||As an important part of the ecosystem in the world, the wild are highly sensitive to impel the public to pay an increasing attention to the vertebrates and their habitats. The region from Xinjiang to Central Asian countries and from north China to Mongolia, explored less by zoologists. The region is mainly consisted of deserts and high mountain ranges many lakes and rivers that provide the suitable habitats for wildlife. These are actually unknown. Conservation in the modern sense is a very important part of development, especially in the Western Development of China. This paper deals with the species diversity and vertebrates' conservation in Xinjiang. Since 1980, over 20 Iocal nature reserves and 4 nationaI nature reserves have been established in Xinjiang. There are about 700 vertebrate species (in 5 classesœª37 ordersœr97 familiesœª196 genera) in Xinjiang. These cover about 134 species of mammalsœª392® 430 species of birdsœr40® 45 species of reptilesœª6® 7 species of amphibians and 93® 120 fishes. With the rapid economic development, some protected areas exist only in name. The areas are not only havens for wild species, but also maintain ecological benefits. Xinjiang is a very special region in China. The wild animals are different from those in other provinces along the east coast and in the interior. There are many questions about the conservation of wild animals in Xinjiang, e.g. the threatened species distinguishing, distribution and management, etc. So the paper is for reference only to the Great Development of Western China.