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Author (up) Roth, T.L.; Armstrong, D.L.; Barrie, M.T.; Wildt, D.E. url  openurl
  Title Seasonal effects on ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotrophins and successful artificial insemination in the snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Reprod Fertil Dev Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages 285-295  
  Keywords Animal; Carnivora; anatomy; histology; Blood; physiology; Estradiol; Female; Gonadotropins; administration; dosage; pharmacology; Chorionic; Equine; Human; Insemination; artificial; methods; veterinary; Laparoscopy; Male; Oocytes; cytology; Ovary; drug; effects; Ovulation; Induction; Pregnancy; Progesterone; Seasons; Support; Non-U.S.Gov't; browse; non; us; gov't; government; 400  
  Abstract Ovaries of the seasonally-breeding snow leopard (Uncia uncia) were examined to determine whether they were responsive to exogenous gonadotrophins throughout the year. The potential of laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI) also was assessed for producing offspring. During the non-breeding, pre-breeding, breeding and post-breeding seasons, females (n = 20) were treated with a standardized, dual- hormone regimen given intramuscularly (600 I.U. of equine chorionic gonadotrophin followed 80-84 h later with 300 I.U. of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)). Laparoscopy was performed 45-50 h after administration of hCG, and all ovarian structures were described. Females with fresh corpora lutea (CL) were inseminated, and anovulatory females were subjected to follicular aspiration to examine oocyte quality. Snow leopards responded to exogenous gonadotrophins throughout the year. Mean number of total ovarian structures (distinct follicles mature in appearance plus CL) did not differ (P > or = 0.05) with season, but the proportion of CL: total ovarian structures was greater (P < 0.01) for the breeding season compared with all other seasons. The proportion of females ovulating was greater (P < 0.05) during the breeding and post-breeding seasons than during the pre-breeding and non- breeding seasons respectively. No Grade-1 quality oocytes were recovered from follicles of anovulatory females. Serum concentrations of oestradiol-17 beta appeared elevated in all females, and neither oestradiol-17 beta concentrations nor progesterone concentrations differed (P > or = 0.05) among seasons. Of 15 females artificially inseminated, the only one that was inseminated in the non-breeding season became pregnant and delivered a single cub. This is the first successful pregnancy resulting from AI in this endangered species.  
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  ISSN 1031-3613 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 325 Serial 830  
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Author (up) Roth, T.L.; Howard, J.G.; Donoghue, A.M.; Swanson, W.F.; Wildt, D.E. url  openurl
  Title Function and culture requirements of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) spermatozoa in vitro Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication J Reprod Fertil Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 101 Issue 3 Pages 563-569  
  Keywords Animal; Carnivora; physiology; Cell; survival; Cells; Cultured; Comparative; study; Culture; Media; Female; Male; Pentoxifylline; Sperm; Motility; Ovum; Interactions; Spermatozoa; cytology; Support; Non-U.S.Gov't; U.S.Gov't; P.H.S.; browse; non; us; gov't; government; 190  
  Abstract Electroejaculates from eight snow leopards were used to determine how the motility of spermatozoa was influenced by (i) type of media (Ham's F10, PBS, human tubal fluid or RPMI-1640); (ii) holding temperature (23 degrees C versus 37 degrees C); (iii) washing of spermatozoa and (iv) a sperm metabolic enhancer, pentoxifylline. The duration of sperm motility was assessed by evaluating samples in each treatment every hour for 6 h and a sperm motility index (a value combining percentage sperm motility and rate of forward progression) calculated. Spermatozoa from the Ham's F10, PBS and PBS plus pentoxifylline treatments were also co-incubated with zona-intact, domestic cat eggs that were fixed and evaluated for spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida, penetrating the outer and inner layers of the zona pellucida and within the perivitelline space. During the 6 h co-incubation, the sperm motility index in PBS with pentoxifylline was greater (P < 0.05) than in PBS alone which, in turn, was greater (P < 0.05) than in the other three test media. Washing the spermatozoa enhanced (P < 0.05) motility in both PBS and PBS plus pentoxifylline relative to unwashed samples, but there was no effect (P > 0.05) of holding temperature. Pentoxifylline supplementation enhanced (P < 0.05) the proportion of cat eggs with bound, but not penetrated, snow leopard spermatozoa in the inner layer of the zona pellucida, and there were no spermatozoa in the perivitelline space.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  
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  ISSN 0022-4251 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 253 Serial 828  
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Author (up) Roth, T.L.; Swanson, W.F.; Wildt, D.E. url  openurl
  Title Snow leopard (Panthera unica) sperm longevity in vitro is not influenced by protein or energy source supplements but is affected by buffer source Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Theriogenology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 309  
  Keywords genetics; Sperm; captivity; medical; medicine; veterinary; zoo; breeding; browse; 1400  
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  Notes Annual Conference of the International Embryo Transfer Society, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, January 8-10, 1995 Document Type: English Call Number: QP251 .T44 Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 280 Serial 829  
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Author (up) Roth, T.L.; Swanson, W.F.; Wildt, D.E.; Collins, D.; Burton, M.; Garell, D.M. url  openurl
  Title Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) spermatozoa are sensitive to alkaline pH, but motility in vitro is not influenced by protein or energy supplements Type Miscellaneous
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of Andrology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 17 Issue Pages 558-566  
  Keywords Felid,comparative biology,sperm culture medium,sperm function,capacitation,sodium bicarbonate.  
  Abstract To better understand the biology of snow leopard spermatozoa and to facilitate developing assisted reproduction, a series of studies was conducted to: 1) identify the component(s) of complex culture media responsible for the detrimental effect on sperm survival in vitro, 2) optimize medium for supporting sperm viability, and 3) evaluate sperm capacitation in vitro. Constituents of complex media were added systematically to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to isolate the factor(s) influencing snow leopard sperm motility in vitro. Sperm capacitation was also assessed following incubation in PBS with bovine serum albumin (BSA), fetal calf serum (FCS), or heparin. For maintaining sperm motility, there was no benefit (P ? 0.05) to supplementing PBS with low (5%) or high (20%) concentrations of snow leopard serum (SLS) versus FCS or BSA. Likewise, adding supplemental energy substrates (pyruvate, glucose, lactate, or glutamine) did not enhance or hinder (P ? 0.05) sperm motility. However, motility rapidly decreased (P < 0.05) with the addition of NaHCO3 to PBS or Ham's F10 nutrient mixture. Surprisingly, Ham's F10 with no buffering component or with both NaHCO3 and N-Z-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2- ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) maintained sperm motility at levels similar (P ? 0.05) to PBS. Although sperm motility in all treatments decreased with time, there was a strong inverse relationship (P < 0.01; r = 0.90) between motility and sample pH at 6 hours. Spermatozoa incubated in PBS containing FCS, BSA, or heparin did not undergo the acrosome reaction when exposed to calcium ionophore. In summary, alkaline pH has a profound detrimental effect on snow leopard sperm motility, and capacitation does not occur under conditions that normally promote this event in other felid species. These results clearly demonstrate a high degree of interspecific variation among felids in fundamental sperm function, and they provide evidence for the necessity of basic research when developing assisted reproduction in little-studied nondomestic species.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 897 Serial 831  
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