Abstract: In a popular form it describes the origination, nature and fauna of the Chatkal nature reserve. Habitats and ecology of Menzbier's marmot, water-snake, forest dormouse, and fox are described. It also indicates mammal and bird species listed in the Red Book of the USSR black vulture, griffon vulture, bearded vulture, golden eagle, snow leopard, Turkestan lynx, and Tien-Shan brown bear. There are 23 mammal species in the Hissar nature reserve. Ecology of snow leopard and Siberian mountain ibex is described. In the year 1977, 15 Turkestan lynx, about 25 Tien-Shan brown bears, five to seven snow leopards, and 120 150 Siberian mountain ibex were counted in the nature reserve.