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Author (up) Ahmad, A.
Title Protection of Snow Leopards through Grazier Communities:Some Examples from WWF-Pakistan's Projects in the Northern Areas Type Conference Article
Year 1994 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 265-272
Keywords conservation; Pakistan; Wwf; world-wildlife-fund; livestock; herders; herder; status; parks; park; reserve; refuge; protected-area; Dir; chitral; predator; prey; grazier; pelt; fur; coat; skin; poaching; Khunjerab; Marco-Polo-sheep; ibex; markhor; hunting; browse; protected; area; sheep; Marco-Polo; 2040
Abstract Snow leopards occur near the snow line in northern Pakistan in the districts of Swat, Dir and Chitral of the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), Muzaffarabad district in Azad Kashmir and Gilgit and Baltistan districts in the Northern Areas. Although a number of protected areas are present in the form of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves (Table 1) where legal protection is available to all wildlife species, including snow leopards, the status of this endangered species is not improving satisfactorily. The reasons are many and range from direct persecution by livestock owners to the less than strict management of protected areas.

Because of remote and inaccessible locations and lack of proper communication with local communities, government officials and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerned with conservation find it difficult to obtain statistics on mortality of snow leopards. However, the killing of snow leopards is not uncommon. Because of the close and long-term association between local villagers and snow leopards, it is only through the support and cooperation of these peoples that protection of this endangered species can be assured against most of the existing threats. The effects of such cooperation has been clearly shown through some of the conservation projects of World Wildlife Fund (WWF) – Pakistan. Details of such projects and certain lessons that can be learned from these and similar projects are discussed in this paper.
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Publisher International Snow Leopard Trust Place of Publication Usa Editor J.L.Fox; D.Jizeng
Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Full text available at URLTitle, Monographic: Proceedings of the Seventh International Snow Leopard SymposiumPlace of Meeting: ChinaDate of Copyright: 1994 Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 209 Serial 40
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Author (up) Ahmad, A.
Title Community-Based Natural Resources Management in Northern Pakistan Type Conference Article
Year 1997 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 148-154
Keywords conservation; livestock; Wwf; Pakistan; herders; herder; snow-leopard; management; Marco-Polo-sheep; grazing; ibex; park; parks; reserve; reserves; refuge; Khunjerab; hunting; hunter; skin; pelt; fur; coat; protected-area; snow leopard; browse; 2950
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Publisher Islt Place of Publication Lahore, Pakistan Editor R.Jackson and A.Ahmad
Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Full text at URLTitle, Monographic: Eighth International Snow Leopard SymposiumPlace of Meeting: Islamabad, IndiaDate of Copyright: 1997 Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 299 Serial 41
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Author (up) Ahmad, A.; Rawat, J.S.; Rai, S.C.
Title An Analysis of the Himalayan Environment and Guidelines for its Management and Ecologically Sustainable Development Type Journal Article
Year 1990 Publication Environmentalist Abbreviated Journal
Volume 10 Issue 4 Pages 281-298
Keywords environmental-assessment; human-impact; sustainable-development; management-guideline; ecological-degradation; mountain-ecosystem; impact-assessment; developing-country; asia; Himalayas; snow-leopard; snow leopard; browse; environmental; assessment; Human; impact; sustainable; development; management; guidline; ecological; degradations; mountain; ecosystem; 830
Abstract The impacts of human activities on the bio-geophysical and socio-economic environment of the Himalayas are analysed. The main man-induced activities which have accelerated ecological degradation and threatened the equilibrium of Himalayan mountain ecosystems are stated as: unplanned land use, cultivation on steep slopes, overgrazing, major engineering activities, over-exploitation of village or community forests, lopping of broad leaved plant species, shifting cultivation (short cycle) in north-east India, tourism and recreation. The geomorphological conditions are major factors responsible for landslides which cause major havoc every year in the area. Wild fauna, like musk deer and the snow leopard are now under threat partially due to changes in their habitat and the introduction of exotic plant species. Population pressure and migration are major factors responsible for poverty in the hills. The emigration of the working male population has resulted in the involvement of women as a major work-force. Guidelines, with special emphasis on the application of environmental impact assessments for the management of the Himalayas, are proposed. -from Authors
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 145 Serial 38
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Author (up) Ahmad, I.; Hunter, D.O.; Jackson, R.
Title A Snow Leopard and Prey Species Survey in Khunjerab National Park, Pakistan Type Conference Article
Year 1997 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 92-95
Keywords Slims; Islt; Wwf; predator; prey; Pakistan; Khunjerab; parks; park; reserve; reserves; refuge; Marco-Polo-sheep; blue-sheep; surveys; survey; transect; sighn; markings; marking; scrape; spray; ibex; tracks; pug marks; feces; livestock; kill; herder; herders; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; international snow leopard trust; world wildlife fund; marco polo sheep; marco polo; pug; marks; protected area; protected areas; protected; area; areas; 2810
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Publisher Islt Place of Publication Lahore, Pakistan Editor R.Jackson; A.Ahmad
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Title, Monographic: Eighth International Snow Leopard SymposiumPlace of Meeting: Islamabad, PakistanDate of Copyright: 1997 Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 300 Serial 42
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Author (up) Aizim B.M., S.E.D.
Title Snow leopard Felis uncia Schreb Type Miscellaneous
Year 1969 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 56-59
Keywords Kyrgyzstan; snow leopard; distribution; number; trade.; 5920; Russian
Abstract It says about snow leopard in Kyrgyzstan, its distribution, number, food, reproduction, and hunting behavioral patterns, and encounters with human beings. The only enemy of snow leopard is man. From economic point of view snow leopard is of interest only in terms of catching the animals for zoo-export. The skin of snow leopard in commercial trade is of negligent importance. Local population uses the skins for decorating walls, tailoring man's fur coats and sometimes as floor carpets.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Russian Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Full text available in RussianJournal Title: Game species of Kyrgyzstan. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 571 Serial 43
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Author (up) Aizin B.M.
Title Siberian ibex Capra sibirica Pall Type Miscellaneous
Year 1969 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 98-105
Keywords Kyrgyzsatn; Siberian ibex; distribution; life history; diet; predators; snow leopard.; 5890; Russian
Abstract It describes status of ibex in Kyrgyzstan, its distribution, behavioral patterns, enemies and competitors, etc. The enemies of ibex are snow leopard and wolf. All year round snow leopard preys on ibex its main food object and, therefore, should there be ibexes, snow leopards would be somewhere around. In winter, a considerable number of ibex dies from wolves. Sometimes dogs prey on ibex, too. Golden eagles and bearded vultures prey on young ibexes. However, poachers remain the most dangerous enemy.
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Notes Full text available in RussianJournal Title: Game species of Kyrgyzstan. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 568 Serial 44
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Author (up) Aizin B.M.
Title Distribution, number and seasonal behavioral patterns of Panthera uncia Scheber in Kyrgyzstan Type Miscellaneous
Year 1974 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Vol. 1. Issue Pages 19-20
Keywords Kyrgyzstan; snow leopard; distribution; number; trade.; 5900; Russian
Abstract In Kyrgyzstan, snow leopard can be met almost in all mountain ridges (Kok-Kiya, Atbasha, Kyrgyz, Terskey, Kungei, Talas, Chatkal, Alai, Zaalai), where it keeps to alpine meadow, woodless rock and snowfield zones. The number of snow leopard does not exceed 1,500 animals. Seven to 10 animals are annually caught for the needs of zoo-export.
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Notes Full text available in RussianJournal Title: Proceedings of the 1st international congress on mammals. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 569 Serial 45
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Author (up) Aizin B.M.
Title Rare predatory mammal species and their protection in Kyrgyzstan Type Miscellaneous
Year 1979 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 4-5
Keywords Kyrgyzstan; snow leopard; distribution; number; trade.; 5910; Russian
Abstract Snow leopard is met in all mountain ridges in Kyrgyzstan. Every year 7 10 animals are caught for the purpose of zoo export. Total population of snow leopard in the country does not exceed 1,400 animals.
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Notes Full text available in RussianJournal Title: Ecologic fundamentals of predatory mammals' protection and sustainable use. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 570 Serial 46
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Author (up) Aizin B.M.
Title Snow leopard Type Miscellaneous
Year 1985 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 22-23
Keywords Kyrgyzstan; Red Data book; snow leopard; status; distribution; biology; number; fluctuation; protection.; 5930; Russian
Abstract Snow leopard is a rare and endangered species, distributed in all mountain ridges of Kyrgyzstan. Its population is 1,400 animals, density being 0.2 0.5 animal per 1,000 ha. Its population was noticed to decrease in some ridges because of decreasing populations of mountain ungulates. 200 snow leopards were caught for the purpose of zoo-export over the last 20 years. This species is protected in the nature reserves Sary Chelek, Besh Aral, and natural park Ala Archa.
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Notes Full text available in RussianJournal Title: Red Data Book of the Kyrgyz SSR. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 572 Serial 47
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Author (up) Akimushkin I.
Title Snow leopard or irbis Type Miscellaneous
Year 1971 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 210-211
Keywords Ussr; snow leopard; distribution; behavior; reproduction.; 5990; Russian
Abstract The biology of snow leopard is described in a popular form. Information of distribution, behavior and reproductive biology, etc. is given.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Russian Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Full text available in RussianJournal Title: Animal kingdom. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 578 Serial 48
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