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Author (up) Ale, S.B., Boesi, R. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopard Sightings on the Top of the World Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Cat News Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 43 Pages 19-20  
  Keywords Mt.Everest, Sagarmatha National Park, sightings, snow leopard, Uncia uncia  
  Abstract Sightings of snow leopards Uncia uncia in the wild are rare. This is because snow leopards occur in low numbers and are very elusive (Schaller 1977). Snow leopards may be sparsely distributed,but they may not, however, be very elusive in the world's highest park, Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (86° 30' 53“ E to 86° 99' 08” E and 27° 46' 19“ N to 27° 06' 45” N) in Nepal.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1111  
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Author (up) Ale, S.B., Brown, J.S. url  openurl
  Title Prey behavior leads to predator: a case study of the Himalayan tahr and the snow leopard in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Israel Journal of Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 55 Issue 4 Pages 315-327  
  Keywords vigilance, fear, behavioral indicator, predator, prey, snow leopard, Himalayan tahr, Mount Everest  
  Abstract Rare, elusive predators offer few sightings, hindering research with small sample sizes and lack of experimentation. While predators may be elusive, their prey are more readily observed. Prey respond to the presence of a predator, and these fear responses may have population- and community-level consequences. Anti-predator behaviors, such as vigilance, allow us to sidestep the difficulty of direct field studies of large predators by studying them indirectly. Here we used a behavioral indicator, the vigilance behavior of the Himalayan tahr, the snow leopard’s main local prey, to reveal the distribution and habitat use of snow leopards in the Mt. Everest region of Nepal. We combined techniques of conventional field biology with concepts of foraging theory to study prey behavior in order to obtain insights into the predator’s ecology. The Himalayan tahr’s vigilance behavior correlates with the distribution of snow leopard signs. Tahr actually led us to six sightings of snow leopards. We conclude that behavioral indicators provided by prey offer a valuable tool for studying and monitoring stealthy and rare carnivores.  
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  Publisher Science from Israel, a division of LPPLtd. Place of Publication Israel Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1109  
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Author (up) Ale, S.B.; Karky, B.S. url  openurl
  Title Observations on Conservation of Snow Leopards in Nepal Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords 4880; bio; conservation; diversity; enclave; leopard; management; Nepal; poverty; protected; protection; religion; uncia  
  Abstract The wild populations of snow leopards are threatened in Nepal. For their effective conservation, this paper seeks to build a strategy based not only on protected enclaves but also on landscapes, using an integrated grass-roots approach that essentially reduces poverty and addresses the needs of human beings and that of wildlife. Also equally relevant in places with a strong hold by religious and cultural authorities in the decision-making processes is the recognition and possible integration of cultural and traditional belief systems in overall snow leopard conservation schemes.  
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  Publisher Islt Place of Publication Islt Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes Title, Monographic: Proceedings of the Snow Leopard Survival SummitPlace of Meeting: Seattle,WA Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 474 Serial 57  
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Author (up) Ale, S.B.; Yonzon, P.; Thapa, K. url  openurl
  Title Recovery of snow leopard Uncia uncia in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2007 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 41 Issue Pages 89-92  
  Keywords Nepal; recovery; Sagarmatha Mount Everest National Park; snow leopard; Uncia uncia; surveys; survey; snow; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia-uncia; valley; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; using; information; management; system; research; transects; transect; sign; areas; area; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; 40; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; location; recent; species; grazing; land; Forest; habitat; domestic; wild; ungulates; ungulate; livestock; tourism; development; traditional; land use; land-use; use; wildlife  
  Abstract From September to November 2004 we conducted surveys of snow leopard Uncia uncia signs in three major valleys in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park in Nepal using the Snow Leopard Information Management System, a standardized survey technique for snow leopard research. We walked 24 transects covering c. 14 km and located 33 sites with 56 snow leopard signs, and 17 signs incidentally in other areas. Snow leopards appear to have re-inhabited the Park, following their disappearance c. 40 years ago, apparently following the recovery of Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus and musk deer Moschus chrysogaster populations. Taken together the locations of all 73 recent snow leopard signs indicate that the species is using predominantly grazing land and shrubland/ open forest at elevations of 3,000-5,000 m, habitat types that are also used by domestic and wild ungulates. Sagarmatha is the homeland of c. 3,500 Buddhist Sherpas with .3,000 livestock. Along with tourism and associated developments in Sagarmatha, traditional land use practices could be used to ensure coexistence of livestock and wildlife, including the recovering snow leopards, and ensure the wellbeing of the Sherpas.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes http://www.snowleopardnetwork.org/bibliography/Ale_2007.pdf Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 884 Serial 58  
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Author (up) Alexander, D. url  openurl
  Title Report from a troubled land: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan crushed oe of the most promising conservation programs in the Third World Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords snow leopard, Afghanistan, conservation, Soviet, war  
  Abstract  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1257  
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Author (up) Alexander, J. S., Cusack, J. J., Pengju, C, Kun, S., Riordan, P. url  openurl
  Title Conservation of snow leopards: spill-over benefits for other carnivores? Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Fauna & Flora International Pages 1-5  
  Keywords China, conservation, Eurasian lynx, grey wolf, red fox, snow leopard  
  Abstract In high-altitude settings of Central Asia the

Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia has been recognized

as a potential umbrella species. As a first step in assessing

the potential benefits of snow leopard conservation for

other carnivores, we sought a better understanding of the

presence of other carnivores in areas occupied by snow leopards

in China’s Qilianshan National Nature Reserve. We

used camera-trap and sign surveys to examine whether

other carnivores were using the same travel routes as snow

leopards at two spatial scales. We also considered temporal

interactions between species. Our results confirm that other

carnivores, including the red fox Vulpes vulpes, grey wolf

Canis lupus, Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx and dhole Cuon alpinus,

occur along snow leopard travel routes, albeit with low detection

rates. Even at the smaller scale of our camera trap survey

all five carnivores (snow leopard, lynx, wolf, red fox and

dhole) were observed. Kernel density estimates suggested a

high degree of temporal overlap between the snow leopard

and the fox, and the snow leopard and the lynx, as indicated

by high overlap coefficient estimates. There is an opportunity

to consider protective measures at the local scale that would

benefit various species simultaneously. However, it should

also be recognized that snow leopard conservation efforts

could exacerbate human–wildlife conflicts through their protective

effect on other carnivore species.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1434  
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Author (up) Alexander, J. S., Gopalswamy, A. M., Shi, K., Riordan, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Face Value: Towards Robust Estimates of Snow Leopard Densities Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Densities, Snow Leopard, Camera traps, Spatial Capture Recapture models  
  Abstract When densities of large carnivores fall below certain thresholds, dramatic ecological effects

can follow, leading to oversimplified ecosystems. Understanding the population status of

such species remains a major challenge as they occur in low densities and their ranges are

wide. This paper describes the use of non-invasive data collection techniques combined

with recent spatial capture-recapture methods to estimate the density of snow leopards

Panthera uncia. It also investigates the influence of environmental and human activity indicators

on their spatial distribution. A total of 60 camera traps were systematically set up during

a three-month period over a 480 km2 study area in Qilianshan National Nature Reserve,

Gansu Province, China. We recorded 76 separate snow leopard captures over 2,906 trapdays,

representing an average capture success of 2.62 captures/100 trap-days. We identified

a total number of 20 unique individuals from photographs and estimated snow leopard

density at 3.31 (SE = 1.01) individuals per 100 km2. Results of our simulation exercise indicate

that our estimates from the Spatial Capture Recapture models were not optimal to

respect to bias and precision (RMSEs for density parameters less or equal to 0.87). Our

results underline the critical challenge in achieving sufficient sample sizes of snow leopard

captures and recaptures. Possible performance improvements are discussed, principally by

optimising effective camera capture and photographic data quality.
 
  Address  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1431  
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Author (up) Alexander, J. S., Shi, K., Tallents, L. A., Riordan, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title On the high trail: examining determinants of site use by the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia in Qilianshan, China Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Fauna & Flora International Pages 1-8  
  Keywords Camera Trap, China, Detection Probability, Occupancy Modelling, Panthera Uncia, Site use, Snow Leopard  
  Abstract Abstract There is a need for simple and robust techniques for assessment and monitoring of populations of the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia to inform the de- velopment of action plans for snow leopard conservation. We explored the use of occupancy modelling to evaluate the influence of environmental and anthropogenic features on snow leopard site-use patterns. We conducted a camera trap survey across  km in Gansu Province, China, and used data from  camera traps to estimate probabilities of site use and detection using the single season occupancy model. We assessed the influence of three covariates on site use by snow leopards: elevation, the presence of blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and the presence of human disturb- ance (distance to roads). We recorded  captures of snow leopards over , trap-days, representing a mean capture success of . captures per  trap-days. Elevation had the strongest influence on site use, with the probability of site use increasing with altitude, whereas the influence of presence of prey and distance to roads was relatively weak. Our findings indicate the need for practical and robust tech- niques to appraise determinants of site use by snow leo- pards, especially in the context of the limited resources available for such work.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1433  
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Author (up) Alexander, J. S., Zhang, C., Shi, K., Riordan, P. url  openurl
  Title A spotlight on snow leopard conservation in China Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Integrative Zoology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 11 Pages  
  Keywords China, conservation, Panthera uncia, research prioritization  
  Abstract China holds the greatest proportion of the snow leopard’s (Panthera uncia) global range and is central to their conservation. The country is also undergoing unprecedented economic growth, which increases both the threats to the snow leopard and the opportunities for its conservation. In this paper we aim to review published literature (from 1950 to 2014) in English and Mandarin on snow leopard ecology and conservation in China in order to identify thematic and geographic research gaps and propose research priorities. We first retrieved all publish items that considered snow leopards in China (n = 106). We extracted from these papers 274 reports of snow leopard presence in China. We then reviewed a subset of papers (n = 33) of this literature, which specifically focused on snow leopard ecology and conservation within China. We introduced a thematic framework that allows a structured and comprehensive assessment of findings. This framework recognizes 4 critical and interrelated topics underpinning snow leopard ecology and conservation: habitat (distribution and protected area coverage); prey (distribution and abundance, predator–prey relationships); human interactions (hunting and trade, livestock interactions and conflicts); and the underlying policy context. Significant gains in knowledge as well as research gaps and priorities are discussed with reference to our framework. The modest quantity and limited scope of published research on the snow leopard in China calls for a continued and intensified effort to inform and support national conservation policies.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1442  
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Author (up) Alexander, J., Chen, P., Damerell, P., Youkui, W., Hughes, J., Shi, K., Riordan, P. url  openurl
  Title Human wildlife conflict involving large carnivores in Qilianshan, China and the minimal paw-print of snow leopards Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 187 Issue Pages 1-9  
  Keywords Snow leopard Carnivores Livestock depredation Social attitudes China  
  Abstract In this paper, we assess local perceptions towards snow leopards in North West China using a framework

depicting key conflict domains. We describe the perceived threats posed to humans by the snow leopard

and set them within beliefs and attitudes towards other species within the large carnivore assemblage in

this region. Surveys were conducted in seven villages within Qilianshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu

Province, China, to document reports of snow leopard (Panthera uncia), grey wolf (Canis lupus), Eurasian

lynx (Lynx lynx) and brown bear (Ursus arctos) depredation of livestock, and local attitudes towards each

species. Questionnaire-based interviews were held with 60 households and 49 livestock herders. Herding

of yak, sheep and goats was found to be a common livelihood activity among households in all villages.

Herders reported losing livestock to all four carnivore species. Herders reported that depredation was the

most common event affecting livestock, compared with natural disasters or disease, and represented a

total loss of 3.6% of the livestock population during the previous year. Most (53%) depredation losses were

attributed to lynx, while snow leopards were held responsible for only 7.8% of depredation losses. The

reported impact of snow leopards on herding activities was relatively small and the majority of both

householders and herders expressed positive attitudes towards them and supported measures for their

protection. Households and herders held negative attitudes towards lynx, wolves and bears, however,

most likely due to their perceived threat to livestock and humans. Understanding community perceptions

of threats posed by wildlife is vital for gaining community support for, and engagement in, conflict

mitigation.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1422  
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