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Author (up) McCarthy, K.; Fuller, T.; Ming, M.; McCarthy, T.; Waits, L.; Jumabaev, K. url 
  Title Assessing Estimators of Snow Leopard Abundance Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Widlife Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 72 Issue 8 Pages 1826-1833  
  Keywords abundance; camera,capture-recapture,density,index,predator:prey ratios,techniques,Tien Shan,Uncia; leopard; SaryChat; sign surveys; Slims; snow; snow-leopard; snow leopard; Tomur  
  Abstract The secretive nature of snow leopards (Uncia uncia) makes them difficult to monitor, yet conservation efforts require accurate and precise methods to estimate abundance. We assessed accuracy of Snow Leopard Information Management System (SLIMS) sign surveys by comparing them with 4 methods for estimating snow leopard abundance: predator:prey biomass ratios, capture-recapture density estimation, photo-capture rate, and individual identification through genetic analysis. We recorded snow leopard sign during standardized surveys in the SaryChat Zapovednik, the Jangart hunting reserve, and the Tomur Strictly Protected Area, in the Tien Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and China. During June-December 2005, adjusted sign averaged 46.3 (SaryChat), 94.6 (Jangart), and 150.8 (Tomur) occurrences/km. We used

counts of ibex (Capra ibex) and argali (Ovis ammon) to estimate available prey biomass and subsequent potential snow leopard densities of 8.7 (SaryChat), 1.0 (Jangart), and 1.1 (Tomur) snow leopards/100 km2. Photo capture-recapture density estimates were 0.15 (n = 1 identified individual/1 photo), 0.87 (n = 4/13), and 0.74 (n = 5/6) individuals/100 km2 in SaryChat, Jangart, and Tomur, respectively. Photo-capture rates

(photos/100 trap-nights) were 0.09 (SaryChat), 0.93 (Jangart), and 2.37 (Tomur). Genetic analysis of snow leopard fecal samples provided minimum population sizes of 3 (SaryChat), 5 (Jangart), and 9 (Tomur) snow leopards. These results suggest SLIMS sign surveys may be affected by observer bias and environmental variance. However, when such bias and variation are accounted for, sign surveys indicate relative abundances similar to photo rates and genetic individual identification results. Density or abundance estimates based on capture-recapture or ungulate biomass did not agree with other indices of abundance. Confidence in estimated densities, or even detection of significant changes in abundance of snow leopard, will require more effort and better documentation.
 
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  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 881 Serial 653  
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Author (up) McCarthy, T.; Fuller, T.; Munkhtsog, B. url 
  Title Movements and activities of snow leopards in Southwestern Mongolia Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2005 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 124 Issue Pages 527-537  
  Keywords snow leopard; Uncia uncia; Mongolia; satellite radio-telemetry; home range; activity patterns; 6310  
  Abstract Four adult (2M:2F) snow leopards (Uncia uncia) were radio-monitored (VHF; one also via satellite) year-round during 1994-1997 in the Altai Mountains of southwestern Mongolia where prey densities (i.e., ibex, Capra siberica) were relatively low (0.9/km2). Marked animals were more active at night (51%) than during the day (35%). Within the study area, marked leopards showed strong a.nity for steep and rugged terrain, high use of areas rich in ungulate prey, and a.nity for habitat edges. The satellite-monitored leopard moved more than 12 km on 14% of consecutive days monitored. Home ranges determined by standard telemetry techniques overlapped substantially and were at least 13-141 km2in size. However, the satellite-monitored individual apparently ranged over an area of at least 1590 km2, and perhaps over as much as 4500 km2. Since telemetry attempts from the ground were

frequently unsuccessful dx¬ 72%_, we suspect all marked animals likely had large home ranges. Relatively low prey abundance in the area also suggested that home ranges of >500 km2were not unreasonable to expect, though these are >10-fold larger than measured in any other part of snow leopard range. Home ranges of snow leopards may be larger than we suspect in many areas, and thus estimation of snow leopard conservation status must rigorously consider logistical constraints inherent in telemetry studies, and the relative abundance of prey.
 
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  Notes Journal Title: Biological Conservation Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 609 Serial 665  
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Author (up) Murray, D.; Kapke, C.; Evermann, J.; Fuller, T. url 
  Title Infectious disease and the conservation of free-ranging large carnivores Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 2 Issue Pages 241-254  
  Keywords infectous disease; free ranging; browse; infectious; Disease; 80  
  Abstract Large carnivores are of vital importance to the stability and integrity of most ecosystems, but recent declines in free-ranging populations have highlighted the potentially devastating effect of infectious diseases on their conservation. We reviewed the literature on infectious diseases of 34 large (maximum body mass of adults >20 kg) terrestrial carnivore species, 18 of which are considered to be threatened in the wild, and examined reports of antibody prevalence (seroprevalence) and cases of infection, mortality and population decline. Of 52 diseases examined, 44% were viral, 31% bacterial and the remainder were protozoal or fungal. Many infections were endemic in carnivores and/or infected multiple taxonomic families, with the majority probably occurring via inhalation or ingestion. Most disease studies consisted of serological surveys for disease antibodies, and antibody detection tended to be widespread implying that exposure to micro-organisms was common. Seroprevalence was higher in tropical than temperate areas, and marginally higher for infections known to occur in multiple carnivore groups. Confirmation of active infection via micro-organism recovery was less common for ursids than other taxonomic groups. Published descriptions of disease-induced population decline or extinction were rare, and most outbreaks were allegedly the result of direct transmission of rabies or canine distemper virus (CDV) from abundant carnivore species to less-common large carnivores. We conclude that the threat of disease epidemics in large carnivores may be serious if otherwise lethal infections are endemic in reservoir hosts and transmitted horizontally among taxa. To prevent or mitigate future population declines, research efforts should be aimed at identifying both the diseases of potential importance to large carnivores and the ecological conditions associated with their spread and severity.  
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  Notes Document Type: English Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 356 Serial 708  
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