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Author Xu, F.; Ming, M.; Yin, S.-jing; Munkhtsog, B.
Title Autumn Habitat Selection by Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) in Beita Mountain, Xinjiang, China Type Miscellaneous
Year 2006 Publication (down) Zoological Research Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 221-224
Keywords habitat; Habitat selection; selection; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; mountain; Xinjiang; China; Chinese; Altay; mountain system; system; 30; transects; transect; surveys; survey; study; area; analysis; primary; factor; 200; 600; Base; valley; Forest; region; south; grazing; status; topography
Abstract Habitat selection of Snow Leopard ( Unica unica) in Beita Mountain of the Altay Mountain system in northeast Xinjiang was conducted from September to October 2004. Six habitat features of 59 sites used by Snow Leopard and 30 random plots were measured by locating 15 transects surveys in the study area . Vanderploge and Scaviaps selectivity index was used to assess Snow Leopardps selection for the different habitat parameters. Principal Component Analysis was used as the primary factor . The results indicated that Snow Leopard preferred the altitude between 2000 – 2 200 m and avoided 2 600 – 3 000 m ; selected cliff base , ridgeline and avoided hillside and valley bottom ; utilized the shrub and rejected the forest ; selected the nongrazing area and avoided the slightly broken region ; preferred north orientation and rejected the south orientation. The results show that grazing status , vegetation type , topography and the ruggedness are the primary factors for the habitat selection of Snow Leopard.
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Notes Full text available in Chinese Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 872 Serial 1039
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Author Bhatnagar, Y.V.; Stakrey, R.W.; Jackson, R.
Title A Survey of Depredation and Related Wildlife-Human Conflicts in Hemis National Park, Ladakh (India) Type Miscellaneous
Year 2000 Publication (down) Snow Line Abbreviated Journal
Volume xvi Issue Pages 3
Keywords Jammu; Kashmir; Ladakh; conflicts; herders; livestock; predator; prey; grazing; ungulates; economics; Hemis; browse; 4430
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Publisher Islt Place of Publication Seattle Editor
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Notes Full Text at URLJournal Title: Snowline Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 431 Serial 136
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Author Ale, S.B.; Yonzon, P.; Thapa, K.
Title Recovery of snow leopard Uncia uncia in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Miscellaneous
Year 2007 Publication (down) Oryx Abbreviated Journal
Volume 41 Issue Pages 89-92
Keywords Nepal; recovery; Sagarmatha Mount Everest National Park; snow leopard; Uncia uncia; surveys; survey; snow; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia-uncia; valley; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; using; information; management; system; research; transects; transect; sign; areas; area; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; 40; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; location; recent; species; grazing; land; Forest; habitat; domestic; wild; ungulates; ungulate; livestock; tourism; development; traditional; land use; land-use; use; wildlife
Abstract From September to November 2004 we conducted surveys of snow leopard Uncia uncia signs in three major valleys in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park in Nepal using the Snow Leopard Information Management System, a standardized survey technique for snow leopard research. We walked 24 transects covering c. 14 km and located 33 sites with 56 snow leopard signs, and 17 signs incidentally in other areas. Snow leopards appear to have re-inhabited the Park, following their disappearance c. 40 years ago, apparently following the recovery of Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus and musk deer Moschus chrysogaster populations. Taken together the locations of all 73 recent snow leopard signs indicate that the species is using predominantly grazing land and shrubland/ open forest at elevations of 3,000-5,000 m, habitat types that are also used by domestic and wild ungulates. Sagarmatha is the homeland of c. 3,500 Buddhist Sherpas with .3,000 livestock. Along with tourism and associated developments in Sagarmatha, traditional land use practices could be used to ensure coexistence of livestock and wildlife, including the recovering snow leopards, and ensure the wellbeing of the Sherpas.
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Notes http://www.snowleopardnetwork.org/bibliography/Ale_2007.pdf Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 884 Serial 58
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Author Mishra, C.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Datta, A.
Title Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs Type Miscellaneous
Year 2006 Publication (down) Oryx Abbreviated Journal
Volume 40 Issue 1 Pages 1-7
Keywords anthropogenic; area; Arunachal; assessment; awareness; bharal; biodiversity; carnivore; carnivores; community; community-based; conservation; deer; depredation; dhole; endangered; extinct; fauna; goral; grazing; habitat; habitats; High; Himalaya; hunting; incentives; India; indian; Iucn; leopard; livestock; livestock-depredation; livestock depredation; local; mammals; musk; musk-deer; nayaur; panthera; people; peoples; plant; plants; potential; Pseudois; Pseudois-nayaur; pseudois nayaur; range; recent; region; Report; reserve; resource; schools; snow; snow-leopard; snow leopard; species; survey; surveys; threat; threatened; threats; tiger; uncia; Uncia-uncia; Uncia uncia; ungulate; ungulates; valley; wildlife; work; Panthera-tigris; tigris
Abstract The high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh,India, located in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, remain zoologically unexplored and unprotected. We report results of recent mammal surveys in the high altitude habitats of western Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 35 mammal species (including 12 carnivores, 10 ungulates and 5 primates) were recorded, of which 13 are categorized as Endangered or Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. One species of primate, the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala, is new to science and the Chinese goral Nemorhaedus caudatus is a new addition to the ungulate fauna of the Indian subcontinent. We documented peoples' dependence on natural resources for grazing and extraction of timber and medicinal plants. The region's mammals are threatened by widespread hunting. The snow leopard Uncia uncia and dhole Cuon alpinus are also persecuted in retaliation for livestock depredation. The tiger Panthera tigris, earlier reported from the lower valleys, is now apparently extinct there, and range reductions over the last two decades are reported for bharal Pseudois nayaur and musk deer Moschus sp.. Based on mammal species richness, extent of high altitude habitat, and levels of anthropogenic disturbance, we identified a potential site for the creation of Arunachal's first high altitude wildlife reserve (815 km2). Community-based efforts that provide incentives for conservation-friendly practices could work in this area, and conservation awareness programmes are required, not just amongst the local communities and schools but for politicians, bureaucrats and the army.
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ 861 Serial 697
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Author Suryawanshi, K.R.; Bhatnagar, Y.; Mishra, C.
Title Why should a grazer browse? Livestock impact on winter resource use by bharal Pseudois nayaur Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication (down) Oecologia Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-10
Keywords browse; livestock; impact; winter; resource; use; bharal; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; diet; variation; diets; conservation; Media; study; decline; areas; area; grazing; Pressure; plants; plant; sign; feeding; location; population; structure; populations; using; young; Female; times; High; Competition; species; predators; predator; endangered; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya
Abstract Many mammalian herbivores show a temporal diet variation between graminoid-dominated and browse dominated diets. We determined the causes of such a diet shift and its implications for conservation of a medium sized ungulate-the bharal Pseudois nayaur. Past studies show that the bharal diet is dominated by graminoids (>80%) during summer, but the contribution of graminoids declines to about 50% in winter. We tested the predictions generated by two alternative hypotheses explaining the decline: low graminoid availability during winter causes bharal to include browse in their diet; bharal include browse, with relatively higher nutritional quality, in their diet to compensate for the poor quality of graminoids during winter. We measured winter graminoid availability in areas with no livestock grazing, areas with relatively moderate livestock grazing, and those with intense livestock grazing pressures. The chemical composition of plants contributing to the bharal diet was analysed. The bharal diet was quantiWed through signs of feeding on vegetation at feeding locations. Population structures of bharal populations were recorded using a total count method. Graminoid availability was highest in areas without livestock grazing, followed by areas with moderate and intense livestock grazing. The bharal diet was dominated by graminoids (73%) in areas with highest graminoid availability. Graminoid contribution to the bharal diet declined monotonically (50, 36%) with a decline in graminoid availability. Bharal young to female ratio was 3 times higher in areas with high graminoid availability than areas with low graminoid availability. The composition of the bharal winter diet was governed predominantly by the availability of graminoids in the rangelands. Our results suggest that bharal include more browse in their diet during winter due to competition from livestock for graminoids. Since livestock grazing reduces graminoid availability, creation of livestock-free areas is necessary for the conservation of grazing species such as the bharal and its predators including the endangered snow leopard in the Trans-Himalaya.
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Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Online Editor
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Notes This study was made possible by a grant from the Snow Leopard Network. Additional support was given by the Wildlife Conservation Society-India Program and Nature Conservation Foundation, the Whitley Fund for Nature, the Ford Foundation, and the Nadathur Conservation Trust. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1062 Serial 951
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Author Mishra, C.; Van Wieren S.; Ketner, P.; Heitkonig, I.; Prins H.
Title Competition between domestic livestock and wild bharal Pseudois nayaur in the Indian Trans-Himalaya Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication (down) Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 73 Issue Pages 344-354
Keywords blue sheep,diet,grazing,rangeland,resource,ungulate,wildlife; 5320
Abstract 1. The issue of competition between livestock and wild herbivores has remained contentious. We studied the diets and population structures of the mountain ungulate bharal Pseudois nayaur and seven species of livestock to evaluate whether or not they compete for forage. The study was conducted in the high altitude Spiti Valley, Indian Trans-Himalaya.

2. We compared resource (forage) availability and bharal population structures between rangelands differing in livestock density. Forage availability was estimated by clipping the standing graminoid biomass in sample plots. Livestock and bharal population structures were quantified through annual censuses. Seasonal diets of livestock were studied by direct observations, while those of bharal were quantified through feeding

signs on vegetation.

3. We found that livestock grazing causes a significant reduction in the standing crop of forage. Graminoid availability per unit livestock biomass was three times greater in a moderately grazed rangeland compared with an intensively grazed one.

4. There was considerable diet overlap among the herbivore species. In summer, bharal, yak Bos grunniens, horse Equus caballus, cow Bos indicus, and dzomo (yak-cow hybrids) fed predominantly on graminoids, while donkey E. asinus, sheep Ovis aries, and goat Capra hircus, consumed both graminoids and herbs. The summer diet of bharal was a subset of the diets of three livestock species. In winter, depleted graminoid availability caused bharal, yak and horse to consume relatively more herbs, while the remaining livestock species fed predominantly on graminoids. Diet overlap was less in winter but, in both seasons, all important forage species in the bharal diet were consumed

in substantial amounts by one or more species of livestock.

5. Comparison of the population structures of bharal between two rangelands differing in livestock density by

c. 30% yielded evidence of resource competition. In the intensively grazed rangeland, bharal density was 63% lower, and bharal population showed poorer performance (lower young : adult female ratios).

6.Synthesis and applications High diet overlap between livestock and bharal, together with density-dependent forage limitation, results in resource competition and a decline in bharal density. Under the present conditions of high livestock density and supplemental feeding, restricting livestock numbers and creating livestockfree areas are necessary measures for conserving Trans-Himalayan wild herbivores. Mediating competitive effects on bharal through supplemental feeding is not a feasible option.
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ 517 Serial 695
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Author Mishra, C.; Rawat, G.S.
Title Livestock grazing and Biodiversity Conservation: Comments on Saberwal Type Journal Article
Year 1998 Publication (down) Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 12 Issue Pages 25-32
Keywords conservation; Saberwal; biodiversity; livestock; grazing; predator; prey; browse; 1950
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Notes Document Type: English Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 341 Serial 690
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Author Saberwal, V.K.
Title Pastoral Politics:gaddi grazing, degradation and biodiversity conservation in Himachal Pradesh, India Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication (down) Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 10 Issue Pages 741-749
Keywords grazing; livestock; herders; herder; conservation; biodiversity; Himachal-Pradesh; India; browse; himachal pradesh; 1980
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ 290 Serial 838
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Author Sharma, R. K., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Mishra, C.
Title Does livestock benefit or harm snow leopards? Type Journal Article
Year 201 Publication (down) Biological Conservatio Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue 190 Pages 8-13
Keywords Panthera uncia, Trans-Himalaya, Pastoralism, Large carnivores, Livestock grazing, Co-existence
Abstract Large carnivores commonly prey on livestock when their ranges overlap. Pastoralism is the dominant land use type across the distributional range of the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia. Snow leop- ards are often killed in retaliation against livestock depredation. Whether livestock, by forming an alter- native prey, could potentially benefit snow leopards, or, whether livestock use of an area is detrimental to snow leopards is poorly understood. We examined snow leopard habitat use in a multiple use landscape that was comprised of sites varying in livestock abundance, wild prey abundance and human population size. We photographically sampled ten sites (average size 70 sq. km) using ten camera traps in each site, deployed for a period of 60 days. Snow leopard habitat use was computed as a Relative Use Index based on the total independent photographic captures and the number of snow leopard individuals captured at each site. We quantified livestock abundance, wild prey abundance, human population size and terrain ruggedness in each of the sites. Key variables influencing snow leopard habitat use were identified using Information Theory based model selection approach. Snow leopard habitat use was best explained by wild prey density, and showed a positive linear relationship with the abundance of wild ungulates. We found a hump-shaped relationship between snow leopard habitat use and livestock stocking density, with an initial increase in habitat use followed by a decline beyond a threshold of livestock density. Our results suggest that in the absence of direct persecution of snow leopards, livestock grazing and snow leopard habitat use are potentially compatible up to a certain threshold of livestock density, beyond which habitat use declines, presumably due to depressed wild ungulate abundance and associated anthropogenic disturbance.
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Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1426
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Author Bagchi, S.; Mishra, C.; Bhatnagar, Y.
Title Conflicts between traditional pastoralism and conservation of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Trans-Himalayan mountains Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication (down) Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume 7 Issue Pages 121-128
Keywords conflicts; traditional pastoralism; himalayan ibex; ibex; capra sibirica; trans-himalayan mountains; pin valley national park; spiti region; non-metric multidimensional scaling; snow leopard; wolf; wild dog; Lynx; wild ass; Tibetan argali; Tibetan antelope; Tibetan gazelle; urial; bharal; Pin River; pin valley; Parahio; goat; sheep; Cattle; horses; yaks; donkeys; diet; free-ranging horses; herded horses; grazing; 5290
Abstract There is recent evidence to suggest that domestic livestock deplete the density and diversity of wild herbivores in the cold deserts of the Trans-Himalaya by imposing resource limitations. To ascertain the degree and nature of threats faced by Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) from seven livestock species, we studied their resource use patterns over space, habitat and food dimensions in the pastures of Pin Valley National Park in the Spiti region of the Indian Himalaya. Species diet profiles were obtained by direct observations. We assessed the similarity in habitat use and diets of ibex and livestock using Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling. We estimated the influence of the spatial distribution of livestock on habitat and diet choice of ibex by examining their co-occurrence patterns in cells overlaid on the pastures. The observed co-occurrence of ibex and livestock in cells was compared with null-models generated through Monte Carlo simulations. The results suggest that goats and sheep impose resource limitations on ibex and exclude them from certain pastures. In the remaining suitable habitat, ibex share forage with horses. Ibex remained relatively unaffected by other livestock such as yaks, donkeys and cattle. However, most livestock removed large amounts of forage from the pastures (nearly 250 kg of dry matter/day by certain species), thereby reducing forage availability for ibex. Pertinent conservation issues are discussed in the light of multiple-use of parks and current socio-economic transitions in the region, which call for integrating social and ecological feedback into management planning.
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Notes Document Type: English Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 514 Serial 106
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