Kashkarov, E. (2017). THE SNOW LEOPARD OF KIRGIZIA: NATIONAL SHAME OR NATIONAL PRIDE.239–253.
Abstract: Article examines the problems existing in conservation of the snow leopard in Kirgizia after break-up of the
USSR. Unfortunate situation is common to most of the 14 countries in the snow leopard range, but seems
especially sharp to Kirgizia. Yet half of the century ago Kirgizia has had about 1.5 thousand of the snow
leopards, and today there remains no more than 1/10. In Soviet time Kirgizia was a global supplier of the
snow leopards for the zoo-export � to create a reserve number of endangered cats in captivity. Today, at
least half of the snow leopards in the Zoos of the world are individuals, caught in Kirgizia or their
Since independence, Kirgizia has set new records. In Sarychat-Irtash reserve � the best for the snow
leopard in Central Asia, and probably in the whole range � this species was completely destroyed after 3
years of reserve opening... and 17 years later � revived... Situation comes presently back to the worst-case
scenario, and not only for the snow leopard. Author shows how work in this direction social and economic
levers, and what kind future he would like to see in Kirgizia, where he lived for 12 years and was at the
forefront of pioneering research of the snow leopard and its conservation.
Keywords: snow leopard, irbis, ibex, mountain sheep, conservation, range, reserve, monitoring, cameratrap, Sarychat, Kirgizia, Central Asia.
Kashkarov, E. (2017). ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERIES IN WESTERN BERINGIA.208–217.
Abstract: Among zoogeographical discoveries of the frontier of XXI century there is nothing more interesting
than discoveries of Rodion Sivolobov in Western Beringia. Beringia has surprised us by
paleontological discoveries many centuries ago, and also surprised by modern one. Somehow they
came out of attention of all International environmental foundations and Academies of the world, as
if on purpose to show their professional incompetence. It is the only way to describe the
organization, not to notice the appearance of such big cats as the Snow leopard and Amur tiger for
5,000 kilometers from the border of main range, as well as large Pleistocene relict � the Irkuyembear.
All three endangered species of mammals found by Sivolobov in Koryakia and Chukotka, and
for the snow leopard he took the world's first photo in Beringia.
New facts suggests two things: (1) the ancient refuges of big cats locate to Koryakia and
Chukotka much closer of main ranges, (2) global warming, changing natural environment on the
waves of hundred-year rhythms, periodically pushing irbis and tiger on the ways of ancient
Beringian migrations stored in their genetic memories. Irkuyem is a contemporary of the mammoth.
Unlike it, this bear lived up to our days, but remained undetected even by the large “mammoths” of
Sivolobov, R. (2017). ENDANGERED SPECIES OF KORYAKIA AND CHUKOTKA: IRBIS, TIGER AND THE IRKUYEM-BEAR.225–233.
Abstract: After 30 years of searching for the mysterious Beringian snow cat in vast space of Koryakia and Chukotka
one of the five cameras recorded finally this beast at night in September 2014. This is not so much a
sensation as a real scientific discovery, saying that the hearts of the snow leopard population resettlement are
not in 5000 km from the main range boundaries, but much closer. Where? � will show further studies.
In addition to the snow leopard in the North-Eastern Asia, it found two more endangered large
mammal species: the Amur tiger and the relict of the Ice Age � the Irkuyem-bear. Author has given these
animals his life and his article devoted to this topic.
Suryawanshi, K. R., Redpath, S., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Ramakrishnan, U., Chaturvedi, V., Smout, S. C., Mishra, C. (2017). Impact of wild prey availability on livestock predation by snow leopards. Royal Society Open Science, , 1–11.
Abstract: An increasing proportion of the world�s poor is rearing
livestock today, and the global livestock population is growing.
Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory
killing is becoming an economic and conservation concern.
A common recommendation for carnivore conservation and
for reducing predation on livestock is to increase wild prey
populations based on the assumption that the carnivores
will consume this alternative food. Livestock predation,
however, could either reduce or intensify with increases
in wild prey depending on prey choice and trends in
carnivore abundance. We show that the extent of livestock
predation by the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia
intensifies with increases in the density of wild ungulate
prey, and subsequently stabilizes. We found that snow leopard
density, estimated at seven sites, was a positive linear
function of the density of wild ungulates�the preferred
prey�and showed no discernible relationship with livestock
density. We also found that modelled livestock predation
increased with livestock density. Our results suggest that
snow leopard conservation would benefit from an increase
in wild ungulates, but that would intensify the problem of
livestock predation for pastoralists. The potential benefits of
increased wild prey abundance in reducing livestock predation
can be overwhelmed by a resultant increase in snow leopard
populations. Snow leopard conservation efforts aimed at
facilitating increases in wild prey must be accompanied by greater assistance for better livestock
protection and offsetting the economic damage caused by carnivores.
Murali, R., Lkhagvajav, P., Saeed, U., Kizi, V. A., Nawaz, M. A., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Sharma, K., Mishra, C. (2017). VALUATION OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN SNOW LEOPARD LANDSCAPES OF ASIA.
Abstract: Snow leopards occur in Asia�s high mountain ranges of the Himalayas, Hindu Kush, Karakoram, Pamir, Tien Shan, Kunlun, Altai and Sayan. In all the 12 countries where they occur, snow leopards face intensifying threats to their survival, including habitat fragmentation and degradation due to increasing human populations, mining and developmental projects, poaching and illegal wildlife trade, weak law enforcement, inadequate involvement of local people in conservation efforts, and depletion of natural prey populations due to hunting by people and overgrazing by livestock.
To address the urgent needs of conservation of the snow leopard and the sustainable development of mountain peoples, the Governments of snow leopard range countries came together and agreed to invest efforts to conserve snow leopards in 23 large landscapes across its range under the Global Snow Leopard Ecosystem Protection Program (GSLEP).
These landscapes where the snow leopards occur are inhabited by agro-pastoral and pastoral peoples who depend on well functioning ecosystems for ecosystem services, i.e., the benefits that humans derive from nature. Many threats that impact snow leopards also impact the well-being of people living in these landscapes. However, till date, there have been no studies that have attempted to quantify peoples� dependence on ecosystem services in snow leopard landscapes, or understand the impacts that alternate land-use decisions such as mining or infrastructure can have on the ecosystem services and on the local people who are dependent on them.
In this report, we provide the first assessment of the economic value of provisioning ecosystem services � the material goods from ecosystems � used by local people in five study sites from four GSLEP landscapes: Spiti Valley and Changtang region of Ladakh in India�s Hemis-Spiti Landscape, Gurez Valley in the Himalayan Landscape of Pakistan, Tost Nature Reserve in the South Gobi Landscape of Mongolia, and the Sarychat region in the Central Tien Shan Landscape of Kyrgyzstan. In study sites that had both pastoral and agro-pastoral communities, we estimated ecosystem services separately for the two production systems.The average value (± SE) of ecosystem services per household amongst the agro-pastoral
communities of Gurez Valley (4125 ± 190 USD/HH/yr) was 2.5 times the average local household income. In the agro-pastoral communities of Spiti Valley (3964 ± 334.8 USD/HH/yr) it was 3.6 times the average local household income, while it was 3.7 times amongst the agro-pastoral communities of Changtang (15083 ± 1656 USD/HH/yr). Amongst the pastoral communities, the value of ecosystem services used by households was several times higher than the average household income: it was 26.1 times amongst the pastoral communities of Changtang (79303 ± 9204 USD HH/yr), 38.7 times among communities in Tost Nature Reserve (150100 ± 13290 USD/HH/yr), and 7.4 times among the pastoral communities of Sarychat (25473 ± 5236 USD/HH/yr). It was lower, although still substantial at 0.6 times, for the downstream agro-pastoral communities living outside the landscape boundary in Sarychat (2094 ± 189 USD/HH/yr).
Our work reveals substantially high levels of dependence of local communities on ecosystem services provided by snow leopard landscapes of Asia. The estimated economic value of provisioning ecosystem services used by human households in these landscapes ranged from 0.6 to up to 40 times the local annual household incomes. This economic support that nature provides people is critical for humanity but remains hidden and unaccounted for. Land use change decisions, especially those that are damaging for nature and biodiversity, must start accounting for the value of ecosystem services in their cost-benefit analyses.
Khatoon, R., Hussain, I., Anwar, M., Nawaz, M. A. (2017). Diet selection of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) in Chitral, Pakistan. Turkish Journal of Zoology, (14), 914–923.
Abstract: Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is an elusive endangered carnivore found in remote mountain regions of Central Asia, with
sparse distribution in northern Pakistan, including Chitral and Baltistan. The present study determined the food habits of snow leopard,
including preferred prey species and seasonal variation in diet. Fifty-six scat samples were collected and analyzed to determine the
diet composition in two different seasons, i.e. summer and winter. Hair characteristics such as cuticular scale patterns and medullary
structure were used to identify the prey. This evidence was further substantiated from the remains of bones, claws, feathers, and other
undigested remains found in the scats. A total of 17 prey species were identified; 5 of them were large mammals, 6 were mesomammals,
and the remaining 6 were small mammals. The occurrence of wild ungulates (10.4%) in the diet was low, while livestock constituted a
substantial part (26.4%) of the diet, which was higher in summer and lower in winter. Mesomammals altogether comprised 33.4% of
the diet, with palm civet (Paguma larvata) as a dominant (16.8%) species, followed by golden marmot (Marmota caudate) (8.8%), which
was higher in winter. There was a significant difference in seasonal variation in domestic livestock and small mammals. The livestock
contribution of 26.4% observed in the present study indicates a significant dependence of the population on livestock and suggests
that the study area is expected to be a high-conflict area for snow leopards. The results of the current study would help improve the
conservation efforts for snow leopards, contributing to conflict resolution and effective management of this endangered cat.
Mallon, D. P., Jackson, R. M. (2017). A downlist is not a demotion: Red List status and reality. Oryx, , 1–5.
Abstract: Assessments of biodiversity status are needed to
track trends, and the IUCN Red List has become the accepted
global standard for documenting the extinction
risk of species. Obtaining robust data on population size is
an essential component of any assessment of a species� status,
including assessments for the IUCN Red List. Obtaining
such estimates is complicated by methodological and
logistical issues, which are more pronounced in the case of
cryptic species, such as the snow leopard Panthera uncia.
Estimates of the total population size of this species have,
to date, been based on little more than guesstimates, but a
comprehensive summary of recent field research indicates
that the conservation status of the snow leopard may be
less dire than previously thought. A revised categorization,
from Endangered to Vulnerable, on the IUCN Red List was
proposed but met some opposition, as did a recent, similar
recategorization of the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca.
Possible factors motivating such attitudes are discussed.
Downlisting on the IUCN Red List indicates that the species
concerned is further from extinction, and is always to be
welcomed, whether resulting from successful conservation
intervention or improved knowledge of status and trends.
Celebrating success is important to reinforce the message
that conservation works, and to incentivize donors.
Ghoshal, A. (2017). Snow Leopard Ecology and Conservation Issues in India. Resonance, , 677–690.
Abstract: Snow leopard, an elusive mammal species of the cat family,
is the top-predator of the Central and South Asian, highaltitude
ecosystem. Snow leopards occur at low densities across
the Central Asian mountains and the Indian Himalayan region.
Owing to their secretive nature and inaccessible habitat,
little is known about its ecology and distribution. Due to
its endangered status and high aesthetic value, the snow leopard
is considered as an �umbrella species� for wildlife conservation
in the Indian Himalayas. This article summarizes the
current knowledge on snow leopard ecology and conservation
issues in the Indian context.
Murali, R., Redpath, S., Mishra, C. (2017). The value of ecosystem services in the high altitude Spiti Valley, Indian Trans-Himalaya. Elsevier, (28), 115–123.
Abstract: The high mountain ranges of South and Central Asia are increasingly being exposed to large-scale development
projects. These areas are home to traditional pastoralist communities and internationally important
biodiversity including the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia. Development projects rely on
economic cost-benefit analysis, but the ecosystem services in the high Himalayas are poorly understood
and are rarely accounted for. As a first step to fill this gap, we identified the main ecosystem services used
by local people in the Trans-Himalayan Spiti Valley (7591 km2), a region important for conservation of
snow leopards and high mountain biodiversity, and undertook an economic valuation. Stakeholders identified
a range of services, though these were dominated by provisioning services identified by 90% of
respondents. Only 5.4% of the respondents recognised regulatory services and 4.8% recognised cultural
services. The mean economic value of provisioning services was estimated at US$ 3622 ± 149 HH1
yr1, which was 3.8 times higher than the average annual household income. Our results underscore
the need to account for ecosystem services in the cost-benefit analyses of large-scale development projects
in addition to assessments of their environmental and social impact.
Ghoshal, A., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Pandav, B., Sharma, K., Mshra, C. (2017). Assessing changes in distribution of the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia and its wild prey over 2 decades in the Indian Himalaya through interviewbased occupancy surveys. Oryx, , 1–13.
Abstract: Understanding species distributions, patterns of
change and threats can form the basis for assessing the conservation
status of elusive species that are difficult to survey.
The snow leopard Panthera uncia is the top predator of the
Central and South Asian mountains. Knowledge of the distribution
and status of this elusive felid and its wild prey is
limited. Using recall-based key-informant interviews we estimated
site use by snow leopards and their primary wild
prey, blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and Asiatic ibex Capra
sibirica, across two time periods (past: �; recent:
�) in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. We
also conducted a threat assessment for the recent period.
Probability of site use was similar across the two time periods
for snow leopards, blue sheep and ibex, whereas for wild
prey (blue sheep and ibex combined) overall there was an
% contraction. Although our surveys were conducted in
areas within the presumed distribution range of the snow
leopard, we found snow leopards were using only % of
the area (, km). Blue sheep and ibex had distinct distribution
ranges. Snow leopards and their wild prey were not
restricted to protected areas, which encompassed only %
of their distribution within the study area. Migratory livestock
grazing was pervasive across ibex distribution range
and was the most widespread and serious conservation
threat. Depredation by free-ranging dogs, and illegal hunting
and wildlife trade were the other severe threats. Our
results underscore the importance of community-based, landscape-
scale conservation approaches and caution against reliance
on geophysical and opinion-based distribution maps that have been used to estimate national and global snow leopard ranges.