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Bobrinskiy N.A. (1946). Mountains of Central Asia.
Abstract: A general description of fauna complexes of Central Asia's mountains (Djungar Ala-Tau, Tien-Shan, Gissar, Pamir, Kopet-Dag, Greater Balkhans) is given. A review of main animal groups and an attempt to zone fauna of Central Asia's mountains are made. Fauna of Central Asia's highlands with its specific variety of species (snow leopard, ibex, argali, snow cock and others) is western outpost of Inner Asia's mountain fauna. Snow leopard inhabits highlands of Djungar Ala-Tau, East and West Tien Shan, Bukhara and East Pamir.
Feng, Z. (1986). The mammals of Tibet. Beijing: Science Press.
Gee, E. P. (1967). Occurrence of the snow leopard Panthera uncia (Schreber) in Bhutan. Journal of the Natural History Museum Society, 30, 634–636.
Abstract: Indicates that snow leopard range includes all of Northern Bhutan
Hunter, D. O. (1991). Science and Spirit:GIS tracks the elusive snow leopard. GeoInfo Systems, Jan, 21–28.
International Snow Leopard Trust. (2001). Snow Leopard News Summer 2001. Seattle, WA: Islt.
Kovshar A.F. (1982). A problem of rare and endangered animal species in Kazakhstan.
Abstract: The Red Book of the Kazakh SSR includes 91 rare and endangered vertebrate animal species: 30 mammal, 48 bird, eight reptile, one amphibian, and four fish species. 26 species (Menzbier's marmot, marten species, lynx, snow leopard, and other species) became rare because of a direct anthropogenic pressure. The prohibition of hunting, conservation and rehabilitation of their habitats, reproduction in enclosures and preservation of some species' genomes is a way that would conserve rare species, the authors believe.
McCarthy, T. M., & Chapron, G. (2003). Snow Leopard Survival Strategy. Seattle, USA: International Snow Leopard Trust and Snow Leopard Network.
Abstract: I. SNOW LEOPARD: REVIEW OF CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND STATUS
This Snow Leopard Survival Strategy (SLSS) was undertaken to provide comprehensive conservation and research guidelines to ensure a range-wide coordinated effort in the fi ght to save the endangered snow leopard and had the following specific goals: Assess and prioritize threats to snow leopard survival on a geographic basis.
Defi ne and prioritize conservation, education, and policy measures appropriate to alleviate threats.
Prioritize subjects for snow leopard research and identify viable or preferred research methods.
Build a network of concerned scientists and conservationists to facilitate open dialogue and cross-border cooperation.
Gain consensus on a fundamental Snow Leopard Survival Strategy document that will be made available to the range states to aid conservation planning at national and local levels.
The highly participatory process started with a survey of specialists designed to gather information on perceived threats to snow leopards, appropriate actions to address threats, knowledge gaps, protected area status, policy and law issues, impediments to achieving conservation of snow leopards, and cultural relevance of snow leopards. Drafts of a Strategy were circulated and then the Snow Leopard Survival Summit was convened in Seattle, USA from 21-26 May 2002 and was attended by 58 of the specialists to debate issues and refi ne the Strategy. This SLSS document is the end product of that process. Background on the snow leopard The snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is a member of the Felidae subfamily Pantherinae and on the basis of morphology and behavior it is placed alone in a separate genus. They are found in 12 countries across Central Asia (China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Mongolia). China contains as much as 60% of the snow leopard's potential habitat. Inaccessible and difficult terrain, along with the secretive nature of this rare cat helps account for the fact that large parts of its range have yet to be surveyed. Between 4,500 and 7,350 snow leopards are thought to occur within a total potential habitat area of 1,835,000 km2. Snow leopards are generally solitary and mating usually occurs between late January and midMarch, and one to five cubs are born after a gestation period of 93 to 110 days, generally in June or July. Snow leopards are closely associated with the alpine and subalpine ecological zones, preferring broken, rocky terrain with vegetation that is dominated by shrubs or grasses. Home range size and shape is not well known. The home range size of five snow leopards in prime habitat in Nepal ranged from 12 to 39 km2, with substantial overlap between individuals and sexes. In Mongolia, where food resources may be scarcer, home ranges of both males and females exceeded 400 km2. Snow leopards are opportunistic predators capable of killing prey up to three times their own weight. They will also take small prey such as marmot or chukar partridge. In general, their most commonly taken prey consists of wild sheep and goats
(including blue sheep, Asian ibex, markhor, and argali). Adult snow leopards kill a large prey animal every 10-15 days, and remained on the kill for an average of 3-4 days, and sometimes up to a week. Predation on livestock can be significant, which often results in retribution killing by herders. Snow Leopards are listed as Endangered on the
IUCN Red List in that they do not meet the standards of Critically Endangered but are projected to decline by 50% or more over next 3 generations due to potential levels of exploitation (trade in pelts/bones and conflict with
livestock), and due to declining: 1) area of occupancy, 2) extent of occurrence, and 3) quality of habitat (prey depletion). They appear in Appendix I of both CITES and the Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species of
Wild Animals (CMS). Snow Leopards are protected nationally over most of its range, with the probable exception of Afghanistan. However, in some countries the relevant legislation may not always be very effective, e.g. because penalties are too low to function as deterrent, or they contain some significant loopholes.
II. THREATS AND CONSERVATION ACTIONS
This document attempts to list and discuss the threats, conservation actions and information needs pertinent to snow leopard survival. However, these vary substantially across the vast extent of snow leopard range, so no prescription will be universally applicable. We used a regional approach and for purposes of grouping areas where conditions may be similar, we looked at geography, political boundaries, cultural/religious influences, and rural livelihoods. Within that framework we defined four broad regions:
Karakorum/Hindu Kush (KK/HK),
Commonwealth of Independent States and W. China (CISWC),
The Northern Range of Russia, Mongolia and N. China (NRANG) SNOW LEOPARD SURVIVAL STRATEGY
Threats to Snow Leopard Survival
A key component of the SLSS process was to identify threats to long-term snow leopard survival across their range. The following list is the result of extensive consultations with stakeholders in Asia and the expert group at the SLSS Summit. Threats are grouped into four broad categories 1) Habitat and Prey related, 2) Direct Killing of Snow Leopards, 3) Policy and Awareness, and 4) Other Issues.
List of Threats
Category 1: Habitat and Prey Related
1.1 Habitat Degradation and Fragmentation
1.2 Reduction of Natural Prey due to Illegal Hunting
1.3 Reduction of Natural Prey due to Legal Hunting
1.4 Reduction of Natural Prey due to Competition with Livestock
1.5 Reduction of Natural Prey due to Disease
1.6 Fencing that Disrupts Natural Migration
Category 2: Direct Killing or Removal of Snow Leopards
2.1 Killing of Snow Leopards in Retribution for Livestock depredation
2.2 Poaching Snow Leopards for Trade in Hides or Bones
2.3 Museum Collection of Live Animals
2.4 Traditional Hunting of Snow Leopards
2.5 Secondary Poisoning and Trapping of Snow Leopards
2.6 Diseases of Snow Leopards
Category 3: Policy and Awareness
3.1 Lack of Appropriate Policy
3.2 Lack of Effective Enforcement
3.3 Lack of Trans-boundary Cooperation
3.4 Lack of Institutional Capacity
3.5 Lack of Awareness among Local People
3.6 Lack of Awareness among Policy Makers
Category 4: Other Issues
4.1 War and Related Military Activities
4.2 Climate Change
4.3 Human Population Growth and Poverty (indirect threat)
Potential Actions to Address Threats
Several methods are identified and elaborated in this document and they include:
Grazing Management: Promote livestock grazing practices that reduce impacts on native wildlife, in particular snow leopard prey species.
Wildlife-based Ecotourism: Establishing wildlife based tourism that provides jobs and financial benefits to local people will add economic value to wildlife and create incentives to protect the resource.
Cottage Industry: Provide income generation opportunities for communities in snow leopard habitat through handicraft manufacture and marketing opportunities with direct and transparent linkages to wildlife conservation via contracts that provides positive incentives for compliance.
Ungulate Trophy Hunting Programs: Establish or restructure trophy hunting programs that are sustainable, well monitored and provide return to local people as an incentive to protect ungulates. Community co-management of hunting program should be encouraged where ever appropriate.
Reducing Poaching and Trade in Snow Leopard Parts:
Determine location, nature and extent of snow leopard poaching for trade and bring pressure, both legal and educational, to limit same.
Reducing Livestock Depredation by Snow Leopards:
Encourage livestock husbandry practices that reduce depredation by snow leopards and other predators.
Animal Husbandry: Provide training in animal husbandry and veterinary care to improve monetary return at lower stock levels, limit exposure to predation, and reduce impacts on pasture and rangelands.
Conservation Education and Awareness: Raise awareness of snow leopard conservation issues, concerns, need for action, legal matters, etc, through variety of media among different audiences.
III. RESEARCH AND INFORMATION NEEDS
During the process of listing the threats to snow leopards and the required conservation actions, a set of information needs was also identified. Hence, the list below encompasses the knowledge required to carry-out urgent conservation actions.
Master List of Information Needs
R.1 Snow leopard distribution and “hot spots”
R.2 Snow leopard migration and dispersal routes
R.3 Snow leopard population size
R.4 Snow leopard population trends and factor responsible for changes
R.5 Protected Area coverage extent and representation of habitats (gap analysis)
R.6 Agents of habitat degradation and relative impacts
R.7 Snow leopard prey relationships
R.8 Prey species distribution and “hot spots”
R.9 Prey population baseline and trends
R.10 Dynamics of illegal ungulate hunting (sources, local need, uses, trade, etc.)
R.11 Dynamics of legal ungulate harvest and baseline statistics (sex/age, effort, trophy size, etc.)
R.12 Wild ungulate livestock interactions (competition)
R.13 Ungulate disease type, areas of occurrence, prevalence, virulence, treatment
R.14 Snow leopard poaching levels
R.15 Illegal trade in wildlife parts market demand, sources and routes, value, etc.
R.16 Livestock depredation rates
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R.17 Livestock depredation causes
R.18 Grazing pressure and range conditions
R.19 Snow leopard disease type, areas of occurrence, prevalence, virulence, treatment
R.20 Snow leopard home-range size and habitat use
R.21 Snow leopard social structure and behavior
R.22 Snow leopard population genetics
R.23 Snow leopard food habits
R.24 Snow leopard relationship to other predators
R.25 Economic valuation of snow leopards
R.26 Snow leopard monitoring techniques development/improvement
R.27 Socio-economic profiling of herder communities in snow leopard habitat
R.28 Methods to alleviate impacts of war
R.29 Livestock and human population status and trends
R.30 Analysis of existing policies and laws
R.31 Human attitudes to snow leopards
IV. COUNTRY ACTION PLANNING
The SLSS should be seen as a tool to aid in the development of country-specifi c Action Plans. In general Action
Planning leaders should review the SLSS and then:
Analyze the problems and choose the proper scale,
Identify the key stakeholders and integrate them into the planning process at the beginning, (i.e. ensure a broadly participatory process),
Choose a multi-level approach if the problems and stakeholders are particularly diverse,
Seek to identify achievable and appropriate actions,
Build monitoring of results into the Plan.
The Action Planning process need not be done in a vacuum. The Snow Leopard Network (see below), can provide much needed assistance in terms of expertise and advice during the planning process. Collectively, the SLN membership has experience in nearly every area of snow leopard related conservation, research, education, and policy. They can be approached for assistance through the International Snow Leopard Trust, 4649 Sunnyside
Ave. N., Suite 325, Seattle, Washington, 98103, USA, on their website http://www.snowleopard.org/sln/ or via email at <email@example.com>.
V. TAKING THE SLSS FORWARD
A key outcome of the SLSS Workshop was the creation of the Snow Leopard Network (SLN). The SLN is a partnership of organizations and individuals from government and private sector who work together for the effective conservation of the snow leopard, its prey, and their natural habitat to the benefi t of people and biodiversity.
The initial members of the SLN are the specialist who worked together on the SLSS. Carrying the SLSS forward was the impetus for developing the Network.
Pollock, R. V., & Carmichael, L. E. (1983). Use of modified live feline panleukopenia virus vaccine to immunize dogs against canine parvovirus. Am J Vet Res, 44(2), 169–175.
Abstract: Modified live feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) vaccine protected dogs against canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. However, unlike the long- lived (greater than or equal to 20-month) immunity engendered by CPV infection, the response of dogs to living FPLV was variable. Doses of FPLV (snow leopard strain) in excess of 10(5.7) TCID50 were necessary for uniform immunization; smaller inocula resulted in decreased success rates. The duration of immunity, as measured by the persistence of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody, was related to the magnitude of the initial response to vaccination; dogs with vigorous initial responses resisted oronasal CPV challenge exposure 6 months after vaccination, and hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies persisted in such dogs for greater than 1 year. Limited replication of FPLV in dogs was demonstrated, but unlike CPV, the feline virus did not spread to contact dogs or cats. Adverse reactions were not associated with living FPLV vaccination, and FPLV did not interfere with simultaneous response to attenuated canine distemper virus.
Sultanov G.S. (1982). Some results of nature conservation in Uzbekistan.
Abstract: Last years scientists from Zoology institute have analyzed the modern status of vertebrates of Uzbekistan and trend of the populations. As a result 63 vertebrates including 22 mammals including snow leopard were recommended to be include into preparing Red Data book of Uzbekistan as endangered species. Unfortunately many of specialists' recommendations connected with establishing new protected areas are not putting into practice.
Yu, N. Z. C., Wang, X., He, G., Zhang, Z., Zhang, A., Lu, W., et al. (1996). A revision of genus Uncia Gray, 1854 based on mitochondrial DNA restriction site maps. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 16(2), 105–108.
Abstract: The Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is one of the most threatened wild big cats within its range of distribution, however, the question of its systematic status is a matter of debate. Is it a member of genus Panthera, or is it in its own genus (Uncia)? The analysis of genetic difference at the DNA level may provide useful data to clarify the issue. In the present study, ten hexanucleotide-specific restriction endonucleases were used to evaluate the patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation between the Snow leopard and leopard (P. pardus). The molecular size of mtDNA from the two species was about 16.5 kb. Ten enzymes surveyed 32-34 restriction sites, which corresponded to 192 apprx 204 base pairs, or 1.16% apprx 1.24% of the total mtDNA molecule. A total of 45 restriction sites were mapped; of these sites, twenty-four, which correspond to 53.3% of the total sites, were variable. The sequence divergence between them was 0.075 33, which was undoubtedly in the species-level distinction but did not reach the genus level. Therefore, the Snow leopard should be placed in the genus Panthera rather than in its own ganus. It also seems reasonable to recognize Uncia as a valid subgenus. This conclusion not only support but also supplement the viewpoint of Simpson who treated Uncia as a subgenus within Panthera.