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Wegge, P., Shrestha, R., Flagstad, O. (2012). Snow leopard Panthera uncia predation on livestock and wild prey in a mountain valley in northern Nepal: implications for conservation management. Wildlife Biology, 18(10.2981/11-049), 131–141.
Abstract: The globally endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia is sparsely distributed throughout the rugged mountains in Asia.
Its habit of preying on livestock poses a main challenge to management. In the remote Phu valley in northern Nepal, we
obtained reliable information on livestock losses and estimated predator abundance and diet composition from DNA
analysis and prey remains in scats. The annual diet consisted of 42%livestock. Among the wild prey, bharal (blue sheep/
naur) Pseudois nayaur was by far the most common species (92%). Two independent abundance estimates suggested that
there were six snow leopards in the valley during the course of our study. On average, each snow leopard killed about one
livestock individual and two bharal permonth. Predation loss of livestock estimated fromprey remains in scats was 3.9%,
which was in concordance with village records (4.0%). From a total count of bharal, the only large natural prey in the area
and occurring at a density of 8.4 animals/km2 or about half the density of livestock, snow leopards were estimated to
harvest 15.1% of the population annually. This predation rate approaches the natural, inherent recruitment rate of this
species; in Phu the proportion of kids was estimated at 18.4%. High livestock losses have created a hostile attitude against
the snow leopard and mitigation measures are needed. Among innovative management schemes now being implemented
throughout the species’ range, compensation and insurance programmes coupled with other incentive measures are
encouraged, rather than measures to reduce the snow leopard’s access to livestock. In areas like the Phu valley, where the
natural prey base consists mainly of one ungulate species that is already heavily preyed upon, the latter approach, if
implemented, will lead to increased predation on this prey, which over time may suppress numbers of both prey and
Rosen, T. H., S. Mohammad, G. Jackson, R. Janecka, J, E. Michel, S. (2012). Reconciling Sustainable Development of Mountain Communities With Large Carnivore Conservation. Mountain Research and Development, (32(3)), 286–293.
Abstract: While the world is becoming increasingly interconnected and interdependent, physically and culturally, the wildlife of remote mountain regions is being affected both positively and negatively by such interconnectedness. In the case of snow leopards, the conservation impact has been largely, and rather unexpectedly, positive: Species-focused conservation projects, such as Project Snow Leopard (PSL) in
Gilgit-Baltistan, remain mainly externally driven initiatives. PSL, initiated as a small pilot project in 1998, has relied on an approach that includes the use of an insurance scheme, the deployment of mitigation measures, and the empowerment of local governance. This approach has been successful in
reducing the conflict with snow leopards and has built greater tolerance toward them. PSL is managed by local communities and cofinanced by them. PSL communities throughout the region are bearing the burden of carnivore conservation, and they are unwittingly subsidizing their populations by ‘‘feeding’’
them their livestock even though they are an economic threat to them. In this article, we argue that external intervention in the form of efforts that help alleviate the consequences of conflict through local empowerment have had a positive impact on the local mountain societies. We also show that such interventions have resulted in tangible conservation results, with the number of snow leopards staying at least stable. Our experience also shows that while the incentive component is critical, it is also part of a larger approach—one that includes developing and supporting local governance structures, improving access to education, and offering a range of tools to reduce the conflict that can be implemented
locally. Finally, we suggest that investing in this approach— one that recognizes the species and local-context complexities surrounding the implementation of conservation incentives—can continue to inform international practices and guidelines for reducing human–wildlife conflicts worldwide.
Li, J. S., G, B. McCarthy, T. M. Wang, D. Jiagong, Z. Cai, P. Basang, L. Lu, Z. (2012). A Communal Sign Post of Snow Leopards (Panthera uncial) and Other Species on the Tibetan Plateau China. International Journal of Biodiversity, 2013, 1:8.
Abstract: The snow leopard is a keystone species in mountain ecosystems of Central Asia and the Tibetan Plateau, However, little is known about the interactions between snow leopards and sympatric carnivores. Using infrared cameras, we found a rocky junction of two valleys in Sanjiangyuan area on the Tibetan Plateau where many mammals in this area passed and frequently marked and sniffed the site at the junction. We suggest that this site serves as a sign post to many species in this area, especially snow leopards and other carnivores. The marked signs may also alert the animals passing by to temporally segregate their activities to avoid potential conflicts. We used the Schoener index to measure the degree of temporal segregation among the species captured by infrared camera traps at this site. Our research reveals the probable ways of both intra- and interspecies competition. This is an important message to help understand the structure of animal communities. Discovery of the sign post clarifies the importance of identifying key habitas ad sites of both snow leopards and other species for more effective conservation.
Jackson. R. (2012). Fostering Community-Based Stewardship of Wildlife in Central Asia: Transforming Snow Leopards from Pests into Valued Assets. In Springer Science and Business Media (pp. 357–380).
Abstract: Book Title: Rangeland Stewardship in Central Asia: Balancing Improved Livelihoods, Biodiversity Conservation and Land Protection, 2012. Edited by Victor Squires. Published Springer Science+Business Media. 458 p. 91 illus., 61 in color.
Addressing human–wildlife conflict is an important requisite to managing
rangelands for livestock and wildlife. Despite high altitudes, aridity, and relatively
low primary productivity, the rangelands of Central Asia support a rich and diverse
biodiversity—including the endangered snow leopard that many herders perceive
as a predator to be eliminated. Conserving this and other wildlife species requires
carefully crafted interventions aimed at curbing depredation losses and/or reducing
competition for forage, along with offering locally sustainable, environmentally
friendly income-generating activities for supplementing pastoral household livelihoods.
This is best achieved through a combination of incentives designed to foster
sound rangeland and wildlife stewardship, along penalties or disincentives targeting
herders who violate mutually agreed rules and regulations (including grazing norms
and wildlife disturbance or poaching).
When working toward the harmonious coexistence of people and wildlife,
conservationists and rangeland practitioners need to seek the cooperation and
build goodwill among herders and other stakeholders, including local government
and private industry (especially the livestock production, mining, and tourism
Maming, R. (2012). Market prices for the tissues and organs of snow leopards in China. Selevinia, (20), 119–122.
Abstract: The population of snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is plummeting as waterfall in
the last ten years. The illegal trade of snow leopard products is one of the fatal
factors. The biggest range and the biggest population of snow leopard both are in
China, and the largest trade is also in the country. Through questionnaires and
investigation with informants from 2002 to 2012, a lot of data were collected
through variety ways in different regions. In this paper 387 cases of snow leopard
poaching including smuggling routes, product list, price system and product usages
from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region were collected for analysis and discussion. In
the face of rapid development in the west of China, the results showed that our
government did not try to protect the snow leopards, and the text of law was
practically useless. International organizations such as WWF, WCS, IUCN, PANTHERA,
SLT & SLN with SLSS were also powerless and helpless to stop snow leopard poaching
and trading. As a result, the fate of the snow leopard is very bad, and this is
Ming, M., Munkhtsog, B., McCarthy, T., McCarthy, K. (2011). Monitor ing of Population Density of Snow Leopard in X injiang. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment, 27(1), 79–83.
Abstract: The snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is a very rare species in China. The survey of traces of snow leopard in Kunlun, Altay and Tianshan is them a instep of the Project of Snow Leopard in X injiang supported by the International Snow Leopard Trust ( SLT) and the Xinjiang Conservation Fund (XCF). During the field survey from 2004 to 2010, the Xinjiang Snow Leopard Group ( XSLG) spent about 270 days in over 20 different places, covering over 150 transects totaling nearly 190 km, and found 1- 3 traces per kilometer. The traces of snow leopard recorded include dung, odor, chains of footprints, scraping, paw nail marks, lying mark, fur, urine, bloodstain, leftover of prey corpse, roaring and others. Based on tracer image analyses, the XSLG got to know primarily scopes of the domains, distribution and relative density of the snow leopard in these areas. Then the group began to take infrared photos, conducted survey of food sources of the leopards, investigated fur market and paths of trading, and cases of killing, and carry out civil survey through questionnaire, non government organization community service and research on conflicts between grazing and wild life protection. A total of 36 infrared came ras were laid out, working a total of about 2 094 days or 50 256 hours. A total 71 rolls of film were collected and developed, includ ing 32 clear pictures of snow leopards, thus making up a shooting rate or capture rate of 1.53%. It was ascertained that in Tomur Peak area, there were 5- 8 snow leopards roaming within a range of 250 km2, forming a population density of 2��0- 3��2 per 100 km2. After compar ing the various monitoring results, the advantages and limitations of different monitoring methods have been discussed.
Mongolian News. (2011, 43 1142). 50 wild sheep will be hunted this year., 4.
Abstract: Notice that the Mongolian government will allow the taking of 4 snow leopards in 2011.
Gronberg, E. (2011). Movement patterns of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) around kills based on GPS location clusters. Master's thesis, , .
Abstract: Research concerning movement patterns of wild animals has been advancing since GPS technology arrived. But studying the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is still difficult because of the harsh territory it inhabits in Central Asia. This study took place in south Gobi, Mongolia, and aimed to estimate the time spent at kills and the maximum distance away from kills between visits. Snow leopards were monitored with GPS collars that took a location every five or seven hours. Potential kill sites were established by identifying clusters of GPS-locations in ArcGIS and visited in the field for confirmation. ArcGIS was used to calculate the distance between cluster and GPS-locations. I used two buffer zones (100 m and 500 m radius) to define the time snow leopards spent at kills. It was found that snow leopard age and prey category affected time spent at kills and also that snow leopard sex together with prey category affected the maximum distance moved away from kills between visits. Season had no significant effect on either time at kills or distance moved away from kills between visits. Snow leopards spent on average 3.2 days at their kills in the 100 m buffer zone and 3.5 days at their kills in the 500 m buffer zone. Subadults stayed longer at kills than adults and animals of both age categories spent longer time on larger prey. The mean maximum distance moved away from kills between visits was 179 m in the 100 m buffer zone and 252 m in the 500 m buffer zone. Female snow leopards moved further away from kills between visits than male snow leopards. Both the number of days spent on kills and maximum distance moved away from kills between visits increased when kills consisted of more than one animal. This study has provided some basic information on snow leopard behaviors around their kills but also highlights the need to monitor more snow leopards before more solid conclusions can be drawn as this study was based on based on a relatively small sample.
Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2011). Snow Leopard Scouts from Mt. Everest (Anil Adhikari & Basu Kshitiz, Ed.). Callifornia, US: Author.
Abstract: Snow Leopard Scouts from Mt. Everest -- a sketch booklet – targeted to school students, their parents and other stakeholders to generate their interest on conservation. Because it is their effort, participating students are expected to share the booklet that vividly illustrates their own contributions -- with their parents, teachers, fellow villagers, and cohorts in the other schools. Note that all participants, snow leopard scouts, took part in outdoor activities – they were exposed to snow leopard habitat, encouraged to observe Himalayan tahr and other wildlife, and were engaged in nature debates, essay writings, a quiz contest, and wildlife drawings – all formed the basis for preparing this simple (trial) booklet – all materials for the booklet came from participating students.
Anwar, M., Jackson, R., Nadeem, M., Janecka, J., Hussain, S., Beg, M., Muhammad, G., and Qayyum, M. (2011). Food habits of the snow leopard Panthera uncia (Schreber, 1775) in Baltistan, Northern Pakistan. European Journal of Wildlife Research, (3 March), 1–7.
Abstract: The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits the high, remote mountains of Pakistan from where very little information is available on prey use of this species. Our study describes the food habits of the snow leopard in the Himalayas and Karakoram mountain ranges in Baltistan, Pakistan. Ninety-five putrid snow leopard scats were collected from four sites in Baltistan. Of these, 49 scats were genetically confirmed to have originated from snow leopards. The consumed prey was identified on the basis of morphological characteristics of hairs recovered from the scats. It was found that most of the biomass consumed (70%) was due to domestic livestock viz. sheep (23%), goat (16%), cattle (10%), yak (7%), and cattle–yak hybrids (14%). Only 30% of the biomass was due to wild species, namely Siberian ibex (21%), markhor (7%), and birds (2%). Heavy predation on domestic livestock appeared to be the likely cause of conflict with the local inhabitants. Conservation initiatives should focus on mitigating this conflict by minimizing livestock losses.