|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author (up) Janjua,S., Peters, J. L., Weckworth, B., Abbas, F. I., Bahn, Volker, Johansson, O., Rooney, T.P.
Title Improving our conservation genetic toolkit: ddRAD-seq for SNPs in snow leopards Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Conservation Genetic Resource Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract Snow leopards (Panthera uncia) are an enigmatic, high-altitude species whose challenging habitat, low population densities

and patchy distribution have presented challenges for scientists studying its biology, population structure, and genetics.

Molecular scatology brings a new hope for conservation efforts by providing valuable insights about snow leopards, including

their distribution, population densities, connectivity, habitat use, and population structure for assigning conservation units.

However, traditional amplification of microsatellites from non-invasive sources of DNA are accompanied by significant

genotyping errors due to low DNA yield and poor quality. These errors can lead to incorrect inferences in the number of

individuals and estimates of genetic diversity. Next generation technologies have revolutionized the depth of information

we can get from a species' genome. Here we used double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq),

a well-established technique for studying non-model organisms, to develop a reference sequence library for snow leopards

using blood samples from five Mongolian individuals. Our final data set reveals 4504 loci with a median size range of 221 bp.

We identified 697 SNPs and low nucleotide diversity (0.00032) within these loci. However, the probability that two random

individuals will share identical genotypes is about 10-168. We developed probes for DNA capture using this sequence library

which can now be used for genotyping individuals from scat samples. Genetic data from ddRAD-seq will be invaluable for

conducting population and landscape scale studies that can inform snow leopard conservation strategies.
Address Snow leopard · ddRAD-seq · Next generation sequencing · SNP discovery
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1483
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Johansson, O., Ausilio, G., Low, M., Lkhagvajav, P., Weckworth, B., Sharma, K.
Title The timing of breeding and independence for snow leopard females and their cubs. Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Mammalian Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Age of independence; Life-history trade-offs; Panthera uncia; Parental care; Pre-dispersal behavior; Separation; Subadult
Abstract Significant knowledge gaps persist on snow leopard demography

and reproductive behavior. From a GPS-collared population in Mongolia,

we estimated the timing of mating, parturition and independence. Based

on three mother–cub pairs, we describe the separation phase of the cub

from its mother as it gains independence. Snow leopards mated from

January–March and gave birth from April–June. Cubs remained with their

mother until their second winter (20–22 months of age) when cubs started

showing movements away from their mother for days at a time. This

initiation of independence appeared to coincide with their mother mating

with the territorial male. Two female cubs remained in their mothers’

territory for several months after initial separation, whereas the male

cub quickly dispersed. By comparing the relationship between body size

and age of independence across 11 solitary, medium-to-large felid

species, it was clear that snow leopards have a delayed timing of

separation compared to other species. We suggest this may be related to

their mating behavior and the difficulty of the habitat and prey capture

for juvenile snow leopards. Our results, while limited, provide

empirical estimates for understanding snow leopard ecology and for

parameterizing population models.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1613
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Johansson, O., Koehler, G., Rauset, G. R.< Samelius, G., Andren, H., Mishra, C., Lhagvarsuren, P., McCarthy, T., Low, M.
Title Sex specific seasonal variation in puma and snow leopard home range utilization Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Ecosphere Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue 8 Pages 1-14
Keywords Cougar, female choice, LoCoH, mating tactics, Panthera Uncia, Puma concolor, spacing pattern, territoriality
Abstract Territory size is often larger for males than for females in species without biparental care. For large solitary carnivores, this is explained by males encompassing a set of female territories to monopolize their reproduction during mating (area maximization). However, males are expected to behave more like females outside of breeding, with their area utilization being dependent on the range required to secure food resources (area minimization). To examine how male and female solitary carnivores adjust their spatial organization during the year as key resources (mates and prey) change, we radio&#8208;collared 17 pumas (Puma concolor; nine males and eight females) and 14 snow leopards (Panthera uncia; seven males and seven females) and estimated home range size and overlap on two temporal scales (annual vs. monthly). Contrary to expectation, we found no evidence that males monopolized females (the mean territory overlap between females and the focal male during the mating season was 0.28 and 0.64 in pumas and snow leopards, respectively). Although male&#65533;male overlap of annual home ranges was comparatively high (snow leopards [0.21] vs. pumas [0.11]), monthly home range overlaps were small (snow leopards [0.02] vs. pumas [0.08]) suggesting strong territoriality. In pumas, both males and females reduced their monthly home ranges in winter, and at the same time, prey distribution was clumped and mating activity increased. In snow leopards, females showed little variation in seasonal home range size, following the seasonal stability in their primary prey. However, male snow leopards reduced their monthly home range utilization in the mating season. In line with other studies, our results suggest that female seasonal home range variation is largely explained by changes in food resource distribution. However, contrary to expectations, male territories did not generally encompass those of females, and males reduced their home ranges during mating. Our results show that male and female territorial boundaries tend to intersect in these species, and hint at the operation of female choice and male mate guarding within these mating systems.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1471
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Johansson, O., McCarthy, T., Samelius, G., Andren, H., Tumursukh, L., Mishra, C.
Title Snow leopard predation in a livestock dominated landscape in Mongolia Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume 184 Issue Pages 251-258
Keywords Gobi desert, GPS collar, Kill rate, Panthera uncial, Prey choice, Wildlife conflict
Abstract Livestock predation is an important cause of endangerment of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) across

its range. Yet, detailed information on individual and spatio-temporal variation in predation patterns of

snow leopards and their kill rates of livestock and wild ungulates are lacking.

We collared 19 snow leopards in the Tost Mountains, Mongolia, and searched clusters of GPS positions

to identify prey remains and estimate kill rate and prey choice.

Snow leopards killed, on average, one ungulate every 8 days, which included more wild prey (73%) than

livestock (27%), despite livestock abundance being at least one order of magnitude higher. Predation on

herded livestock occurred mainly on stragglers and in rugged areas where animals are out of sight of herders.

The two wild ungulates, ibex (Capra ibex) and argali (Ovis ammon), were killed in proportion to their

relative abundance. Predation patterns changed with spatial (wild ungulates) and seasonal (livestock)

changes in prey abundance. Adult male snow leopards killed larger prey and 2–6 times more livestock

compared to females and young males. Kill rates were considerably higher than previous scat-based estimates, and kill rates of females were higher than kill rates of males. We suggest that (i) snow leopards

prey largely on wild ungulates and kill livestock opportunistically, (ii) retaliatory killing by livestock herders

is likely to cause greater mortality of adult male snow leopards compared to females and young

males, and (iii) total off-take of prey by a snow leopard population is likely to be much higher than previous

estimates suggest.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1420
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Johansson, O., Rauset, G. R., Samelius, G., McCarthy, T., Andren, H., Tumursukh, L., Mishra, C.
Title Land sharing is essential for snow leopard conservation Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue 203 Pages 1-7
Keywords Home range, LoCoH, Mongolia, Panthera uncial, Protected areas, Land sparing
Abstract Conserving large carnivores in an increasingly crowded planet raises difficult challenges. A recurring debate is whether large carnivores can be conserved in human used landscapes (land sharing) or whether they require specially designated areas (land sparing). Here we show that 40% of the 170 protected areas in the global range of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) are smaller than the home range of a single adult male and only 4– 13% are large enough for a 90% probability of containing 15 or more adult females. We used data from 16 snow leopards equipped with GPS collars in the Tost Mountains of South Gobi, Mongolia, to calculate home range size and overlap using three different estimators: minimum convex polygons (MCP), kernel utility distributions (Kernel), and local convex hulls (LoCoH). Local convex hull home ranges were smaller and included lower proportions of unused habitats compared to home ranges based on minimum convex polygons and Kernels. Intra-sexual home range overlapwas low, especially for adult males, suggesting that snowleopards are territorial. Mean home range size based on the LoCoH estimates was 207 km2 ± 63 SD for adult males and 124 km2 ± 41 SD for adult females. Our estimates were 6–44 times larger than earlier estimates based on VHF technology when comparing similar estimators, i.e. MCP. Our study illustrates that protected areas alone will not be able to conserve predatorswith large home ranges and conservationists and managers should not restrict their efforts to land sparing.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1446
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Johansson, O., Samelius, G., Wikberg, E, Chapron, G., Mishra, C., Low, M
Title Identification errors in camera- trap studies result in systematic population overestimation Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal
Volume 10 Issue 6393 Pages 1-10
Keywords
Abstract Reliable assessments of animal abundance are key for successful conservation of endangered species. For elusive animals with individually-unique markings, camera-trap surveys are a benchmark standard for estimating local and global population abundance. Central to the reliability of resulting abundance estimates is the assumption that individuals are accurately identified from photographic captures. To quantify the risk of individual misidentification and its impact on population abundance estimates we performed an experiment under controlled conditions in which 16 captive snow leopards (Panthera uncia) were camera-trapped on 40 occasions and eight observers independently identified individuals and recaptures. Observers misclassified 12.5% of all capture occasions, resulting in systematically inflated population abundance estimates on average by one third (mean ± SD = 35 ± 21%). Our results show that identifying individually-unique individuals from camera-trap photos may not be as reliable as previously believed, implying that elusive and endangered species could be less abundant than current estimates indicate.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1496
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Johansson, O., Ullman, K., Lkhagvajav, P., Wiseman, M., Malmsten, J., Leijon, M.
Title Detection and Genetic Characterization of Viruses Present in Free-Ranging Snow Leopards Using Next-Generation Sequencing Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Frontiers in Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume 7 Issue 645 Pages 1-9
Keywords snow leopard, free-ranging, virome, Mongolia, rectal swabs, next-generating sequencing, Panthera unica
Abstract Snow leopards inhabit the cold, arid environments of the high

mountains of South and Central Asia. These living conditions likely

affect the abundance and composition of microbes with the capacity to

infect these animals. It is important to investigate the microbes that

snow leopards are exposed to detect infectious disease threats and

define a baseline for future changes that may impact the health of this

endangered felid. In this work, next-generation sequencing is used to

investigate the fecal (and in a few cases serum) virome of seven snow

leopards from the Tost Mountains of Mongolia. The viral species to which

the greatest number of sequences reads showed high similarity was

rotavirus. Excluding one animal with overall very few sequence reads,

four of six animals (67%) displayed evidence of rotavirus infection. A

serum sample of a male and a rectal swab of a female snow leopard

produced sequence reads identical or closely similar to felid

herpesvirus 1, providing the first evidence that this virus infects snow

leopards. In addition, the rectal swab from the same female also

displayed sequence reads most similar to feline papillomavirus 2, which

is the first evidence for this virus infecting snow leopards. The rectal

swabs from all animals also showed evidence for the presence of small

circular DNA viruses, predominantly Circular Rep-Encoding

Single-Stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses and in one case feline anellovirus.

Several of the viruses implicated in the present study could affect the

health of snow leopards. In animals which are under environmental

stress, for example, young dispersing individuals and lactating females,

health issues may be exacerbated by latent virus infections.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1612
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) McCarthy, T.; Murray, K.; Sharma, K.; Johansson, O.
Title Preliminary results of a long-term study of snow leopards in South Gobi, Mongolia Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Cat News Abbreviated Journal
Volume Autumn Issue 53 Pages 15-19
Keywords snow leopard, Mongolia, monitor, population, Panthera, Snow Leopard Trust, Snow Leopard Conservation Fund, South Gobi, ecology, radio collar, GPS-satellite collar, home range, camera trapping, fecal genetics, occupancy modeling
Abstract Snow leopards Panthera uncia are under threat across their range and require urgent conservation actions based on sound science. However, their remote habitat and cryptic nature make them inherently difficult to study and past attempts have provided insufficient information upon which to base effective conservation. Further, there has been no statistically-reliable and cost-effective method available to monitor snow leopard populations, focus conservation effort on key populations, or assess conservation impacts. To address these multiple information needs, Panthera, Snow Leopard Trust, and Snow Leopard Conservation Fund, launched an ambitious long-term study in Mongolia’s South Gobi province in 2008. To date, 10 snow leo-pards have been fitted with GPS-satellite collars to provide information on basic snow leopard ecology. Using 2,443 locations we calculated MCP home ranges of 150 – 938 km2, with substantial overlap between individuals. Exploratory movements outside typical snow leopard habitat have been observed. Trials of camera trapping, fecal genetics, and occupancy modeling, have been completed. Each method ex-hibits promise, and limitations, as potential monitoring tools for this elusive species.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1151
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Samelius, G., Suryawanshi, K., Frank, J., Agvaantseren, B., Baasandamba, E., Mijiddorj, T., Johansson, O., Tumursukh, L., Mishra, C.
Title Keeping predators out: testing fences to reduce livestock depredation at night-time corrals Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-7
Keywords Canis lupus, carnivore conservation, coexistence, conflict mitigation, conservation conflict, livestock depreda- tion, Panthera uncia, preventative measure
Abstract Livestock depredation by large carnivores is a global conservation challenge, and mitigation measures to reduce livestock losses are crucial for the coexistence of large carnivores and people. Various measures are employed to reduce livestock depredation but their effectiveness has rarely been tested. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of tall fences to reduce livestock losses to snow leopards Panthera uncia and wolves Canis lupus at night-time corrals at the winter camps of livestock herders in the Tost Mountains in southern Mongolia. Self-reported livestock losses at the fenced corrals were reduced from a mean loss of 3.9 goats and sheep per family and winter prior to the study to zero losses in the two winters of the study. In contrast, self-reported livestock losses in winter pastures, and during the rest of the year, when herders used different camps, remained high, which indicates that livestock losses were reduced because of the fences, not because of temporal variation in predation pressure. Herder attitudes towards snow leopards were positive and remained positive during the study, whereas attitudes towards wolves, which attacked livestock also in summer when herders moved out on the steppes, were negative and worsened during the study. This study showed that tall fences can be very effective at reducing night-time losses at corrals and we conclude that fences can be an important tool for snow leopard conservation and for facilitating the coexistence of snow leopards and people.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1492
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Sharma, K., Bayrakcismith, R., Tumursukh, L., Johansson, O., Sevger, P., McCarthy, T., Mishra, C.
Title Vigorous Dynamics Underlie a Stable Population of the Endangered Snow Leopard Panthera uncia in Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue 7 Pages
Keywords
Abstract Population monitoring programmes and estimation of vital rates are key to understanding the mechanisms of population growth, decline or stability, and are important for effective conservation action. We report, for the first time, the population trends and vital rates of the endangered snow leopard based on camera trapping over four years in the Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia. We used robust design multi-season mark-recapture analysis to estimate the trends in abundance, sex ratio, survival probability and the probability of temporary emigration and immigration for adult and young snow leopards. The snow leopard population remained constant over most of the study period, with no apparent growth (l = 1.08+20.25). Comparison of model results with the ‘‘known population’’ of radio-collared snow leopards suggested

high accuracy in our estimates. Although seemingly stable, vigorous underlying dynamics were evident in this population, with the adult sex ratio shifting from being male-biased to female-biased (1.67 to 0.38 males per female) during the study. Adult survival probability was 0.82 (SE+20.08) and that of young was 0.83 (SE+20.15) and 0.77 (SE +20.2) respectively, before and after the age of 2 years. Young snow leopards showed a high probability of temporary emigration and immigration (0.6, SE +20.19 and 0.68, SE +20.32 before and after the age of 2 years) though not the adults (0.02 SE+20.07). While the current female-bias in the population and the number of cubs born each year seemingly render the study population safe, the vigorous dynamics suggests that the situation can change quickly. The reduction in the proportion of

male snow leopards may be indicative of continuing anthropogenic pressures. Our work reiterates the importance of monitoring both the abundance and population dynamics of species for effective conservation.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1416
Permanent link to this record