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Author Khan, A. url 
  Title Snow Leopard Occurrence in Mankial Valley, Swat: Final report Type Report
  Year 2004 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-17  
  Keywords snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; valley; Report; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; ecosystem; habitat; species; plants; plant; Animals; Animal; birds; research; action; study; survey; Support; Islt; community; Organization; surveys; winter; information; local; sign; pugmarks; feces; scrapes; scrape; prey; prey species; prey-species; recent; population; markhor; hunting; Culture; Pressure; areas; area; feeding; livestock; burning; decline  
  Abstract Mankial is a sub-valley of the Swat Kohistan. Temperate ecosystem of the valley is intact to a greater extent, which provides habitat to a variety of species of plants, animals and birds. Snow leopard is reported from the valley. To confirm its occurrence, the HUJRA (Holistic Understanding for Justified Research and Action), conducted the study titled “Snow Leopard Survey in Mankial Valley, district Swat, NWFP”. The author provided technical support, while ISLT (The International Snow Leopard Trust) funded the project under its small grants program. The World Wide Fund for Nature-Pakistan (WWF-Pakistan) and the Mankial Community Organization (MCO) facilitated surveys under the project. Surveys revealed that Snow leopard visits parts of the Mankial valley in winter months. Information from the local community shows that Snow leopard remains in the Serai (an off-shoot of the Mankial Valley) from early winter to early spring. Intensive surveys of the prime snow leopard winter habitat in the valley found several snow leopard signs including pugmarks, feces, and scrapes. The study also found occurrence of prey species through indirect evidence though. However, information from the local community confirmed that in the recent past there was a good population of markhor in the valley, which is now reduced to less than 50, mostly due to hunting and habitat disturbance. Hunting is part of the local culture and lifestyle. During winter months hunting pressure is low, as most of the local community migrates to warmer plain areas than Mankial Valley. However, those who live in the area lop oak branches for feeding their livestock and cut trees for burning, in addition to hunting prey species of snow leopard. This has resulted in stunted oak vegetation in most of the lower reaches of the valley and decline of the markhor population.  
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  Notes Project funded by International Snow Leopard Trust Small Grants Program, 2003. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1069 Serial 530  
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Author Khatiwada, J.R.; Chalise, M.K.; Kyes, R. url 
  Title Survey of Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) and Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur) populations in the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Nepal. Final report Type Report
  Year 2007 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-13  
  Keywords survey; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; populations; population; conservation; area; Nepal; Report; study; information; management; system; Slims; relative abundance; abundance; transects; transect; length; sign; scrapes; scrape; 20; feces; scent; pugmarks; hairs; Hair; using; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; patterns; herders; herder; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; Animals; Animal  
  Abstract This study was carried out in the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Eastern Nepal from Feb – Nov 2007. We used the Snow Leopard Information Management System, SLIMS (second order survey technique) to determine the relative abundance of snow leopard in the upper part of KCA. Altogether, 36 transects (total length of 15.21 km) were laid down in the major three blocks of KCA. 104 Signs (77 scrapes, 20 feces, 2 Scent mark, 3 Pugmarks and 2 hairs) were recorded. Fixed-point count method was applied for blue sheep from appropriate vantage points. We counted total individual in each herd using 8x42 binocular and 15-60x spotting scope. A total of 43 herds and 1102 individuals were observed in the area. The standard SLIMS questionnaire was conducted to find out relevant information on livestock depredation patterns. Out of 35 households surveyed in KCA, 48% of herders lost livestock due to snow leopards. A total of 21 animals were reportedly lost due to snow leopards from August to September 2007.  
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  Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1070 Serial 533  
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Author Kleinman, M.S.; Garman, R.H. url 
  Title An endoscopic approach to a snow leopard Type Journal Article
  Year 1978 Publication Gastroenterology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 74 Issue 6 Pages 1348  
  Keywords Animal; Bezoars; veterinary; Carnivora; Cats; Esophagoscopy; Male; browse; 370  
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  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0016-5085 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 47 Serial 536  
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Author Kolmstetter, C.; Munson, L.; Ramsay, E.C. url 
  Title Degenerative spinal disease in large felids Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication J Zoo Wildl Med Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 15-19  
  Keywords Age-Factors; Animal; Animals; zoo; Autopsy; veterinary; Carnivora; Female; Lions; Male; Age; factor; browse; 110  
  Abstract Degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. In contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions (Panthera leo), 16 tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 leopards (Panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (Panthera onca) from the Knoxville Zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal disease is an important problem in large nondomestic felids. The medical record, radiographic data, and the necropsy report of each animal were examined for evidence of intervertebral disc disease or spondylosis. Eight (three lions, four tigers, and one leopard) animals were diagnosed with degenerative spinal disease. Clinical signs included progressively decreased activity, moderate to severe rear limb muscle atrophy, chronic intermittent rear limb paresis, and ataxia. The age at onset of clinical signs was 10-19 yr (median = 18 yr). Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column was useful in assessing the severity of spinal lesions, and results were correlated with necropsy findings. Lesions were frequently multifocal, included intervertebral disc mineralization or herniation with collapsed intervertebral disc spaces, and were most common in the lumbar area but also involved cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Marked spondylosis was present in the cats with intervertebral disc disease, presumably subsequent to vertebral instability. Six of the animals' spinal cords were examined histologically, and five had acute or chronic damage to the spinal cord secondary to disc protrusion. Spinal disease should be suspected in geriatric large felids with decreased appetite or activity. Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column is the most useful method to assess the type and severity of spinal lesions.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1042-7260 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 384 Serial 545  
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Author Kotlyar V.V. url 
  Title The Sary Chelek nature reserve Type Miscellaneous
  Year 1973 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 15  
  Keywords Kyrgyzstan; Sary Chelek nature reserve; plants; Animals; mammals; snow leopard.; 7310; Russian  
  Abstract The author describes flora and fauna of the Sary Chelek nature reserve. There are 40 mammal species in the nature reserve. Encounters with snow leopard are rather rare. Normally, it preys on ibex, mainly destroying weakened animals.  
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  Notes Full text available in Russian Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 709 Serial 576  
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Author Kovshar A.F. url 
  Title Soils. Plants and animals. Vertical zones Type Miscellaneous
  Year 1972 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 21-41  
  Keywords Kazakhstan; Aklu Jabagly nature reserve; establishment; soil; climate; physiographic factors; researching; plants; Animals; snow leopard.; 7340; Russian  
  Abstract A description of the Aksu Jabagly nature reserve is given and includes as follows: data of establishment, location, physic and geographic description, types of soils, climate, flora and fauna. In the nature reserve there are 238 birds, 42 mammals, 9 reptiles and 2 fishes. Snow leopard inhabited in the nature reserve.  
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  Notes Full text available in RussianJournal Title: Aksu Jabagly nature reserve. Guidebook for nature reserve. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 712 Serial 579  
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Author Macdonald, A.A.; Johnstone, M. url 
  Title Comparative anatomy of the cardiac foramen ovale in cats (Felidae), dogs (Canidae), bears (Ursidae) and hyaenas (Hyaenidae) Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication J Anat Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 186 ( Pt 2) Issue Pages 235-243  
  Keywords Animal; Newborn; Bears: anatomy & histology; Carnivora: anatomy & histology: embryology; Cats: anatomy & histology; Dogs: anatomy & histology; Heart Septum: anatomy & histology: embryology; Support,Non-U.S.Gov't; bear; anatomy; histology; Carnivora; embryology; Cats; cat; bears; Dog; Dogs; heart; septum; browse; non; gov't; us; government; 160  
  Abstract The structure of the foramen ovale from 16 species representing 4 carnivore families, the Felidae, Canidae, Ursidae and Hyaenidae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. The Felidae were represented by 9 domestic cat fetuses (Felis catus), 2 snow leopard neonates (Uncia uncia), an ocelot neonate (Leopardus pardalis), 2 lion neonates (Panthera leo), a panther neonate (Panthera pardus) and 3 tigers (Neofelis tigris), comprising 2 fetuses and a neonate. The Canidae were represented by a golden jackal neonate (Canis aureus), a newborn wolf (Canis lupus), 8 domestic dog fetuses (Canis familiaris), 3 red fox neonates (Vulpes vulpes) and a dhole neonate (Cuon alpinus). The Ursidae were represented by a brown bear neonate (Ursus arctos), a day-old grizzly bear cub (Ursus arctos horribilis), a polar bear neonate (Ursus maritimus), and 2 additional bear fetuses (species unknown). The Hyaenidae were represented by a striped hyaena neonate (Hyaena hyaena). In each species, the foramen ovale, when viewed from the terminal part of the caudal vena cava, had the appearance of a short tunnel. A thin fold of tissue, the developed remains of the embryonic septum primum, extended from the distal end of the caudal vena cava for a variable distance into the lumen of the left atrium and contributed towards the 'tunnel' appearance in all specimens. It constituted a large proportion of the tube, and its distal end was straight-edged. There was fibrous material underlying the endothelium of the flap, the apparent morphology of which suggested that it comprised cardiac muscle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8782 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 269 Serial 632  
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Author Mainka, S.A. url 
  Title Bilateral separation of the olecranon and proximal epiphysis from the ulnar diaphysis in a snow leopard cub Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication J Am Vet Med Assoc Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 189 Issue 9 Pages 1204-1205  
  Keywords Animal; Carnivora; injuries; Case-Report; Epiphyses; Forelimb; Male; Ulna; browse; 290  
  Abstract  
  Address  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-1488 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 97 Serial 636  
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Author Meiers, S.T. url 
  Title Habitat use by captive puma (Felis concolor) and snow leopards (Pathera uncia) at the Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois Type Book Whole
  Year 1992 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-74  
  Keywords habitat; habitat use; use; captive; felis; Felis-concolor; concolor; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; uncia; park; zoo; 1990; observations; panthera; panthera uncia; Panthera-uncia; zoological; zoological gardens; zoological-gardens; gardens; behavior; species; Time budget; dens; Identity; Animals; Animal; non; Cats; cat; location; relief  
  Abstract Between May 1990 and January 1991, behavioral observations were made of two captive pumas (Felis concolor Linnaeus), and two captive snow leopards (Panthera uncia Schreber) in their outdoor exhibits at the Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, Chicago, Illinois. Behaviors compared within and between species included: 1) time spend in the different habitat types; 2) time budgets for the different behaviors: laying, moving, sitting, standing, crouching, in the tree, drinking, urinating, defecating, within their inside dens, and “behavior not determined” when the identity or behavior of the individuals could not be determined; and 3) mobility of the animals within their exhibits. Also examined were: 4) preferences for different habitat types; 5) recommendations for future exhibit designs. Both species located themselves within their exhibits in a non-random manner. The majority of cats' time was spent in elevated locations (i.e., gunite ledges approximately 1-5.5 m above ground-level). Snow leopards exhibited this tendency to a greater extent than did the pumas. Both species also spent the majority of their time in the lying-down behavior; again snow leopards displayed this tendency significantly more than the pumas. Pumas were highly mobile and changed locations and behaviors in their exhibit significantly more than the snow leopards. No significant differences were noted between conspecifics in regard to habitat type preference, or mobility within the exhibit. Suggestions for future exhibit design include elevated locations for the cats to lay and look around within and outside their exhibits, caves for access to shade or relief from inclement weather, and ground surfaces to move about on. Features for exhibit design should take into consideration the natural habitat of the cat to occupy the exhibit.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher DePaul University Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes A thesis submitted to the faculty of the Department of Biological Sciences in partial fulfillment of the degree requirements for the degree of Master of Science at DePaul University. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1008 Serial 673  
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Author Ming, M.; Yun, G.; Bo, W. url 
  Title Chinese snow leopard team goes into action Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Man & the Biosphere Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 54 Issue 6 Pages 18-25  
  Keywords Chinese; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; action; China; country; countries; number; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; survey; research; recent; Xinjiang; ecology; tracking; Animal; field; Kunlun; camera; capture; Animals; survival  
  Abstract China, the world's most populous country, also contains the largest number of Snow Leopards of any country in the world. But the survey and research of the snow leopard had been very little for the second half of the 20th century. Until recent years, the members of Xinjiang Snow Leopards Group (XSLG/SLT/XFC) , the Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences have been tracking down the solitary animal. The journal reporter does a face-to-face interview with professor Ma Ming who is a main responsible expert of the survey team. By the account of such conversation, we learn the achievements, advances and difficulty of research of snow leopards in the field, Tianshan and Kunlun, Xinjiang, the far west China, and we also know that why the team adopt the infrared camera to capture the animals. Last but not least professor talked about the survival menace faced by the Snow Leopards in Xinjiang.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication China Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes In Chinese; Edited by this magazine <Man & the Biosphere> Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 978 Serial 685  
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