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(1998). Biological diversity conservation. National strategy and action plan of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Abstract: The National strategy and action plan of the Republic of Uzbekistan was signed on April 1, 1998. Snow leopard was included in the list of rare and endangered animal species and referred to category 2 a rare, not endangered species. It is distributed in highlands of the West Tien Shan and Pamiro-Alay. Its population is 30-50 animals. Snow leopard is protected in the Chatkal, Gissar nature reserve, and Ugam-Chatkal national park.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; national strategy and action plan; biodiversity; endangered species; snow leopard; distribution; number; conservation measures.; 6280; Russian
|Fox, J. L., Sinha, S. P., & Chundawat, R. S. (1987). Recomendations for Expansion of Hemis High Altitude Park, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir. Wildlife Institute of India.|
Gosselin, S. J., Loudy, D. L., Tarr, M. J., Balistreri, W. F., Setchell, K. D., Johnston, J. O., et al. (1988). Veno-occlusive disease of the liver in captive cheetah. Vet Pathol, 25(1), 48–57.
Abstract: Liver tissues from 126 captive cheetah were evaluated by light microscopy and histochemistry; eight animals were evaluated by electron microscopy. The main hepatic lesion, a vascular lesion resembling veno- occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver and characterized by subendothelial fibrosis and proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells in the central veins, was seen in 60% of the sexually mature cheetah. Although this hepatic vascular lesion was seen in cheetah as young as 1 year of age, the most severe lesions, usually associated with liver failure, were found in cheetah between the ages of 6 and 11. There was no sex predisposition, and in approximately 40% of the VOD cases, liver disease was not suspected clinically or at necropsy. VOD was found in other felidae, especially in the snow leopard. High levels of vitamin A in livers, as well as in diets of the cheetah, could be a contributing factor in the development of VOD in some groups of cheetah.
Keywords: Animal; Feed; analysis; Carnivora; Cheetahs; Female; Hepatic; Veno; Occlusive; Disease; pathology; veterinary; Histocytochemistry; Liver; ultrastructure; Male; Microscopy; Electron; Support; Non-U.S.Gov't; Vitamin A; browse; non; us; gov't; government; 280
Gurung, G. T. K. (2004). Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) and Human Interaction in Phoo Village in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.
Abstract: Phoo village in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal is located at 4,052 m als physically
in the central north of the country. Livestock keeping is the main activity of the people for making a
living amidst a conflict with snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Each year snow leopard kills a number of
livestock resulting significant economic losses for the poor people living in this remote area. Unless
the people – snow leopard conflict is well understood and appropriate conflict management activities
are implemented, the long run co-existence between people and snow leopard – especially the
existence of snow leopard in this part of the world -will be in question. This has now become an
utmost important as the aspiration of the people for economic development has risen significantly and
the area has been opened to tourism since spring 2002. In addition to this, the globalisation process has
directly and indirectly affected the traditional resource management practices and co-existence
strategies of many traditional societies including Phoo.
The livestock depredation for 3 years (2001 – 2004) by snow leopard was studied by interviewing the
herders to understand the responsible and specific bio-physical and socio-economic factors. The study
revealed that goats are most depredated species followed by sheep. Winter months (January – April)
and winter pastures are most vulnerable to snow leopard predation. Presence of bushes, forest and
boulders make good hides for snow leopard resulting into high depredation. The study also showed
that a lax animal guarding system was significantly responsible for high livestock depredation by snow
The study showed that improvement in livestock guarding system should be adopted as the most
important activity. However despite the importance of livestock in the economy of Phoo it is still not
well understood why the herders neglect for proper livestock guarding. This requires further study.
Proper guarding system is required especially in winter season in winter pastures. It is also suggested
that there should be changes in the composition of livestock species by promoting more yaks and
discouraging or minimising goats. Yaks and large animals are less depredated and small animals like
goats and sheep are highly depredated by snow leopard. A trend was also observed in Phoo village
where there is an increase in the number of yaks and a decrease in the number of goats over last few
years. This could be a management response of the herders to livestock depredation. Other protective
measures of the livestock at the corrals have also been recommended including promotion of guard
dogs and other measures.
Since the area is opened for tourism, it is suggested that the tourism opportunity for the economic
development of the area should be grasped so that the heavy dependence on livestock raising would be
minimised. This will help minimise the number of human – snow leopard conflicts.
Keywords: phoo; annapurna conservation area; Nepal; livestock; human interaction; conflict management; yaks; goats; sheep; horse; corral; 5280
Kattel, B., & Bajimaya, S. S. (1997). Status and Conservation of Snow Leopard in Nepal. In R.Jackson, & A.Ashiq (Eds.), (pp. 21–27). Lahore, Pakistan: International Snow Leopard Trust.
Keywords: Nepal; conservation; status; management; predator; prey; blue-sheep; distribution; ecology; habitat; parks; park; reserves; reserve; refuge; livestock; herders; Dogs; herder; yak; goat; hunting; poaching; bone; trade; fur; pelt; pelts; coats; bones; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; protected; area; protected area; 2280
Koshkarev E. (2000). What has happened to the snow leopard after the break-up of Soviet Union? (Vol. 4 (19)).
Abstract: It describes status of snow leopard in republics of the former Soviet Union, main reasons for poaching and negative and positive experience on species conservation. The total number of snow leopard in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan in the 1980's was at least 1200-1400. In Kazakhstan the snow leopard population totaled 180-200, in Uzbekistan around 100, and in Russia 150-200. The number and natural habitat of the species were in universal decline. Losses in Kyrgyzstan from poaching alone were no less than 30 animals per year in 1960-1980's. During this period the population in this area decreased by half, and the natural habitat by one third. With the break-up of the Soviet Union, poaching of the snow leopard and its pray grew by at least a factor of 3-4. It was estimated that 500-600 animals reduced the Kyrgyz snow leopard population in the 1990's. The population that remains today can barely be more than 150-200 individual snow leopards. The population has been physically decimated. Number of snow leopard in existence today in the former Soviet Union does not exceed 700-900 individual animals.
Keywords: Central Asia; status; poaching; conservation measures; snow leopard.; 7280; Russian
|Liao, Y. F. (1988). A preliminary study on the geographical distribution of snow leopards in China. In H.Freeman (Ed.), (pp. 51–64). ISLT and Wildlife Inst. of India.|
Miller, D. J., & Jackson, R. (1994). Livestock and Snow Leopards:making room for competing users on the Tibetian Plateau. In J.L.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 315–328). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: livestock; Tibet; herder; herders; predator; prey; protected-areas; parks; reserves; refuge; Tibetian-Plateau; ungulates; wild-yak; blue-sheep; pika; marmots; gazelle; antelope; Qomolangma; Namcha-Barwa; Chang-Tang; habitat; grazing; wolves; pens; enclosures; bounties; bounty; pelts; skins; coats; furs; poisoning; medicine; bones; land-use; conservation; ecology; blue; sheep; browse; tibetian; plateau; wild; yak; namcha; barwa; change; tang; land use; land; 2800
Sloane, A., Kelly, C., McDavitt, S., & Marples, N. (1998). Big cats in captivity: a quantitative analysis of enrichment. Adv.Etho, 33, 43.
Abstract: Studies on three species of big cats at Dublin Zoo have led to firm conclusions about the effects of certain forms of enrichment, some of which will be presented here. Lions, jaguars, and snow leopards were studied over two years and their behaviours quantified using focal animal sampling during selected hours during daylight. By comparison of these activity budgets with and without the enrichments being present, it was possible to identify the exact behavioural changes caused by each enrichment method, and to quantify these changes. In this contribution we present results showing that the presence of a platform in both lion and jaguar enclosures dramatically reduced stereotypic pacing behaviour. We will demonstrate that the effects of short term enrichment devices may have a wide range of effects on behaviours which outlast the presence of the stimulus. For instance scents added to the cage, or food/play items such as horse hides, hidden fish or ice-blocks often reduce pacing and increase resting later in the day, even after the cats have ceased using the enrichment items. This reduction in pacing and increase in resting time often meant that the amount of the enclosure used per hour was actually reduced with the presence of new stimuli, as result opposite to what might have been expected. The results of these studies will be discussed in relation to effective animal management.
Keywords: abnormal-behavior; behavior; captive-animal-care; endangered; threatened-species; zoos; enrichment; abnormal; captive; Animal; care; threatened; species; browse; 1280; study; big; big cats; Cats; cat; zoo; effects; Lions; lion; jaguar; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; behaviour; using; activity; activities; change; presence; enclosures; range; scent; cage; horse; hides; management
Sokolov V.E. (1990). The Chatkal nature reserve.
Abstract: It provides general information about the Chatkal nature reserve (Uzbekistan), its physico-geographical features, and description of flora and fauna. Fauna of vertebrate animals includes four fishes, two amphibians, 11 reptiles, 176 birds, and 33 mammals. The typical mammals of the nature reserve are fox and badger. Sometimes, steppe cat can be met too. Snow leopard and marbled polecat are seen rarely. Brown bear is quite widely distributed. Ungulates such as wild boar and ibex are widely distributed in the nature reserve.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; Cahtkal nature reserve; location; climate; soils; flora; fauna; mammals; snow leopard.; 8280; Russian