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Author (up) Akimushkin I. url  openurl
  Title Snow leopard or irbis Type Miscellaneous
  Year 1988 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 139-140  
  Keywords Ussr; snow leopard; number; food; behavior; reproduction; threats.; 6000; Russian  
  Abstract Snow leopard behavioral patterns, food preferences, and reproduction are described in a popular way. The population of snow leopard is defined to be 1,000 animals. A reason for the population decline is hunting for the sake of beautiful fur.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Full text available in RussianJournal Title: Animal kingdom. Mammals or animals. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 579 Serial 49  
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Author (up) Ale S. url  openurl
  Title Have snow leopards made a comeback to the Everest region of Nepal? Type Report
  Year 2005 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-21  
  Keywords snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; region; Nepal; Report; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; 1960; endangered; Sagarmatha; High; Himalaya; tourism; impact; establishment; national; national park; National-park; park; 1980; area; Tibet; surveys; survey; status; Cats; cat; prey; research; project; sign; transects; transect; length; valley; Response; hunting; recovery; Himalayan; tahr; density; densities; range; pugmarks; sighting; 60; study; population; predators; predator; structure; prey species; prey-species; species; populations; mortality; effects; predation; population dynamics  
  Abstract In the 1960s, the endangered snow leopard was locally extirpated from the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) region of Nepal. In this Sherpa-inhabited high Himalaya, the flourishing tourism since the ascent of Mt Everest in 1953, has caused both prosperity and adverse impacts, the concern that catalyzed the establishment of Mt. Everest National Park in the region in 1976. In the late 1980s, there were reports that some transient snow leopards may have visited the area from adjoining Tibet, but no biological surveys exist to confirm the status of the cats and their prey. Have snow leopards finally returned to the top of the world? Exploring this question was the main purpose of this research project. We systematically walked altogether 24 sign transects covering over 13 km in length in three valleys, i.e. Namche, Phortse and Gokyo, of the park, and counted several snow leopard signs. The results indicated that snow leopards have made a comeback in the park in response to decades of protective measures, the virtual cessation of hunting and the recovery of the Himalayan tahr which is snow leopard's prey. The average sign density (4.2 signs/km and 2.5 sign sites/km) was comparable to that reported from other parts of the cats' range in the Himalaya. On this basis, we estimated the cat density in the Everest region between 1 to 3 cats per 100 sq km, a figure that was supported by different sets of pugmarks and actual sightings of snow leopards in the 60 km2 sample survey area. In the study area, tahr population had a low reproductive rate (e.g. kids-to-females ratio, 0.1, in Namche). Since predators can influence the size and the structure of prey species populations through mortality and through non-lethal effects or predation risk, snow leopards could have been the cause of the population dynamics of tahr in Sagarmtha, but this study could not confirm this speculation for which further probing may be required.  
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  Notes Progress report for the International Snow Leopard Trust Small Grants Program. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1063 Serial 50  
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Author (up) Ale, S. url  openurl
  Title Conservation of the snow leopard in Nepal Type Miscellaneous
  Year Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Nepal; radio-collars; tracking; Annapurna-Conservation-Area; protected-areas; parks; reserves; refuge; conservation; livestock; religion; folklore; blue-sheep; blue; sheep; browse; radio collars; radio; collar; collars; annapurna conservation area; annapurna; area; protected; areas; 4080  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Full text available at URL Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 2 Serial 51  
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Author (up) Ale, S., Shrestha, B., and Jackson, R. url  openurl
  Title On the status of Snow Leopard Panthera Uncia (Schreber 1775) in Annapurna, Nepal Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Threatened Taxa Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 6(3) Pages 5534-5543  
  Keywords Annapurna, Blue Sheep, Buddhism, camera-trapping, Himalayas, Mustang, sign-survey, Snow Leopard.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1407  
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Author (up) Ale, S., Thapa, K., Jackson, R., Smith, J.L.D. url  openurl
  Title The fate of snow leopards in and around Mt. Everest Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Cat News Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 53 Issue Autumn Pages 19-21  
  Keywords Mt. Everest, Everest, Rolwaling, snow leopard, re-colonize, Nepal  
  Abstract Since the early 2000s snow leopards Panthera uncia have re-colonized the southern slopes of Mt. Everest after several decades of extirpation. Are they now beginning to disperse to the adjoining valleys that may serve as habitat corridors linking the Everest region to other protected areas in Nepal? We conducted a cursory survey in autumn 2009 in Rolwaling lying west of Mt. Everest and detected snow leopard presence. We conclude that in these remote valleys snow leopards must rely upon livestock given the low abundance of natural prey, Himalayan tahr. Livestock-rearing is unfortunately declining in the region. Rolwaling requires immediate conservation attention for the continued survival of the endangered snow leopard and other high altitude flora and fauna.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1181  
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Author (up) Ale, S.; Brown, J. url  openurl
  Title The contingencies of group size and vigilance Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2007 Publication Evolutionary Ecology Research, Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 1263-1276  
  Keywords attraction effect,contingency,dilution effect,fitness,group-size effect,many-eyes effect,predation risk,vigilance behaviour; predation; decline; potential; predators; predator; feeding; Animals; Animal; use; food; effects; Relationship; behaviour; methods; game; Interactions; interaction; factor; value; Energy  
  Abstract Background: Predation risk declines non-linearly with one's own vigilance and the vigilance of others in the group (the 'many-eyes' effect). Furthermore, as group size increases, the individual's risk of predation may decline through dilution with more potential victims, but may increase if larger groups attract more predators. These are known, respectively, as the dilution effect and the attraction effect.

Assumptions: Feeding animals use vigilance to trade-off food and safety. Net feeding rate declines linearly with vigilance.

Question: How do the many-eyes, dilution, and attraction effects interact to influence the relationship between group size and vigilance behaviour?

Mathematical methods: We use game theory and the fitness-generating function to determine the ESS level of vigilance of an individual within a group.

Predictions: Vigilance decreases with group size as a consequence of the many-eyes and dilution effects but increases with group size as a consequence of the attraction effect, when they act independent of each other. Their synergetic effects on vigilance depend upon the relative strengths of each and their interactions. Regardless, the influence of other factors on vigilance – such as encounter rate with predators, predator lethality, marginal value of energy, and value of vigilance – decline with group size.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 886 Serial 53  
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Author (up) Ale, S.; Whelan, C. url  openurl
  Title Reappraisal of the role of big, fierce predators Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2008 Publication Biodiversity Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 685-690  
  Keywords Biodiversity ú Conservation ú Costs of predation ú Indirect effects ú Non-lethal effects ú Predators ú Top-down control; big; predators; predator  
  Abstract The suggestion in the early 20th century that top predators were a necessary component of ecosystems because they hold herbivore populations in check and promote biodiversity was at Wrst accepted and then largely rejected. With the advent of Evolutionary Ecology and a more full appreciation of direct and indirect effects of top predators, this role of top predators is again gaining acceptance. The previous views were predicated upon lethal effects of predators but largely overlooked their non-lethal effects. We suggest that

conceptual advances coupled with an increased use of experiments have convincingly demonstrated that prey experience costs that transcend the obvious cost of death. Prey species use adaptive behaviours to avoid predators, and these behaviours are not cost-free. With predation risk, prey species greatly restrict their use of available habitats and consumption of available food resources. Effects of top predators consequently cascade down to the trophic levels below them. Top predators, the biggies, are thus both the targets of and the means for conservation at the landscape scale.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 885 Serial 52  
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Author (up) Ale, S.B. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopard in Remote Districts of Nepal Type Miscellaneous
  Year 1994 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume xii Issue Pages  
  Keywords Nepal; Manang; livestock; livestock-depredation; baiting; predation; villagers; herders; annapurna; retribution; conservation; management; training; tourism; browse; 4600  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Islt Place of Publication Seattle Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Notes Full Text at URLJournal Title: Snow Line Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 447 Serial 54  
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Author (up) Ale, S.B. url  openurl
  Title The Annapurna Conservation Area Project: A Case Study of an Integrated Conservation and Development Project in Nepal Type Conference Article
  Year 1997 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 155-169  
  Keywords conservation; annapurna; park; parks; reserve; reserves; refuge; management; habitat; livestock; herders; herder; Acap; education; community-development; tourism; women; protected-area; browse; community; development; protected; area; 2960  
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  Publisher Islt Place of Publication Lahore, Pakistan Editor Jackson, R.; Ahmad, A.  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Notes Full text at URLTitle, Monographic: Eighth International Snow Leopard SymposiumPlace of Meeting: Islamabad, PakistanDate of Copyright: 1997 Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 394 Serial 55  
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Author (up) Ale, S.B. url  openurl
  Title Religion and Snow Leopards in Nepal Type Miscellaneous
  Year 1998 Publication Snow Line Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume xvi Issue Pages 10-10  
  Keywords Nepal; religion; tourism; Culture; folklore; buddhism; 4850  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Islt Place of Publication Seattle Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Journal Title: Snow Line Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 472 Serial 56  
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