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Author Johansson, O., McCarthy, T., Samelius, G., Andren, H., Tumursukh, L., Mishra, C. url 
  Title Snow leopard predation in a livestock dominated landscape in Mongolia Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 184 Issue Pages 251-258  
  Keywords Gobi desert, GPS collar, Kill rate, Panthera uncial, Prey choice, Wildlife conflict  
  Abstract Livestock predation is an important cause of endangerment of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) across

its range. Yet, detailed information on individual and spatio-temporal variation in predation patterns of

snow leopards and their kill rates of livestock and wild ungulates are lacking.

We collared 19 snow leopards in the Tost Mountains, Mongolia, and searched clusters of GPS positions

to identify prey remains and estimate kill rate and prey choice.

Snow leopards killed, on average, one ungulate every 8 days, which included more wild prey (73%) than

livestock (27%), despite livestock abundance being at least one order of magnitude higher. Predation on

herded livestock occurred mainly on stragglers and in rugged areas where animals are out of sight of herders.

The two wild ungulates, ibex (Capra ibex) and argali (Ovis ammon), were killed in proportion to their

relative abundance. Predation patterns changed with spatial (wild ungulates) and seasonal (livestock)

changes in prey abundance. Adult male snow leopards killed larger prey and 2–6 times more livestock

compared to females and young males. Kill rates were considerably higher than previous scat-based estimates, and kill rates of females were higher than kill rates of males. We suggest that (i) snow leopards

prey largely on wild ungulates and kill livestock opportunistically, (ii) retaliatory killing by livestock herders

is likely to cause greater mortality of adult male snow leopards compared to females and young

males, and (iii) total off-take of prey by a snow leopard population is likely to be much higher than previous

estimates suggest.
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1420  
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