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Johansson, T., A. Johansson, Orjan. McCarthy, Tom. (2011). An Automatic VHF Transmitter Monitoring System for Wildlife Research. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 9999, 1–5.
Abstract: We describe an automated system for monitoring multiple very high frequency (VHF) transmitters, which are commonly employed in wildlife studies. The system consists of a microprocessor-controlled radio-frequency monitor equipped with advanced signal-processing capabilities that communicates with, and relays information to, a user interface unit at a different location. the system was designed for a capture-and-release snow leopard (Panthera uncia) study in Mongolia, where checking trap-site transmitters manually entailed climbing a hill with telemetry equipment several times each day and night. Here, it monitors the trap-site transmitters and actively produces an alarm when any of the traps have been triggered, or if the system has lost contact with any trap-transmitter. The automated system allowed us to constantly monitor transmitters from a research camp, and alerted us each time a trap was triggered. The system has been field-tested for 83 days from mid-September 2010 to mid-december 2010 in the Tost mountain range on the edge of Mongolia's Gobi desert. During this time, the system performed reliably, responding correctly to 45 manually generated alarms and 9 animal captures. The system considerably shortens the time the captured animals spend in traps, and also mitigates the need for manual trap-site transmitter monitoring, greatly reducing risk to the animal and the human effort involved.
Johansson, T., A. Johansson, Orjan. McCarthy, Tom. (2011). An Automatic VHF Transmitter Monitoring System for Wildlife Research. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 35((4)), 489–493.
Abstract: We describe an automated system for Monitoring multiple very high frequency (VHF) transmitters, which are commonly employed in wildlife studies. The system consists of a microprocessor-controlled radio-frequency monitor equipped with advanced signal-processing capabilities that communicates with, and release snow leopard (Panthera uncia) study in Mongolia, where checking trap-site transmitters manually entailed climbing a hill with telemetry equipment several times each day and night. Here, it monitors the trap site transmitters and actively produces an alarm when any of the traps have been triggered, or if the system has lost contact with any trap-transmitter. The automated system allowed us to constantly monitor transmitters from a research camp, and alerted us each time a trap was triggered. The sys ten has been field-tested for 83 days from mid-September 2010 to mid- December 2010 in the Tost mountain range on the edge of Mongolia's Gobi desert. During this time, the system performed reliably, responding correctly to 45 manually generated alarms and 9 animal captures. The system considerably sorters the time the captured animals spend in traps, and also mitigates the need for manual trap-site transmitter monitoring, greatly reducing risk to the animal and the human effort involved.
Chalise, M. K. (2011). Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia), Prey Species and Outreach in Langtang National, Park, Nepal. Our Nature, (9), 138–145.
Abstract: Presence of snow leopard (Uncia uncia) in Langtang National Park was obscure till 2003. It was confirmed by a
research team trained for the wildlife biology in the field. Along with the study of ecology and behavior of snow leopard sufficient effort were made to generate data on pre species. The study also dealt with threat perceived for the leopard survival while basic unit of conservation- local outreach programs were also initiated.
WWF Mongolia Programme Office. (2010). Communication and public awareness programme. Mongolia: WWF Mongolia.
Abstract: The overall goal and vision of the project is to ensure survival of Argali and Snow Leopard in Mongolian-Russian trans-border areas of Altai-Sayan Ecoregion and replicate best practices to other parts of species ranges. The project has two modules:
•Conservation of Argali and Snow Leopard using Community based approaches and
•Establishing new PA, covering their critical habitats and improving management of the local PA “Gulzat”
Maheshwari, A., Takpa, J., Kujur, S., Shawl, T. (2010). An Investigation of Carnivore-Human Conflicts in Kargil and Drass Areas of Jammu and Kashmir, India. India.
Abstract: Still, there are areas from where very poor information is available on snow leopard and associated species. Keeping this in view, Kargil and Drass areas of Ladakh,Jammu and Kashmir were identified as “gaps” in available information on snow leopard. Kargil has not received much attention for wildlife studies due to its proximity to the International Boundary between India and Pakistan and resultant security implications. The only information available from the area is from a study done by Sathyakumar (2003) on the occurrence of Himalayan brown bear from Zanskar and Suru Valleys in Ladakh. But there was very poor information on the occurrence and distribution of other carnivores and conflicts with humans in Kargil. Therefore, this study was felt necessary to establish the following objectives:
1. Surveys for the occurrence and distribution of snow leopard and other large
carnivores and their prey
2. To estimate abundance of prey species
3. To study food habits of snow leopard and other carnivores based on scat analysis
4. To study the of carnivore – human conflicts
5. To study the socio-economic conditions of rural community and develop local
Maheshwari, A., Sharma, D. (2010). Snow leopard conservation in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh.
Abstract: The Greater and Trans Himalayan regions of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh have great potential in terms of wildlife (flora and fauna). This survey was the first ever survey for the snow leopard in Uttarakhand and some of the areas of Himachal Pradesh till date. It confirms the presence of snow leopard in Uttarakhand on the basis of indirect evidence. We could not find any evidence of snow leopard from surveyed areas in Himachal Pradesh – but it certainly does not mean that there are no snow leopards in the surveyed areas.
Areas above 3000m elevation were selected for this survey in 10 protected areas of both the states. Status and distribution of snow leopard was assessed through indirect evidence (n=13) found between 3190 and 4115m. On average, one indirect evidence of snow leopard was found for every 39km walked. About 39% of the evidence was found on the hill-slope followed by valley floor (30%), cliff (15%) and 8% from both stream bed and scree slope. Preferred mean slope was 28° (maximum 60°). Snow leopard-human conflicts were assessed through questionnaire surveys from Govind Pashu Vihar, Askot Wild Life Sanctuary and Dung (Munsiari) areas. They revealed that livestock depredation is the only component of conflict and contributed to 36% of the total diet (mule, goat and sheep) of snow leopard. Blue sheep and rodents together comprised 36.4% of the total diet.
Jegal, A., Kashkarov, E., & Matyushkin E.N. (2010). Simple method to distinguish tracks of snow leopard and lynx.
Abstract: In the Mongolian and Gobi Altai mountain ranges and also in some other mountains in this region, the
distribution of the snow leopard and Eurasian lynx overlaps. In some cases, local hunters cannot
distinguish the tracks of both these animals. Therefore we outline a simple method to distinguish tracks of
the snow leopard and lynx.
Ming, M., Baowen, H., Yu, M., & McCarthy, T. (2010). Survey on Bird Species and Analysis on Bird Diversity in the Central Kunlun Mountains in the Early Winter. Arid Zone Research, 27(2), 227–232.
Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association. (2010). Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association Report March 2010.
Abstract: In accordance with order of the Ministry of Nature and Tourism,
zoologists of our association have made surveys in three ways such as
reasons why snow leopards attack domestic animals, “Snow leopard” trial
operation to count them and illegal hunting in territories of Khovd,
Gobi-Altai, Bayankhongor, Uvurkhangai and Umnugobi provinces from
September 2009 to January 2010. As result of these surveys it has made
the following conclusions in the followings: Reason to hunt them illegally: the principal reason is that
administrative units have been increased and territories of
administrative units have been diminished. There have been four
provinces in 1924 to 1926, 18 since 1965, 21 since 1990. Such situation
limits movements of herdsmen completely and pastures digressed much than
ever before. As result of such situation, 70% of pastures become desert.
Such digression caused not only heads of animals and also number of
species. Guarantee is that birds such as owls, cuckoo, willow grouse in
banks of Uyert river, Burkhanbuudai mountain, located in Biger soum,
Gobi-Altai province, which are not hunted by hunters, are disappearing
in the recent two decades. For that reason we consider it is urgently
necessary for the government to convert administrative unit structures
into four provinces. This would influence herdsmen moving across
hundreds km and pastures could depart from digression.
Second reason: cooperative movement won. The issues related to management and strengthening of national
cooperatives, considered by Central Committee of Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party in the meeting in March 1953 was the start of
cooperatives' movement. Consideration by Yu. Tsedenbal, chairman of
Ministers Council, chairman of the MPRP, on report "Result of to unify
popular units and some important issues to maintain entity management of
agricultural cooperatives" in the fourth meeting by the Central
Committee of Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party /MPRP/ on December
16-17, 1959, proclaimed complete victory of cooperative. At the end of
1959, it could unify 767 small cooperative into 389 ones, unify 99.3 %
of herdsmen and socialize 73.3 % of animals. The remaining of animals
amount 6 million 163 thousands animals, and equals to 26.7% of total
animals. This concerned number of animals related to the article
mentioned that every family should have not more that 50 animals in
Khangai zone and not more 75 animals in Gobi desert. It shows that such
number could not satisfy needs of family if such number is divided into
five main animals in separating with reproduction animals and adult
animals. So herdsmen started hunt hoofed animals secretly and illegally
in order to satisfy their meat needs. Those animals included main food
of snow leopard such as ibex, wild sheep, and marmot. Third reason is that the state used to hunt ibex, which are main
nutrition of snow leopards, every year. The administrative unit of the
soum pursued policy to hunt ibex in order to provide meat needs of
secondary schools and hospitals. That's why this affected decrease of
ibex population. Preciously from 1986 to 1990 the permissions to hunt
one thousands of wild sheep and two thousands of ibexes were hunt for
domestic alimentary use every year. Not less than 10 local hunters of every soum used to take part in big
game of ibexes. Also they hunted many ibexes, chose 3-10 best ibexes and
hid them in the mountains for their consummation during hunting.
Fourth reason: hunting of wolves. Until 1990 the state used to give
prizes to hunter, who killed a wolf in any seasons of the year. Firstly
it offered a sheep for the wolf hunter and later it gave 25 tugrugs /15
USD/. Every year, wolf hunting was organized several times especially
picking wolf-cubs influenced spread and population of wolves. So snow
leopard came to the places where wolves survived before and attack
domestic animals. Such situation continued until 1990. Now population of
ibexes has decreased than before 1990 since the state stopped hunting
wolves, population of wolves increased in mountainous zones. We didn't
consider it had been right since it was natural event. However
population of ibexes decreased. Fifth reason: Global warming. In recent five years it has had a drought
and natural disaster from excessive snow in the places where it has
never had such natural disasters before. But Mongolia has 40 million
heads of domestic animals it has never increased like such quantity in
its history before. We consider it is not incorrect that decrease of
domestic animals could give opportunities to raise population of wild
animals. Our next survey is to make attempt to fix heads of snow leopards
correctly with low costs.
McCarthy, T., Murray, K., Sharma, K., & Johansson, O. (2010). Preliminary results of a long-term study of snow leopards in South Gobi, Mongolia. Cat News, Autumn(53), 15–19.
Abstract: Snow leopards Panthera uncia are under threat across their range and require urgent conservation actions based on sound science. However, their remote habitat and cryptic nature make them inherently difficult to study and past attempts have provided insufficient information upon which to base effective conservation. Further, there has been no statistically-reliable and cost-effective method available to monitor snow leopard populations, focus conservation effort on key populations, or assess conservation impacts. To address these multiple information needs, Panthera, Snow Leopard Trust, and Snow Leopard Conservation Fund, launched an ambitious long-term study in Mongolia’s South Gobi province in 2008. To date, 10 snow leo-pards have been fitted with GPS-satellite collars to provide information on basic snow leopard ecology. Using 2,443 locations we calculated MCP home ranges of 150 – 938 km2, with substantial overlap between individuals. Exploratory movements outside typical snow leopard habitat have been observed. Trials of camera trapping, fecal genetics, and occupancy modeling, have been completed. Each method ex-hibits promise, and limitations, as potential monitoring tools for this elusive species.