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Author (up) Ale, S.; Brown, J.
Title The contingencies of group size and vigilance Type Miscellaneous
Year 2007 Publication Evolutionary Ecology Research, Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue Pages 1263-1276
Keywords attraction effect,contingency,dilution effect,fitness,group-size effect,many-eyes effect,predation risk,vigilance behaviour; predation; decline; potential; predators; predator; feeding; Animals; Animal; use; food; effects; Relationship; behaviour; methods; game; Interactions; interaction; factor; value; Energy
Abstract Background: Predation risk declines non-linearly with one's own vigilance and the vigilance of others in the group (the 'many-eyes' effect). Furthermore, as group size increases, the individual's risk of predation may decline through dilution with more potential victims, but may increase if larger groups attract more predators. These are known, respectively, as the dilution effect and the attraction effect.

Assumptions: Feeding animals use vigilance to trade-off food and safety. Net feeding rate declines linearly with vigilance.

Question: How do the many-eyes, dilution, and attraction effects interact to influence the relationship between group size and vigilance behaviour?

Mathematical methods: We use game theory and the fitness-generating function to determine the ESS level of vigilance of an individual within a group.

Predictions: Vigilance decreases with group size as a consequence of the many-eyes and dilution effects but increases with group size as a consequence of the attraction effect, when they act independent of each other. Their synergetic effects on vigilance depend upon the relative strengths of each and their interactions. Regardless, the influence of other factors on vigilance – such as encounter rate with predators, predator lethality, marginal value of energy, and value of vigilance – decline with group size.
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ 886 Serial 53
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Author (up) Ale, S.B.; Yonzon, P.; Thapa, K.
Title Recovery of snow leopard Uncia uncia in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Miscellaneous
Year 2007 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal
Volume 41 Issue Pages 89-92
Keywords Nepal; recovery; Sagarmatha Mount Everest National Park; snow leopard; Uncia uncia; surveys; survey; snow; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia-uncia; valley; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; using; information; management; system; research; transects; transect; sign; areas; area; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; 40; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; location; recent; species; grazing; land; Forest; habitat; domestic; wild; ungulates; ungulate; livestock; tourism; development; traditional; land use; land-use; use; wildlife
Abstract From September to November 2004 we conducted surveys of snow leopard Uncia uncia signs in three major valleys in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park in Nepal using the Snow Leopard Information Management System, a standardized survey technique for snow leopard research. We walked 24 transects covering c. 14 km and located 33 sites with 56 snow leopard signs, and 17 signs incidentally in other areas. Snow leopards appear to have re-inhabited the Park, following their disappearance c. 40 years ago, apparently following the recovery of Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus and musk deer Moschus chrysogaster populations. Taken together the locations of all 73 recent snow leopard signs indicate that the species is using predominantly grazing land and shrubland/ open forest at elevations of 3,000-5,000 m, habitat types that are also used by domestic and wild ungulates. Sagarmatha is the homeland of c. 3,500 Buddhist Sherpas with .3,000 livestock. Along with tourism and associated developments in Sagarmatha, traditional land use practices could be used to ensure coexistence of livestock and wildlife, including the recovering snow leopards, and ensure the wellbeing of the Sherpas.
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Notes http://www.snowleopardnetwork.org/bibliography/Ale_2007.pdf Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 884 Serial 58
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Author (up) Alexander, J. S., Shi, K., Tallents, L. A., Riordan, P.
Title On the high trail: examining determinants of site use by the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia in Qilianshan, China Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Fauna & Flora International Pages 1-8
Keywords Camera Trap, China, Detection Probability, Occupancy Modelling, Panthera Uncia, Site use, Snow Leopard
Abstract Abstract There is a need for simple and robust techniques for assessment and monitoring of populations of the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia to inform the de- velopment of action plans for snow leopard conservation. We explored the use of occupancy modelling to evaluate the influence of environmental and anthropogenic features on snow leopard site-use patterns. We conducted a camera trap survey across  km in Gansu Province, China, and used data from  camera traps to estimate probabilities of site use and detection using the single season occupancy model. We assessed the influence of three covariates on site use by snow leopards: elevation, the presence of blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and the presence of human disturb- ance (distance to roads). We recorded  captures of snow leopards over , trap-days, representing a mean capture success of . captures per  trap-days. Elevation had the strongest influence on site use, with the probability of site use increasing with altitude, whereas the influence of presence of prey and distance to roads was relatively weak. Our findings indicate the need for practical and robust tech- niques to appraise determinants of site use by snow leo- pards, especially in the context of the limited resources available for such work.
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Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1433
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Author (up) Bogdanov O.P.
Title Snow leopard (Felis uncia) Type Miscellaneous
Year 1961 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 246-247
Keywords Uzbekistan; snow leopard; distriburion; life history; diet; use.; 6360; Russian
Abstract In Uzbekistan, this species is distributed in spurs of Tien Shan and Gissar. It preys on ibex, rarer on argalis, roe-deers, young wild boars. In winter, it attacks livestock and sometimes feeds upon marmots and smaller rodents. Snow leopard attacks man very rarely, only when wounded. The economic significance of this species is low, since only few skins are traded. Its dressed skins are used as rugs.
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Notes Full text available in RussianJournal Title: Animals of Uzbekistan. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 614 Serial 183
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Author (up) De Groot, H.; Van Swieten, P.; Aalberse, R.C.
Title Evidence for a Fel d I-like molecule in the “big cats” (Felidae species) Type Journal Article
Year 1990 Publication J Allergy Clin Immunol Abbreviated Journal
Volume 86 Issue 1 Pages 107-116
Keywords Adolescence; Adult; Allergens; immunology; Animal; Antibodies; Monoclonal; diagnostic; use; Antibody; Specificity; Carnivora; Cats; Comparative; study; Cross; Reactions; Hair; Histamine; Release; Human; IgE; analysis; IgG; Middle; Age; Radioallergosorbent; Test; methods; Support; Non-U.S.Gov't; browse; us; government; gov't; 240
Abstract In this study, we investigated the cross-reactivity pattern of IgE and IgG4 antibodies to the major feline allergen, Fel d I. We studied the IgE and IgG4 response of 11 cat-allergic patients against Fel d I-like structures in eight members of the Felidae family: ocelot, puma, serval, siberian tiger, lion, jaguar, snow leopard, and caracal. Hair from these “big cats” was collected, extracted, and used in a RAST system and histamine-release test. By means of a RAST-inhibition assay with affinity-purified Fel d I from cat dander, it was established that, in the Felidae species, a Fel d I equivalent is present that reacts with IgE and IgG4 antibodies. We found that all patients had cross-reacting IgE antibodies to seven of the Felidae tested; no IgE antibodies reactive with the caracal were found. Eight of 10 patients with IgG4 antibodies directed to cat dander also had IgG4 antibodies directed to several Felidae species, including the caracal. However, the correlation between the IgE and the IgG4 antibody specificity was low, indicating that, in the case of Fel d I IgE and IgG4, antibodies do not necessarily have the same specificity.
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ISSN 0091-6749 ISBN Medium
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Notes Document Type: eng Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 157 Serial 233
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Author (up) Devendra, T. & Chalise, M.
Title Population and habitat of Himalayan thar (Hemitragus jemlahicus) in Langtang Himalaya, Langtang National Park (LNP), Nepal Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Special issue on the occasion of 15th Wildlife Week Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue 2067 Pages 37-46
Keywords Himalayan Thar, census, habitat characters, use
Abstract A survey of Himalayan Thar was carried out in Langtang valley in response to the lacking of scientific information of its population status and distribution in the area. The study was carried out from Ghodatabela to Langsisa Kharka during April to June of 2003/04/2005. The area was divided into 5 survey blocks measuring 5sqkm each and study was conducted through blocks. Observed herds and individual animals were repeatedly counted and recorded. A total of 218 individuals of different age and sex Himalayan Thar were recorded during the study in 8 different herds. Three types of herds were recognized; Adult male-adult female-young (37.5%), Adult female-young (37.5%) and All adult-male (25%). Survey revealed that 50% of Thar herds were observed in 4200-4900m (Fourth block) and least (12%) were in 3700-4000m (First block), animals were not located in 3850-4200m (Third, Fifth block). Stratified random sampling was done to analyze the vegetation in their habitat and identified 26 potential plant species. The encroachment of their habitat is severe by the excessive livestock grazing and utilization for cowshed. Noticeable disturbance felt due to frequent poaching and tourist flow. The conservation of this species seems vital as it is prime prey species of Snow leopard in LNP.
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Corporate Author Dept. of National Parks & Wildlife Cons. /Govt. of Nepal Thesis
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1318
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Author (up) Farrington, J.
Title A Report on Protected Areas, Biodiversity, and Conservation in the Kyrgyzstan Tian Shan with Brief Notes on the Kyrgyzstan Pamir-Alai and the Tian Shan Mountains of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and China Type Book Whole
Year 2005 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-276
Keywords Report; protected; protected areas; protected area; protected-areas; protected-area; areas; area; biodiversity; conservation; Kyrgyzstan; Tian; Tian-Shan; shan; Pamir-Alai; mountains; mountain; Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; China; environmental; study; former; soviet; central; Central Asia; asia; land; Forest; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; Chinese; range; republic; wildlife; International; research; land-use; land use; recent; inner; project; ecological; Middle; Middle Asia; Organization; awareness; region; preserve; species; ecosystems; ecosystem; potential; community; Biodiversity conservation; Xinjiang; information; Kyrgyz; Kyrgyz-Republic; protection; flora; fauna; mammals; birds; reptiles; amphibians; endemic; plants; plant; history; Southern; survey; protect; river; heart
Abstract Kyrgyzstan is a land of towering mountains, glaciers, rushing streams, wildflowercovered meadows, forests, snow leopards, soaring eagles, and yurt-dwelling nomads. The entire nation lies astride the Tian Shan1, Chinese for “Heavenly Mountains”, one of the world's highest mountain ranges, which is 7439 m (24,400 ft) in elevation at its highest point. The nation is the second smallest of the former Soviet Central Asian republics. In

spite of Kyrgyzstan's diverse wildlife and stunning natural beauty, the nation remains little known, and, as yet, still on the frontier of international conservation efforts. The following report is the product of 12 months of research into the state of conservation and land-use in Kyrgyzstan. This effort was funded by the Fulbright Commission of the U.S. State Department, and represents the most recent findings of the author's personal environmental journey through Inner Asia, which began in 1999. When I first started my preliminary research for this project, I was extremely surprised to learn that, even though the Tian Shan Range has tremendous ecological significance for conservation efforts in middle Asia, there wasn't a single major international conservation organization with an office in the former Soviet Central Asian republics. Even more surprising was how little awareness there is of conservation issues in the Tian Shan region amongst conservation workers in neighboring areas who are attempting to preserve similar species assemblages and ecosystems to those found in the Tian Shan. Given this lack of awareness, and the great potential for the international community to make a positive contribution towards improving the current state of biodiversity conservation in Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia, I have summarized my findings on protected areas and conservation in Kyrgyzstan and the Tian Shan of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Xinjiang in the chapters below. The report begins with some brief background information on geography and society in the Kyrgyz Republic, followed by an overview of biodiversity and the state of conservation in the nation, which at the present time closely parallels the state of conservation in the other former Soviet Central Asian republics. Part IV of the report provides a catalog of all major protected areas in Kyrgyzstan and the other Tian Shan nations, followed by a list of sites in Kyrgyzstan that are as yet unprotected but merit protection. In the appendices the reader will find fairly comprehensive species lists of flora and fauna found in the Kyrgyz Republic, including lists of mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, trees and shrubs, wildflowers, and endemic plants. In addition, a

draft paper on the history and current practice of pastoral nomadism in Kyrgyzstan has been included in Appendix A. While the research emphasis for this study was on eastern Kyrgyzstan, over the course of the study the author did have the opportunity to make brief journeys to southern Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Xinjiang. While falling short of being a definitive survey of protected areas of the Tian Shan, the informational review which

follows is the first attempt at bringing the details of conservation efforts throughout the entire Tian Shan Range together in one place. It is hoped that this summary of biodiversity and conservation in the Tian Shan will generate interest in the region amongst conservationists, and help increase efforts to protect this surprisingly unknown range that forms an island of meadows, rivers, lakes, and forests in the arid heart of Asia.
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Publisher Place of Publication Kyrgyzstan Editor
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Notes Fulbright Fellow – Environmental Studies, Kyrgyzstan, Former Soviet Central Asia 2003-2004 Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1060 Serial 269
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Author (up) Fox, J.; Nurbu, C.; Bhatt, S.; Chandola, A.
Title Wildlife conservation and land-use changes in the Transhimalayan region of Ladakh, India Type Miscellaneous
Year 1994 Publication Mountain-Research-and-Development. Abbreviated Journal
Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 39-60
Keywords conservation; India; Ladakh; land use; livstock; protected area; transhimalayan; Transhimalayan-Region
Abstract Changes in economy and land use are under way in the Indian Transhimalayan region of Ladakh, creating both negative and positive prospects for wildlife conservation in this sparsely populations and previously remote area. New livestock breeds, irrigation developments, farming practices, foreign tourists, and a large military presence are changing the way people view and use the mountainous land that surrounds them. With only 0.3% of the land currently arable, changes in wildlife and natural resource conservation are most apparent on Ladakh's extensive rangelands which are apparently undergoing a redistribution of use associated with social changes and recently introduced animal husbandry and farming practices. International endangered species such as the snow leopard, several wild ungulates, and the black-necked crane provide special incentive for conservation efforts in what are some of the best remaining natural areas in the mountainous regions to the north of the Himalayan crest. The success of newly created protected areas for wildlife conservation in Ladakh rests on an understanding of the effects of various development directions, a commitment to environmentally sensitive development amid the many competing demands on Ladakh's natural resources, conservation laws appropriate to human needs, and a clear recognition that solutions can be neither directly adaptable from other mountainous areas nor even widely applicable across the Himalayan region.
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ 930 Serial 286
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Author (up) Fox, J.L., Sinha, S.P., Chundawat, R.S.
Title Activity patterns and habitat use of ibex in the Himalaya mountains of India Type Journal Article
Year 1992 Publication Journal of Mammology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 73 Issue 3 Pages 527-534
Keywords Capra ibex, activity patterns, habitat use, Himalaya mountains, India
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1168
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Author (up) Fox, J.L.; Nurbu, C.
Title Hemis, a national park for snow leopards in India's Trans-Himalaya Type Journal Article
Year 1990 Publication Int.Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards Abbreviated Journal
Volume 6 Issue Pages 71-84
Keywords protected-area; Hemis; park; parks; refuge; reserve; India; Himalaya; protected; area; areas; protected areas; protected area; browse; Jammu; Kashmir; habitat; tourism; land-use; humans; developement; conflict; management; 3170
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ 155 Serial 296
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