Abstract: Biodiversity of a protected area of West Himalaya (Askot Wildlife Sanctuary) was studied and analysed for landscape, faunal and floral diversity. The forest and pasture land, ideal habitats for the flora and fauna, covered nearly 52% and 12%, respectively, of total reported area. Among the fauna Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), thar (Himitragus jemlahicus), snow leopard (Panthera uncia), koklas (Pucrassia macrolophas), monal (Lophophorus impejanus) and snow cock (Tetragalus tibetanus) are threatened species. Plant diversity is represented by 1262 species of vascular plants (Angiosperm 1112, Gymnosperm 7, Pteridophytes 143 taxa). Diversity of the species within families, genera, habitats, communities and along vertical gradient zone was analysed. Maximum diversity existed in the family Orchidaceae (120 taxa), genera Polystichum (13 taxa), altitude zone (1001-2000 m; 860 taxa), habitat (forest; 623 taxa) and community (Banj oak: 92 taxa). Seventy-one families were found to be monotypic. Species were further analysed for ethnobotanical use (medicine: 70, edible: 55, fodder: 115, fuel: 31, house building: 13 etc.), domesticated diversity (crops: 19, vegetables: 26, fruits: 16),agroforestry or marginal, threatened and endemic diversity. Similarity in species composition within the habitats indicated maximum similarity in areas of shrubberies and alpine meadows/slopes (71.65%) and exposed open/grassy slopes and shady moist places (47.32%). 432 (34.2%) taxa are native to Indian Himalaya of which 24 are endemic and 235 are near endemics. 65.8% of taxa are represented in the neighbouring areas and other regions of the globe. Ten taxa occurring in the Sanctuary have been already recorded in the Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Conservation and management of species is focused.