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Ale S. (2005). Have snow leopards made a comeback to the Everest region of Nepal?.
Abstract: In the 1960s, the endangered snow leopard was locally extirpated from the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) region of Nepal. In this Sherpa-inhabited high Himalaya, the flourishing tourism since the ascent of Mt Everest in 1953, has caused both prosperity and adverse impacts, the concern that catalyzed the establishment of Mt. Everest National Park in the region in 1976. In the late 1980s, there were reports that some transient snow leopards may have visited the area from adjoining Tibet, but no biological surveys exist to confirm the status of the cats and their prey. Have snow leopards finally returned to the top of the world? Exploring this question was the main purpose of this research project. We systematically walked altogether 24 sign transects covering over 13 km in length in three valleys, i.e. Namche, Phortse and Gokyo, of the park, and counted several snow leopard signs. The results indicated that snow leopards have made a comeback in the park in response to decades of protective measures, the virtual cessation of hunting and the recovery of the Himalayan tahr which is snow leopard's prey. The average sign density (4.2 signs/km and 2.5 sign sites/km) was comparable to that reported from other parts of the cats' range in the Himalaya. On this basis, we estimated the cat density in the Everest region between 1 to 3 cats per 100 sq km, a figure that was supported by different sets of pugmarks and actual sightings of snow leopards in the 60 km2 sample survey area. In the study area, tahr population had a low reproductive rate (e.g. kids-to-females ratio, 0.1, in Namche). Since predators can influence the size and the structure of prey species populations through mortality and through non-lethal effects or predation risk, snow leopards could have been the cause of the population dynamics of tahr in Sagarmtha, but this study could not confirm this speculation for which further probing may be required.
Keywords: snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; region; Nepal; Report; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; 1960; endangered; Sagarmatha; High; Himalaya; tourism; impact; establishment; national; national park; National-park; park; 1980; area; Tibet; surveys; survey; status; Cats; cat; prey; research; project; sign; transects; transect; length; valley; Response; hunting; recovery; Himalayan; tahr; density; densities; range; pugmarks; sighting; 60; study; population; predators; predator; structure; prey species; prey-species; species; populations; mortality; effects; predation; population dynamics
Aryal, A. (2009). Final Report On Demography and Causes of Mortality of Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve in Nepal.
Abstract: A total of 206 individual Blue sheep Pseudois nayaur were estimated in Barse and Phagune blocks of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR) and population density was 1.8 Blue sheep/sq.km. There was not significant change in population density from last 4 decades. An average 7 animals/herd (SD-5.5) were classified from twenty nine herds, sheep per herds varying from 1 to 37. Blue sheep has classified into sex ratio on an average 75 male/100females was recorded in study area. The sex ratio was slightly lower but not significantly different from the previous study. Population of Blue sheep was seen stable or not decrease even there was high poaching pressure, the reason may be reducing the number of predators by poison and poaching which has
supported to increase blue sheep population. Because of reducing the predators Wolf Canis lupus, Wild boar population was increasing drastically in high rate and we can observed wild boar above the tree line of DHR. The frequency of occurrence of different prey species in scats of different predators shows that, excluding zero values, the frequencies of different prey species were no significantly different (ö2= 10.3, df = 49, p > 0.05). Most of the scats samples (74%) of Snow leopard, Wolf, Common Leopard, Red fox's cover one prey species while two and three species were present in 18% and 8%, respectively. Barking deer Muntiacus muntjak was the most frequent (18%) of total diet composition of common leopards. Pika Ochotona roylei was the most frequent (28%), and Blue sheep was in second position for diet of snow leopards which cover 21% of total diet composition. 13% of diet covered non-food item such as soil, stones, and vegetable. Pika was most frequent on Wolf and Red fox diet which covered 32% and 30% respectively. There was good positive relationship between the scat density and Blue sheep consumption rate, increasing the scat density, increasing the Blue sheep consumption rate. Blue sheep preference by different predators such as Snow leopard, Common leopard, Wolf and Red fox were 20%, 6%, 13% and 2% of total prey species respectively.
Keywords: Report; mortality; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; Dhorpatan; hunting; reserve; Nepal; biodiversity; research; training; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; conservation; program; population; Population-Density; density; densities; change; Sex; study; area; High; poaching; Pressure; reducing; number; predators; predator; poison; wolf; wolves; canis; Canis-lupus; lupus; wild; wild boar; prey; prey species; prey-species; species; scats; scat; value; fox; cover; deer; diet; leopards; pika; snow leopards; snow-leopards; soil; Relationship
Brown, J. L., Wasser, S. K., Wildt, D. E., & Graham, L. H. (1994). Comparative Aspects of Steroid Hormone Metabolism and Ovarian Activity in Felids, Measured Noninvasively in Feces. Biol Reprod, 51(4), 776–786.
Abstract: Noninvasive fecal assays were used to study steroid metabolism and ovarian activity in several felid species. Using the domestic cat (Felis catus) as model, the excretory products of injected [14C]estradiol (E2) and [14C]progesterone (P4) were determined. Within 2 days, 97.0 +/- 0.6% and 96.7 +/- 0.5% of recovered E2 and P4 radioactivity, respectively, was found in feces. E2 was excreted as unconjugated estradiol and estrone (40%) and as a non-enzyme- hydrolyzable conjugate (60%). P4 was excreted primarily as non-enzyme- hydrolyzable, conjugated metabolites (78%) and as unconjugated pregnenolone epimers. A simple method for extracting fecal steroid metabolites optimized extraction efficiencies of the E2 and P4 excretion products (90.1 +/- 0.8% and 87.2 +/- 1.4%, respectively). Analysis of HPLC fractions of extracted fecal samples from the radiolabel-injected domestic cats revealed that E2 immunoreactivity coincided primarily with the unconjugated metabolized [14C]E2 peak, whereas progestogen immunoreactivity coincided with a single conjugated epimer and multiple unconjugated pregnenolone epimers. After HPLC separation, similar immunoreactive E2 and P4 metabolite profiles were observed in the leopard cat (F. bengalensis), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), and snow leopard (Panthera uncia). Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that changes in fecal E2 and P4 metabolite concentrations reflected natural or artificially induced ovarian activity. For example, severalfold increases in E2 excretion were associated with overt estrus or exogenous gonadotropin treatment, and elevated fecal P4 metabolite concentrations occurred during pregnant and nonpregnant (pseudopregnant) luteal phases. Although overall concentrations were similar, the duration of elevated fecal P4 metabolites during pseudopregnancy was approximately half that observed during pregnancy. In summary, steroid metabolism mechanisms appear to be conserved among these physically diverse, taxonomically related species. Results indicate that this hormone-monitoring approach will be extremely useful for elucidating the hormonal regulatory mechanism associated with the reproductive cycle, pregnancy, and parturition of intractable and endangered felid species.
Keywords: Animal; Carbon; Radioisotopes; Carnivora; Cats; Chromatography; High; Pressure; Liquid; Comparative Study; Estradiol; metabolism; Estrone; feces; chemistry; Female; Ovary; physiology; Pregnancy; Progesterone; Pseudopregnancy; Support; Non-U.S.Gov't; browse; non; government; gov't; us; 170
Filla, M., Lama, R. P., Filla, T., Heurich, M., Balkenhol, N., Waltert, M., Khorozyan, I. (2022). Patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and effects of intervention strategies: lessons from the Nepalese Himalaya. Wildlife Research, .
Abstract: Context: Large carnivores are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities, and their protection is among the main goals of biodiversity conservation. The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits high-mountain landscapes where livestock depredation drives it into conflicts with local people and poses an obstacle for its conservation.
Aims: The aim of this study was to identify the livestock groups most vulnerable to depredation, target them in implementation of practical interventions, and assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies for conflict mitigation. We present a novel attempt to evaluate intervention strategies for particularly vulnerable species, age groups, time, and seasons.
Methods: In 2020, we conducted questionnaire surveys in two regions of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal (Manang, n = 146 respondents and Upper Mustang, n = 183). We applied sample comparison testing, Jacobs’ selectivity index, and generalised linear models (GLMs) to assess rates and spatio-temporal heterogeneity of depredation, reveal vulnerable livestock groups, analyse potential effects of applied intervention strategies, and identify husbandry factors relevant to depredation.
Key results: Snow leopard predation was a major cause of livestock mortality in both regions (25.4–39.8%), resulting in an estimated annual loss of 3.2–3.6% of all livestock. The main intervention strategies (e.g. corrals during night-time and herding during daytime) were applied inconsistently and not associated with decreases in reported livestock losses. In contrast, we found some evidence that dogs, deterrents (light, music playing, flapping tape, and dung burning), and the use of multiple interventions were associated with a reduction in reported night-time depredation of yaks.
Conclusions and implications: We suggest conducting controlled randomised experiments for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of dogs, deterrents, and the use of multiple interventions, and widely applying the most effective ones in local communities. This would benefit the long-term co-existence of snow leopards and humans in the Annapurna region and beyond.
Keywords: Annapurna, co-existence, conservation biology, highland communities, human–wildlife conflict, large carnivore, livestock depredation, Panthera uncia, prey selection, snow leopard.
|Fox, J. L. (1991). Wildlife Ecology Workshop Held in Indias Himalaya Region (Vol. ix). Seattle: Islt.|
Jackson, R., Roe, J., Wangchuk, R., & Hunter, D. (2005). Camera-Trapping of Snow Leopards. Cat News, 42(Spring), 19–21.
Abstract: Solitary felids like tigers and snow leopards are notoriously difficult to enumerate, and indirect techniques like pugmark surveys often produce ambiguous information that is difficult to interpret because many factors influence marking behavior and frequency (Ahlborn & Jackson 1988). Considering the snow leopard's rugged habitat, it is not surprising then that information on its current status and occupied range is very limited. We adapted the camera-trapping techniques pioneered by Ullas Karanth and his associates for counting Bengal tigers to the census taking of snow leopards in the Rumbak watershed of the India's Hemis High Altitude National Park (HNP), located in Ladakh near Leh (76ø 50' to 77ø 45' East; 33ø 15' to 34ø 20'North).
Keywords: camera trapping; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; felids; tigers; tiger; techniques; surveys; survey; information; factor; marking; behavior; Ahlborn; Jackson; habitat; status; range; census; India; Hemis; High; national; national park; National-park; park; Ladakh; leh
Li, J., McCarthy, T. M., Wang, H., Weckworth, B. V., Shaller, G. B., Mishra, C., Lu, Z., Beissinger, S. R. (2016). Climate refugia of snow leopards in High Asia. Biological Conservation, (203), 188–196.
Abstract: Rapidwarming in High Asia is threatening its unique ecosystemand endemic species, especially the endangered
snow leopard (Panthera uncia). Snow leopards inhabit the alpine zone between snow line and tree line, which
contracts and expands greatly during glacier-interglacial cycles. Here we assess impacts of climate change on
global snow leopard habitat from the last glacial maximum (LGM; 21 kyr ago) to the late 21st century. Based
on occurrence records of snow leopards collected across all snow leopard range countries from 1983 to 2015,
we built a snow leopard habitat model using the maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt 3.3.3k). Then we
projected this model into LGM, mid-Holocene and 2070. Analysis of snow leopard habitat map from LGM to
2070 indicates that three large patches of stable habitat have persisted from the LGM to present in the Altai,
Qilian, and Tian Shan-Pamir-Hindu Kush-Karakoram mountain ranges, and are projected to persist through the
late 21st century. These climatically suitable areas account for about 35% of the snow leopard's current extent,
are large enough to support viable populations, and should function as refugia for snow leopards to survive
through both cold and warm periods. Existence of these refugia is largely due to the unique mountain environment
in High Asia, which maintains a relatively constant arid or semi-arid climate. However, habitat loss leading
to fragmentation in the Himalaya and Hengduan Mountains, as well as increasing human activities, will present
conservation challenges for snow leopards and other sympatric species.
Mishra, C., Madhusudan, M. D., & Datta, A. (2006). Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs (Vol. 40).
Abstract: The high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh,India, located in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, remain zoologically unexplored and unprotected. We report results of recent mammal surveys in the high altitude habitats of western Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 35 mammal species (including 12 carnivores, 10 ungulates and 5 primates) were recorded, of which 13 are categorized as Endangered or Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. One species of primate, the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala, is new to science and the Chinese goral Nemorhaedus caudatus is a new addition to the ungulate fauna of the Indian subcontinent. We documented peoples' dependence on natural resources for grazing and extraction of timber and medicinal plants. The region's mammals are threatened by widespread hunting. The snow leopard Uncia uncia and dhole Cuon alpinus are also persecuted in retaliation for livestock depredation. The tiger Panthera tigris, earlier reported from the lower valleys, is now apparently extinct there, and range reductions over the last two decades are reported for bharal Pseudois nayaur and musk deer Moschus sp.. Based on mammal species richness, extent of high altitude habitat, and levels of anthropogenic disturbance, we identified a potential site for the creation of Arunachal's first high altitude wildlife reserve (815 km2). Community-based efforts that provide incentives for conservation-friendly practices could work in this area, and conservation awareness programmes are required, not just amongst the local communities and schools but for politicians, bureaucrats and the army.
Keywords: anthropogenic; area; Arunachal; assessment; awareness; bharal; biodiversity; carnivore; carnivores; community; community-based; conservation; deer; depredation; dhole; endangered; extinct; fauna; goral; grazing; habitat; habitats; High; Himalaya; hunting; incentives; India; indian; Iucn; leopard; livestock; livestock-depredation; livestock depredation; local; mammals; musk; musk-deer; nayaur; panthera; people; peoples; plant; plants; potential; Pseudois; Pseudois-nayaur; pseudois nayaur; range; recent; region; Report; reserve; resource; schools; snow; snow-leopard; snow leopard; species; survey; surveys; threat; threatened; threats; tiger; uncia; Uncia-uncia; Uncia uncia; ungulate; ungulates; valley; wildlife; work; Panthera-tigris; tigris
Namgail, T. (2004). Interactions between argali and livestock, Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary, Ladakh, India, Final Project Report.
Abstract: Livestock production is the major land-use in Ladakh region of the Indian Trans-Himalaya, and is a crucial sector that drives the region's economy (Anon, 2002). Animal products like meat and milk provide protein to the diet of people, while products like wool and pashmina (soft fibre of goats) find their way to the international market. Such high utility of livestock and the recent socio-economic changes in the region have caused an increase in livestock population (Rawat and Adhikari, 2002; Anon. 2002), which, if continue apace, may increase grazing pressure and deteriorate pasture conditions. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess the impact of such escalation in livestock population on the regions wildlife. Although, competitive interaction between wildlife and livestock has been studied elsewhere in the Trans-Himalaya (Bhatnagar et al., 2000; Mishra, 2001; Bagchi et al., 2002), knowledge on this aspect in the Ladakh region is very rudimentary. The rangelands of Ladakh are characterised by low primary productivity (Chundawat & Rawat, 1994), and the wild herbivores are likely to compete with the burgeoning livestock on these impoverished rangelands (Mishra et al., 2002). Thus, given that the area supports a diverse wild ungulate assemblage of eight species (Fox et al., 1991b), and an increasing livestock population (Rawat and Adhikari, 2002), the nature of interaction between wildlife and livestock needs to be assessed. During this project, we primarily evaluated the influence of domestic sheep and goat grazing on the habitat use of Tibetan argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni in a prospective wildlife reserve in Ladakh.
Keywords: Interactions; interaction; argali; livestock; Gya-Miru; wildlife; sanctuary; sanctuaries; Ladakh; India; project; Report; land-use; land use; region; indian; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya; economy; Animal; products; meat; diet; people; wool; goats; goat; International; High; recent; change; population; grazing; Pressure; pasture; impact; 2000; knowledge; primary; Chundawat; wild; area; Support; ungulate; species; fox; nature; domestic; sheep; habitat; habitat use; use; tibetan; Tibetan argali; ovis; Ovis ammon hodgsoni; ammon; reserve; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trust; program
Novikov G.A. (1956). Sub-genus UNCIA Gray.
Abstract: Identification features of the sub-genus Uncia (colour; length of body and tail; shoulder height, and skull measurements) are given. Distribution, habitat, way of life, reproduction biology, behavioural patterns, migration routes, commercial value of snow leopard in the USSR is described.
Keywords: Ussr; Central Asia; uncia; snow leopard; taxonomy; distribution; habitats; highly mountain; reproduction; Migration; use.; 7760; Russian
Singh, N. J. (2008). Animal – Habitat relationships in high altitude rangelands. Norway: University of Tromsø.
Abstract: This study conducted in the high altitude rangelands of Indian Transhimalaya, deals with basic questions regarding the ecology of an endangered species, the wildsheep Tibetan argali (Ovis ammon hodgsoni) and applied issues related to its conservation and potential conflict with the local nomadic pastoralists. The basic questions on ecology are aimed at delineating the habitat and resource selection processes, identifying factors causing sexual segregation and efficient surveying and sampling. The applied aspect focuses on the changing face of pastoralism and the potential impacts of modernising livestock husbandry on argali.
Overall, the study provides a general framework towards the understanding of argali-habitat relationships at different spatio-temporal scales. The spatial determinant associated with altitude in the area, predicts argali habitat and resource selection in this relatively homogenous landscape. These determine the range of other topographic variables and forage characteristics selected by argali. The selection of feeding patches in the selected range of altitude and topography is mainly characterised by their greenness and the quality of plant groups. Adjusting to changing forage quality, argali display an opportunistic feeding strategy, selecting grasses in early spring and switching to forbs later in summer. Nevertheless, the habitat selection process did not appear to differ among the sexes to drive sexual segregation. There was, however, strong segregation among the sexes as well as between lactating and non lactating females. The reasons for segregation appeared to be predominantly social, but driven ultimately by predation and concomitantly by resources. The habitat selection information was used to design a stratified random sampling strategy that led to i) a significant reduction in survey effort in sampling these sparsely distributed species and ii) reduction in sampling bias.
The applied aspect of the study outlines and evaluates the dramatic changes in the nomadic pastoralism that have occurred in the past five decades in the study area. These have led to a loss of pastures (-25 to -33%) of the nomads, consequent readjustment in traditional patterns of pasture use, intensified grazing pressures (25 to 70%) and rangeland degradation in the area. Such changes may have serious consequences on the survival of local wildlife, as tested with a study of the effects on argali of livestock presence and resource exploitation. Hence, a successful conservation and recovery strategy should focus on: minimising the impacts of livestock on argali, identifying the factors affecting the persistence of the current populations, increasing local sub populations of this species to prevent extinction due to stochastic events, prevent loss of genetic diversity and excessive fragmentation and thus ensuring gene flow.
Ecological Niche Factor Analyses (ENFA), bias-reduced logistic regression and Fuzzy correspondence analyses (FCA) were used to answer habitat and resource selection questions. A sexual segregation and aggregation statistic (SSAS) was used to estimate the components of sexual segregation and test segregation. SSAS combined with canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) allowed the estimation of segregation based on habitat variables. Logistic regression models were formulated to estimate models on which the stratified random sampling strategy was based. The 9 Animal – Habitat relationships in high altitude rangelands overall study also included surveys, interviews and literature reviews to understand the nomads’ movement and pasture use patterns of their livestock. Kernel density estimations (KDE) were used to estimate extent of range overlaps between livestock and argali.
Keywords: high altitude, homogeneous, argali, habitat selection, resource selection function, ENFA, stratified random sampling, sexual segregation, SSAS, livestock, predation, resources
Suryawanshi, K. R. (2009). Towards snow leopard prey recovery: understanding the resource use strategies and demographic responses of bharal Pseudois nayaur to livestock grazing and removal; Final project report.
Abstract: Decline of wild prey populations in the Himalayan region, largely due to competition with livestock, has been identified as one of the main threats to the snow leopard Uncia uncia. Studies show that bharal Pseudois nayaur diet is dominated by graminoids during summer, but the proportion of graminoids declines in winter. We explore the causes for the decline of graminoids from bharal winter diet and resulting implications for bharal conservation. We test the predictions generated by two alternative hypotheses, (H1) low graminoid availability caused by livestock grazing during winter causes bharal to include browse in their diet, and, (H2) bharal include browse, with relatively higher nutrition, to compensate for the poor quality of graminoids during winter. Graminoid availability was highest in areas without livestock grazing, followed by areas with moderate and intense livestock grazing. Graminoid quality in winter was relatively lower than that of browse, but the difference was not statistically significant. Bharal diet was dominated by graminoids in areas with highest graminoid availability. Graminoid contribution to bharal diet declined monotonically with a decline in graminoid availability. Bharal young to female ratio was three times higher in areas with high graminoid availability than areas with low graminoid availability. No starvation-related adult mortalities were observed in any of the areas. Composition of bharal winter diet was governed predominantly by the availability of graminoids in the rangelands. Since livestock grazing reduces graminoid availability, creation of livestock free areas is necessary for conservation of grazing species such as the bharal and its predators such as the endangered snow leopard in the Trans-Himalaya.
Keywords: project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; recovery; resource; use; strategy; demographic; Response; bharal; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; livestock; grazing; Report; decline; wild; populations; population; Himalayan; region; Competition; threats; threat; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; study; diet; winter; Test; browse; nutrition; areas; area; young; Female; times; High; Adult; mortality; species; predators; predator; endangered; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya
Suryawanshi, K. R., Bhatnagar, Y., & Mishra, C. (2009). Why should a grazer browse? Livestock impact on winter resource use by bharal Pseudois nayaur
. Oecologia, , 1–10.
Abstract: Many mammalian herbivores show a temporal diet variation between graminoid-dominated and browse dominated diets. We determined the causes of such a diet shift and its implications for conservation of a medium sized ungulate-the bharal Pseudois nayaur. Past studies show that the bharal diet is dominated by graminoids (>80%) during summer, but the contribution of graminoids declines to about 50% in winter. We tested the predictions generated by two alternative hypotheses explaining the decline: low graminoid availability during winter causes bharal to include browse in their diet; bharal include browse, with relatively higher nutritional quality, in their diet to compensate for the poor quality of graminoids during winter. We measured winter graminoid availability in areas with no livestock grazing, areas with relatively moderate livestock grazing, and those with intense livestock grazing pressures. The chemical composition of plants contributing to the bharal diet was analysed. The bharal diet was quantiWed through signs of feeding on vegetation at feeding locations. Population structures of bharal populations were recorded using a total count method. Graminoid availability was highest in areas without livestock grazing, followed by areas with moderate and intense livestock grazing. The bharal diet was dominated by graminoids (73%) in areas with highest graminoid availability. Graminoid contribution to the bharal diet declined monotonically (50, 36%) with a decline in graminoid availability. Bharal young to female ratio was 3 times higher in areas with high graminoid availability than areas with low graminoid availability. The composition of the bharal winter diet was governed predominantly by the availability of graminoids in the rangelands. Our results suggest that bharal include more browse in their diet during winter due to competition from livestock for graminoids. Since livestock grazing reduces graminoid availability, creation of livestock-free areas is necessary for the conservation of grazing species such as the bharal and its predators including the endangered snow leopard in the Trans-Himalaya.
Keywords: browse; livestock; impact; winter; resource; use; bharal; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; diet; variation; diets; conservation; Media; study; decline; areas; area; grazing; Pressure; plants; plant; sign; feeding; location; population; structure; populations; using; young; Female; times; High; Competition; species; predators; predator; endangered; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2001). Visitor Attitude and Market Survey for Planning Community-based Tourism Initiatives in Rural Ladakh (Vol. SLC Field Series Document No. 2.). Los Gatos, California.
Abstract: Bounded by two of the world's highest mountain ranges, the Great Himalaya and the Karakoram, Ladakh is a land of exhilarating mountain landscapes, rocky gorges and a unique cultural heritage. It is also home to distinctive wildlife such as the snow leopard, blue sheep and Tibetan wild ass, all living in a unique high altitude desert ecosystem. Not surprisingly, Ladakh is becoming a sought after tourist destination for international and domestic visitors alike. Over the past two decades tourism has grown substantially, although erratically, with both positive and less positive results for Ladakh's environment and people. People are recognizing that it is important to act now and engage in an informed dialogue in order to conserve the natural and cultural resources on which the future of tourism and related incomes depend. The Snow Leopard Conservancy (SLC) is working in collaboration with local communities and nongovernmental organizations to foster co-existence between people and predators like the endangered snow leopard by reducing livestock depredation losses and improving household incomes in environmentally friendly, socially responsible and economically viable ways. Well-balanced tourism is one income generating option.
Keywords: attitude; survey; planning; community-based; tourism; rural; Ladakh; mountain; range; Himalaya; Karakoram; land; landscapes; landscape; gorge; home; wildlife; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; tibetan; Tibetan wild ass; wild; wild ass; wild-ass; High; desert; ecosystem; International; domestic; environment; people; conserve; resource; income; Snow Leopard Conservancy; local; community; Organization; co-existence; predators; predator; endangered; reducing; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; loss
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2002). Visitor Satisfaction and Opportunity Survey, Manang, Nepal: Market Opportunities for Linking Community-Based Ecotourism with the Conservation of Snow Leopards in the Annpurna Conservation Area. Report prepared for WWF-Nepal Programme (Vol. SLC Field Document Series No 3).
Abstract: For the past two decades, the Manang or Nyeshang Valley has become one of the most popular
trekking routes in Nepal, attracting over 15,000 trekkers annually (Ale, 2001). The 21-day
circular trek takes the visitor from the lush southern slopes of the Annapurna massif around to
its dry northern slopes more reminiscent of Tibet, through a landscape of spectacular mountain
scenes, interesting villages and diverse cultures. The Manang region also offers prime habitat
for the endangered snow leopard, supporting an estimated 4.8 – 6.7 snow leopards per 100 sq.
km (Oli 1992). This high density has been attributed to the abundance of blue sheep, the snow
leopard's primary large prey species across the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau.
Keywords: survey; Manang; Nepal; linking; community-based; ecotourism; conservation; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; area; Report; valley; trekking; Southern; annapurna; Tibet; landscape; mountain; Culture; region; habitat; endangered; High; density; densities; abundance; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; primary; large; prey; prey species; prey-species; species; Himalayan; mountains; tibetan; tibetan plateau; tibetan-plateau; plateau
Yanushevich A.I., T. Y. S. (1968). Mountain animals.
Abstract: Fauna of invertebrate and vertebrate species in highlands of Kyrgyzstan is described. Mammals are represented by ibex and mountain sheep, snow leopard, dhole, stone marten, Royle's mountain vole, picas, bear, grey and long-tailed marmot; birds are represented by black and griffon vultures, Egyptian vulture, snow-cocks, chukars, rose finch, swallows, swifts, etc. A brief description of their way of life is given.
Keywords: Kyrgyzstan; highly mountain; insects; birds; mammals; snow leopard; life history.; 8620; Russian
Zhirnov L.V. (1975). Extinct mammals of the USSR fauna and their distribution over natural zones.
Abstract: 18 taxons of rare and endangered mammals of the USSR are distributed over natural zones such as deserts and semi-deserts including riverine forests and elevations; mountains and highlands; forests and forest-steppe; and offshore strips of closed seas. A majority of endangered species is associated with deserts and mountains of Central Asia and Kazakhstan.
Keywords: rare species; extinct species; desert; semi desert; mountain; highly mountain; Forest; forest-steppe; riverine forests; aquatic zone; snow leopard.; 8730; Russian