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Author (up) Espinosa-Aviles, D.; Taylor, M.L.; Del Rocio Reyes-Montes, M.; Pe'rez-Torrez, A. url  openurl
  Title Molecular findings of disseminated histoplasmosis in two captive snow leopards (Uncia uncia) Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2008 Publication Journal-of-Zoo-and-Wildlife-Medicine Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 39 Issue Pages 450-454  
  Keywords captive; histoplasmosis; Immunohistochemistry; Molecular; snow leopard; Uncia uncia  
  Abstract This paper reports two cases of disseminated histoplasmosis in captive snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Histoplasmosis was diagnosed based on histopathology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and molecular findings.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 907 Serial 268  
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Author (up) Jalanka, H.H.; Roeken, B. url  openurl
  Title The use of Medetomidine, Medetomidine-Ketamine combinations, and Atipamezole in nondomestic mammals: A review Type Journal Article
  Year 1990 Publication Journal-of-Zoo-and-Wildlife-Medicine Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 259-282  
  Keywords use; medetomidine; atipamezole; mammals  
  Abstract The recent development of potent and specifica lphar-adrenoceptoar gonistsa nd antagonists has enhanced their use in nondomestic animal immobilization and reversal. Medetomidine, a new potent alphar-agonist, in combination with the dissociative anesthetic ketamine, has been used to immobilize a variety of nondomestic mammals. Medetomidine alone induces sedation in a dose-dependent way, and complete immobilization has been achieved with high doses in semidomesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and blue foxes (Alopex lagopus). Howbver, we feel that ketamine should be added to the immobilization mixture to ensure complete immobilization and operator safety. In ketamine combinations, medetomidine doses are usually 60-100 pg/kg. The required ketamine doses are remarkably low:0.8-1.6 mglkg in most ruminants,2.5-3.0 mgUgin felids,u rsids,a nd canids,a nd 5.G-8.0m glkgi n primates,w olverines(Gulog ulo),ando therm uitelids. Clinically, the resulting immobilization is characterized by a smooth onset, good to excellent myorelaxation, and areflexia at higher doses. Determinations of hematologic, serum biochemicil, arterial blood gas,a nd acid-bases tatusp arametersi ndicate that the immobilization is physiologically sound. We have had no fatalities attributable to the immobilization mixture ( I ,240 immobilizations). The alphar-adrenoceptora ntagonist,a tipamezole,i s highly efective in reversingt he immobilization induced by medetomidine, medetomidine-ketamine combinations, or xylazine. In ruminants, the medetomidine-ketamine-induced immobilization can be rapidly and persistently reversed by administering 100-l 50 1rg/kg of alipamezole i.v. and the rest s.c., adjusting the total atipamezole dose to an atipamezole: medetomidine ratio of approximately 4-5 (w/w). Becauseth e required ketamine doses are relatively high in carnivores, we prefer to use a lower atipamezole dose (totil atipamezoie: medetomidine ratio approximately 2-3 w/w) and to administer it i.m. or s.c. Using thii regimen, reversals are calm and animals show minimal “residual ketamine effect.” Because atipamezole is a competitive antagonist, its dose should be reduced if it is administered late in the immobilization period when a large part of medetomidine has been endogenously metabolized. Xylazine-induced immobilization is rapidly reversed by I mg of atipamezole for every 8-12 mg of xylazine used.  
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  Publisher American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Place of Publication Editor  
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  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1081 Serial 486  
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Author (up) Kazensky, C.A.; Munson, L.; Seal, U.S. openurl 
  Title The effects of melengestrol acetate on the ovaries of captive wild felids Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal-of-Zoo-and-Wildlife-Medicine Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 1-5  
  Keywords Mga; zoo; felids; contraception; Melengestrol-acetate; ovaries; snow-leopard; Panthera-uncia; snow leopard; browse; uncia; panthera; melengestrol; acetate; 1260; effects; study; ovarian; Ovary; captive; wild; wild felid; Wild-Felid; species; Follicle; Cats; cat; recent; Ovulation; doses; Dose; action; Progestin; Disease; veterinary  
  Abstract Melengestrol acetate (MGA) is the most widely used contraceptive in zoo felids, but the mechanism of contraception and the pathologic effects have not been investigated. For this study, the effects of MGA on folliculogenesis were assessed, and the association of MGA with ovarian lesions was evaluated. Comparisons were made among the histopathologic findings in the ovaries from 88 captive wild felids (representing 15 species) divided into three groups: 37 currently contracepted with MGA, eight previously exposed to MGA, and 43 never contracepted. Ninety-one percent of the felids evaluated had tertiary follicles, and no differences were noted between contracepted and uncontracepted cats. Some MGA-contracepted cats also had corpora lutea indicating recent ovulation. These results indicate that folliculogenesis is not suppressed by current doses of MGA and ovulation occurred in some cats. Therefore, the contraceptive actions of MGA do not occur by suppressing folliculogenesis, and MGA-contracepted felids likely have endogenous estrogens that may confound progestin effects on the uterus. Cystic rete ovarii was the most common pathologic finding, but they were not more prevalent in MGA-contracepted cats. These findings indicate that MGA is not associated with ovarian disease, including ovarian cancer, in contrast to the uterine lesions noted in MGA-treated cats.  
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  Notes Document Type: English. Affiliation: Taylor Veterinary Hospital, Turlock , California 95382, USA Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 348 Serial 527  
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Author (up) Kinsel, M.J.; Kovarik, P.; Murnane, R.D. openurl 
  Title Gastric spiral bacteria in small felids Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal-of-Zoo-and-Wildlife-Medicine Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 214-220  
  Keywords Gastric-spinal-bacteria; snow-leopard; medical; zoo; snow leopard; browse; gastric; spinal; bacteria; 1270  
  Abstract Nine small cats, including one bobcat (Felis rufus), one Pallas cat (F. manul), one Canada lynx (F. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (F. viverrina), two margays (F. wiedii), and two sand cats (F. margarita), necropsied between June 1995 and March 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one African lion (Panthera leo), two snow leopards (P. uncia), one Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (P. onca), necropsied during the same period had none. All of the spiral organisms from the nine small cats were histologically and ultrastructurally similar. Histologically, the spiral bacteria were 5-14 mum long with five to nine coils per organism and were located both extracellularly within gastric glands and surface mucus, and intracellularly in parietal cells. Spiral bacteria in gastric mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx, one fishing cat, and the two sand cats were gram negative and had corkscrew-like to tumbling motility when viewed with phase contrast microscopy. The bacteria were 0.5-0.7 mum wide, with a periodicity of 0.65-1.1 mum in all cats. Bipolar sheathed flagella were occasionally observed, and no periplasmic fibrils were seen. The bacteria were extracellular in parietal cell canaliculi and intracellular within parietal cells. Culture of mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx and sand cats was unsuccessful. Based on morphology, motility, and cellular tropism, the bacteria were probably Helicobacter-like organisms. Although the two margays had moderate lymphoplasmacytic gastritis, the other cats lacked or had only mild gastric lymphoid infiltrates, suggesting that these organisms are either commensals or opportunistic pathogens.  
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  Notes Document Type: English Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 354 Serial 534  
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