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Egorov O.V. (1955). Enemies, infections, parasites and mortality rate of ibex (Vol. Vol. 42.).
Abstract: Reasons for ibex and argali mortality from natural enemies, parasites, infections, accidents, and hunters are analyzed. Snow leopard is one of the most dangerous enemies of ibex and argali, preying equally on both young and mature animals (mostly males). Snow leopard feeds upon ibex all year round. Unlike wolf, snow leopard would never kill several animals at a time, but only one selected victim. The food remains left by these predators are different in terms of the skull gnawing. Nasal bones and eye-sockets on the skull of ibex killed by snow leopard remain undamaged, while wolf gnaws off nasal part of the skull, breaks eye-sockets, eats lower jaw, widens occipital hole and pulls out brains. Snow leopard leaves large pieces of skin around the skeleton of the victim, whereas wolf tears it to shreds or eats up fully. Sometimes parts of the victim left by snow leopard are eaten by wolf. It is easy to mix the remains of snow leopard's or griffon vulture's food. The remains differ in skin being turned inside out rather than torn to large pieces.