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Author Smith, H. F., Townsend, K. E. B., Adrian, B., Levy, S., Marsh, S., Hassur, R., Manfredi, K., Echols, M. S. pdf 
  Title Functional Adaptations in the Forelimb of the Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia) Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Integrative and Comparative Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 61 Issue 5 Pages (down) 1852-1866  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is anatomically and physiologically adapted for life in the rocky terrain of alpine zones in Central and South Asia. Panthera uncia is scansorial, and typically hunts solitarily by using overhead ambush of prey, rather than the typical stalking pattern of other large pantherines. In this study, we conducted dissections, detailed documentation, and illustrated the forelimb anatomy of two adult P. uncia specimens (1M/1F). Qualitative and quantitative data revealed an intriguing combination of functional adaptations illustrating a balance between the diverse demands of head-first descent, pouncing, climbing across rocky terrain, restraint of large prey, rapid pursuit, and navigating deep snow. In many forelimb proportions, P. uncia is intermediate between the cursorial Acinonyx jubatus (cheetah) and the scansorial forest dwelling Panthera onca (jaguar). Enlarged scapular and pectoral musculature provide stability to the shoulder girdle during grappling with large prey, as well as support during jumping and climbing. A small, unarticulated bony clavicle may provide greater stability to the forelimb, while still allowing flexibility. In the brachium and antebrachium of P. uncia, there is a functional compromise between the powerful grip needed for grasping large prey and the stability necessary for rapid pursuit of prey over uneven, rocky terrain. A unique bifurcation in the tendon of m. biceps brachii may provide additional functional stability at the radiohumeral joint. Intrinsic muscles of the palmar manus are broad and fleshy, acting as an enlarged surface area to evenly distribute body weight while walking on soft snow. However, muscles that act to provide fine manual manipulation are reduced, as in other large prey specialists. Overall, P. uncia displays morphological adaptive parallels with scansorial, large prey spe- cializing pantherines, such as P. onca, while also showing adaptations for running.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1670  
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Author McCarthy, K.; Fuller, T.; Ming, M.; McCarthy, T.; Waits, L.; Jumabaev, K. url 
  Title Assessing Estimators of Snow Leopard Abundance Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Widlife Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 72 Issue 8 Pages (down) 1826-1833  
  Keywords abundance; camera,capture-recapture,density,index,predator:prey ratios,techniques,Tien Shan,Uncia; leopard; SaryChat; sign surveys; Slims; snow; snow-leopard; snow leopard; Tomur  
  Abstract The secretive nature of snow leopards (Uncia uncia) makes them difficult to monitor, yet conservation efforts require accurate and precise methods to estimate abundance. We assessed accuracy of Snow Leopard Information Management System (SLIMS) sign surveys by comparing them with 4 methods for estimating snow leopard abundance: predator:prey biomass ratios, capture-recapture density estimation, photo-capture rate, and individual identification through genetic analysis. We recorded snow leopard sign during standardized surveys in the SaryChat Zapovednik, the Jangart hunting reserve, and the Tomur Strictly Protected Area, in the Tien Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and China. During June-December 2005, adjusted sign averaged 46.3 (SaryChat), 94.6 (Jangart), and 150.8 (Tomur) occurrences/km. We used

counts of ibex (Capra ibex) and argali (Ovis ammon) to estimate available prey biomass and subsequent potential snow leopard densities of 8.7 (SaryChat), 1.0 (Jangart), and 1.1 (Tomur) snow leopards/100 km2. Photo capture-recapture density estimates were 0.15 (n = 1 identified individual/1 photo), 0.87 (n = 4/13), and 0.74 (n = 5/6) individuals/100 km2 in SaryChat, Jangart, and Tomur, respectively. Photo-capture rates

(photos/100 trap-nights) were 0.09 (SaryChat), 0.93 (Jangart), and 2.37 (Tomur). Genetic analysis of snow leopard fecal samples provided minimum population sizes of 3 (SaryChat), 5 (Jangart), and 9 (Tomur) snow leopards. These results suggest SLIMS sign surveys may be affected by observer bias and environmental variance. However, when such bias and variation are accounted for, sign surveys indicate relative abundances similar to photo rates and genetic individual identification results. Density or abundance estimates based on capture-recapture or ungulate biomass did not agree with other indices of abundance. Confidence in estimated densities, or even detection of significant changes in abundance of snow leopard, will require more effort and better documentation.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 881 Serial 653  
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Author Marma B.B.and Yunchis V.V. url 
  Title A contribution to biology of the Snow-leopard (Panthera uncia uncia) (by observations in captivity) Type Miscellaneous
  Year 1968 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume XLVII, issue 11. Issue Pages (down) 1689-1694  
  Keywords Lithuania; Kaunas zoological garden; breeding; blood characteristics; physiological characteristics; captivity; duration of pregnancy; birth; cubs; feeding; snow leopard.; 7610; Russian  
  Abstract The methods to obtain the progeny of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia uncia) in captivity were being elaborated in the zoological garden of Kaunas, Lithuanian SSR. The blood characteristics for snow leopards is given and compared to that for African lions and Sumatrian tigers. A series of internal, external and clinical indices is established. The rat lasts for 5-7 day, the duration of pregnancy equals 98 days. The duration of lactation varies from 3 to 4 months. Sexual maturity is attained on the 3rd-4th year. From 1960 to 1967 in zoological garden of the world about 29 snow leopards were born, 14 of them in the Kaunas zoological garden.  
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  Notes Full text available in RussianJournal Title: Zoological journal Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 739 Serial 648  
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Author Marma, B.B., Yunchis, V.V. url 
  Title Biology of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia uncia) Type Journal Article
  Year 1969 Publication Zoologicheskii Zhurnal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 47 Issue 11 Pages (down) 1689-1694  
  Keywords snow leopard, captivity, Panthera uncia, reproduction, Kaunas Zoo, Lithuania  
  Abstract The methods to obtain progeny of the snow-leopard (Panthera uncia uncia) in captivity were being elaborated in the zoological garden of Kaunas, Lithuanian SSR. The blood characteristics for snow-leopards is given and compared to that for African lions and Sumatran tigers. A series of internal, external and clinical indices is established. The rut lasts for 5-7 day, the duration of pregnancy equals 98 days. The duration of lactation varies from 3 to 4 months. Sexual maturity is attained on the 3rd-4th year. From 1960 to 1967 in zoological ghardens of the world abuot 29 snow-leopards were born. 14 of them -- in the Kauna zoological garden.  
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  Language Russian Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1249  
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Author Mishra, C.; Allen, P.; McCarthy, T.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Agvaantserengiin, B.; Prins H. url 
  Title The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2003 Publication Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 17 Issue Pages (down) 1512-1520  
  Keywords Central Asia; community; conservation; herder; incentive program; India; livestock; Mongolia; pastoralists; poaching; retaliatory killing; snow leopard; Uncia uncia  
  Abstract Pastoralists and their livestock share much of the habitat of the snow leopard (Uncia uncia) across south and central Asia. The levels of livestock predation by the snow leopard and other carnivores are high, and retaliatory killing by the herders is a direct threat to carnivore populations. Depletion of wild prey by poaching and competition from livestock also poses an indirect threat to the region's carnivores. Conservationists working in these underdeveloped areas that face serious economic damage from livestock losses have turned to incentive programs to motivate local communities to protect carnivores. We describe a pilot incentive program in India that aims to offset losses due to livestock predation and to enhance wild prey density by creating livestock-free areas on common land. We also describe how income generation from handicrafts in Mongolia is helping curtail poaching and retaliatory killing of snow leopards. However, initiatives to offset the costs of living with carnivores and to make conservation beneficial to affected people have thus far been small, isolated, and heavily subsidized. Making these initiatives more comprehensive, expanding their coverage, and internalizing their costs are future challenged for the conservation of large carnivores such as the snow leopard.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 904 Serial 693  
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Author Kleinman, M.S.; Garman, R.H. url 
  Title An endoscopic approach to a snow leopard Type Journal Article
  Year 1978 Publication Gastroenterology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 74 Issue 6 Pages (down) 1348  
  Keywords Animal; Bezoars; veterinary; Carnivora; Cats; Esophagoscopy; Male; browse; 370  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0016-5085 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 47 Serial 536  
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Author Klubnikin, K.; Annett, C.; Cherkasova, M.; Shishin, M.; Fotieva, I. url 
  Title The sacred and the scientific: Traditional ecological knowledge in Siberian River conservation Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Ecological-Applications. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages (down) 1296-1306  
  Keywords endangered-species; Human; Hominidae; Altaians; plant; Plantae; snow-leopard; Felidae; endemism; hydroelectric-dam; land-management; perestroika; species-diversity; traditional-ecological-knowledge; water-resource-management; snow leopard; browse; hydroelectric; dam; endangered; species; land; management; diversity; species diversity; traditional; ecological.; knowledge; water; resource; 30  
  Abstract The Katun River originates in the steppe of the Altai Mountains in Siberia. One of the major headwaters of the Ob River, the Katun is considered central to the culture of the indigenous Altaians. The Katun Valley contains large numbers of important cultural sites, dating from the Neolithic and representing some of the earliest human settlement in Russia. Modern-day Altaians still observe traditional ceremonies honoring the river and springs throughout the watershed and utilize traditional ecological knowledge in their management of the land and water resources. Russian and international scientists have identified the Altai Mountains as a region of high plant diversity and endemism, and as important habitat for endangered species such as the snow leopard. The Katun River itself contains species of threatened and endangered fishes, and its headwaters are part of the unusual Mongolian ichthyofaunal province that is characterized by high levels of endemism. The same regions are considered by the Altaian people to be special or sacred and are recognized by Western scientists as having great value for conservation. During the era of perestroika, a hydroelectric dam was to be built on the Katun. The large dam, a vestige of the earlier Soviet plan for the Project of the Century, would have devastated significant agricultural, ecological, recreational, and cultural resources. The indigenous Altaian people would have lost much of their sacred and cultural landscape. The Katun dam project united indigenous people, well-known Siberian writers, and scientists in protest, which became so heated that it engaged the international community, with lasting effects on Russian society. The magnitude of the protest illustrates the importance of the Altai Mountain region to all of Russia. The active participation of indigenous Altaians reflected their traditional willingness to take action against political decisions that negatively impacted the environmental, cultural, and religious values of their homeland. Their involvement also reflected the new wave of awareness under perestroika that underscored a greater respect and autonomy for indigenous peoples in Russia.  
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  Notes Document Type: English Call Number: QH540 .E273 Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 390 Serial 537  
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Author Sangay, T.; Vernes, K. url 
  Title Human-wildlife conflict in the Kingdom of Bhutan: Patterns of livestock predation by large mammalian carnivores Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2008 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 141 Issue Pages (down) 1272-1282  
  Keywords bear; Bhutan; compensation; conflict; Himalayas; leopard; livestock; predation; snow leopard; tiger  
  Abstract We examined predation activity throughout Bhutan by tiger (Panthera tigris), common leopard (Panthera pardus), snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus) on a variety of livestock types using data gathered over the first two years (2003-2005) of a compensation scheme for livestock losses. One thousand three hundred and seventy five kills were documented, with leopards killing significantly more livestock (70% of all kills),

than tigers (19%), bears (8%) and snow leopards (2%). About 50% of livestock killing were of cattle, and about 33% were of horses, with tigers, leopards and snow leopards killing a significantly greater proportion of horses than predicted from availability. Examination of cattle kills showed that leopards killed a significantly greater proportion of smaller prey (e.g., calves), whereas tigers killed a significantly greater proportion of larger prey (e.g., bulls). Overall, livestock predation was greatest in summer and autumn which corresponded with a peak in cropping agriculture; livestock are turned out to pasture and forest during the cropping season, and subsequently, are less well guarded than at other times. Across Bhutan, high horse density and low cattle and yak density were associated with high rates of livestock attack, but no relationship was found with forest cover or human population density. Several northern districts were identified as 'predation hotspots', where proportions of livestock lost to predation were considerable, and the ratio of reported kills to relative abundance of livestock was high. Implications of our findings for mitigating livestock losses and for conserving large carnivores in Bhutan are discussed.
 
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  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 903 Serial 842  
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Author Ale, S.; Brown, J. url 
  Title The contingencies of group size and vigilance Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2007 Publication Evolutionary Ecology Research, Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages (down) 1263-1276  
  Keywords attraction effect,contingency,dilution effect,fitness,group-size effect,many-eyes effect,predation risk,vigilance behaviour; predation; decline; potential; predators; predator; feeding; Animals; Animal; use; food; effects; Relationship; behaviour; methods; game; Interactions; interaction; factor; value; Energy  
  Abstract Background: Predation risk declines non-linearly with one's own vigilance and the vigilance of others in the group (the 'many-eyes' effect). Furthermore, as group size increases, the individual's risk of predation may decline through dilution with more potential victims, but may increase if larger groups attract more predators. These are known, respectively, as the dilution effect and the attraction effect.

Assumptions: Feeding animals use vigilance to trade-off food and safety. Net feeding rate declines linearly with vigilance.

Question: How do the many-eyes, dilution, and attraction effects interact to influence the relationship between group size and vigilance behaviour?

Mathematical methods: We use game theory and the fitness-generating function to determine the ESS level of vigilance of an individual within a group.

Predictions: Vigilance decreases with group size as a consequence of the many-eyes and dilution effects but increases with group size as a consequence of the attraction effect, when they act independent of each other. Their synergetic effects on vigilance depend upon the relative strengths of each and their interactions. Regardless, the influence of other factors on vigilance – such as encounter rate with predators, predator lethality, marginal value of energy, and value of vigilance – decline with group size.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 886 Serial 53  
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Author Paul, H.A.; Bargar, W.L.; Leininger, R. url 
  Title Total hip replacement in a snow leopard Type Journal Article
  Year 1985 Publication J Am Vet Med Assoc Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 187 Issue 11 Pages (down) 1262-1263  
  Keywords Animal; Carnivora; surgery; Case; Report; Hip; Dislocation; veterinary; Prosthesis; Male; browse; 310  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-1488 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 82 Serial 760  
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