykova, E., & Kreuzberg, E. (2005). Snow Leopard Bibliography. Central Asia (Abstracts).
Abstract: Bibliography of the Snow Leopard included publications on the studying various questions of ecology and conservation of the Snow Leopard in Central Asia (305) for the period 1873 to 2004. The most important works on this species in the region, as well as results of the analysis of timing of publications was described.
Keywords: analysis; asia; bibliography; central; Central Asia; conservation; ecology; International; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; international snow leopard trust; Islt; leopard; project; region; Russian; snow; snow-leopard; snow leopard; species; trust; work
Zahler, P., & Graham, P. (2001). War and wildlife: the Afghanistan conflict and its effects on the environment. Seattle: International Snow Leopard Trust.
Abstract: The International Snow Leopard Trust (ISLT) is a nonprofit environmental organization dedicated to the conservation of the endangered snow leopard and its mountain ecosystem through a balanced approach that considers the needs of the local people and the environment. As such, we wish to stress that the ISLT does not have a position regarding the present conflict in Afghanistan. However, this organization believes that there are important repercussions regarding this conflict that have yet to be addressed in the media, within government circles, or among the public. This report documents some of these repercussions so that they may be included in the present dialog.
Keywords: war; wildlife; Afghanistan; conflict; effects; environment; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trust; Islt; environmental; Organization; conservation; endangered; mountain; mountain ecosystem; mountain-ecosystem; ecosystem; approach; local; local people; people; Media; government; public; Report