||All species inhabiting the highlands of Asia are normally referred to as herbivorous or predators. A majority of alpine land species (rodents and ungulates) feeds upon leaves, stalks, and roots of plants. Among widely distributed highland species the most interesting are marmots, red pica, grey vole, argali, and ibex. Argali and ibex are preyed on by snow leopards. There are reasons to believe that these mountain animal species are more ancient than their cognates in a plain. All the way from Central Asia to Europe, species belonging to the eastern and western fauna complexes are observed to interpenetrate.