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Bagchi, S., Mishra, C., & Bhatnagar, Y. (2004). Conflicts between traditional pastoralism and conservation of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Trans-Himalayan mountains. Animal Conservation, 7, 121–128.
Abstract: There is recent evidence to suggest that domestic livestock deplete the density and diversity of wild herbivores in the cold deserts of the Trans-Himalaya by imposing resource limitations. To ascertain the degree and nature of threats faced by Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) from seven livestock species, we studied their resource use patterns over space, habitat and food dimensions in the pastures of Pin Valley National Park in the Spiti region of the Indian Himalaya. Species diet profiles were obtained by direct observations. We assessed the similarity in habitat use and diets of ibex and livestock using Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling. We estimated the influence of the spatial distribution of livestock on habitat and diet choice of ibex by examining their co-occurrence patterns in cells overlaid on the pastures. The observed co-occurrence of ibex and livestock in cells was compared with null-models generated through Monte Carlo simulations. The results suggest that goats and sheep impose resource limitations on ibex and exclude them from certain pastures. In the remaining suitable habitat, ibex share forage with horses. Ibex remained relatively unaffected by other livestock such as yaks, donkeys and cattle. However, most livestock removed large amounts of forage from the pastures (nearly 250 kg of dry matter/day by certain species), thereby reducing forage availability for ibex. Pertinent conservation issues are discussed in the light of multiple-use of parks and current socio-economic transitions in the region, which call for integrating social and ecological feedback into management planning.
Keywords: conflicts; traditional pastoralism; himalayan ibex; ibex; capra sibirica; trans-himalayan mountains; pin valley national park; spiti region; non-metric multidimensional scaling; snow leopard; wolf; wild dog; Lynx; wild ass; Tibetan argali; Tibetan antelope; Tibetan gazelle; urial; bharal; Pin River; pin valley; Parahio; goat; sheep; Cattle; horses; yaks; donkeys; diet; free-ranging horses; herded horses; grazing; 5290
Bhatnagar, Y. V., Mathur, V. B., & McCarthy, T. (2002). A Regional Perspective for Snow Leopard Conservation In the Indian Trans-Himalaya.. Islt: Islt.
Abstract: The Trans-Himalaya is a vast biogeographic region in the cold and arid rain-shadow of
the Greater Himalaya and is spread over three Indian states. From the conservation
standpoint this region has several unique characteristics. Unlike most other
biogeographic regions of the country, it has wildlife, including large mammals, spread
over the entire region. Another feature is that the harsh climate and topography
provides limited agricultural land and pastures, all of which are currently utilized by
people. The harsh environment has given rise to a specialized assemblage of flora and fauna in
the region that include the endangered snow leopard, a variety of wild sheep and goat,
Tibetan antelope, Tibetan gazelle, kiang and wild yak. The snow leopard is one of the
most charismatic species of the Trans-Himalaya. This apex predator, with a wide
distribution, has ecological importance and international appeal, and is eminently
suitable to be used as both a 'flagship' and an 'umbrella species' to anchor and guide
conservation efforts in the Trans-Himalayan region. Among the 10 Biogeographic Zones in the country, the Trans-Himalaya has a
comparatively large Protected Area (PA) coverage, with over 15,000 km2 (8.2 %) of
the geographical area under the network. In spite of this, the bulk of the large mammal
populations still exist outside the PAs, which include highly endangered species such
as snow leopard, chiru, wild yak, Ladakh urial, kiang and brown bear. Given the sparse resource availability in the Trans-Himalaya and the existing human
use patterns, there are few alternatives that can be provided to resource dependent
human communities in and around PAs. The existing PAs themselves pose formidable
conservation challenges and a further increase in their extent is impractical. The
problem is further compounded by the fact that some of the large PAs have unclear
boundaries and include vast stretches that do not have any direct wildlife values. These
issues call for an alternative strategy for conservation of the Trans-Himalayan tracts
based on a regional perspective, which includes reconciling conservation with
development. In this paper we stress that conservation issues of this region, such as competition for
forage between wild and domestic herbivores and human-wildlife conflicts need to be
addressed in a participatory manner. We suggest an alternative scheme to look at the
zonation of existing PAs and also the Trans-Himalayan region as a whole, to facilitate
better conservation in the region. Also, we emphasize that there is a vital need for
additional resources and a formal setup for regional planning and management under a
centrally sponsored scheme such as the 'Project Snow Leopard'.
Keywords: snow; leopard; India; indian; Himalaya; Himalayan; conservation; region; regional; climate; topography; flora; fauna; Tibet; tibetan; protected; area; planning; management; manage; biogeographic; gazelle; kiang; yak; predator; 4900
Gurung, G. T. K. (2004). Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) and Human Interaction in Phoo Village in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.
Abstract: Phoo village in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal is located at 4,052 m als physically
in the central north of the country. Livestock keeping is the main activity of the people for making a
living amidst a conflict with snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Each year snow leopard kills a number of
livestock resulting significant economic losses for the poor people living in this remote area. Unless
the people – snow leopard conflict is well understood and appropriate conflict management activities
are implemented, the long run co-existence between people and snow leopard – especially the
existence of snow leopard in this part of the world -will be in question. This has now become an
utmost important as the aspiration of the people for economic development has risen significantly and
the area has been opened to tourism since spring 2002. In addition to this, the globalisation process has
directly and indirectly affected the traditional resource management practices and co-existence
strategies of many traditional societies including Phoo.
The livestock depredation for 3 years (2001 – 2004) by snow leopard was studied by interviewing the
herders to understand the responsible and specific bio-physical and socio-economic factors. The study
revealed that goats are most depredated species followed by sheep. Winter months (January – April)
and winter pastures are most vulnerable to snow leopard predation. Presence of bushes, forest and
boulders make good hides for snow leopard resulting into high depredation. The study also showed
that a lax animal guarding system was significantly responsible for high livestock depredation by snow
The study showed that improvement in livestock guarding system should be adopted as the most
important activity. However despite the importance of livestock in the economy of Phoo it is still not
well understood why the herders neglect for proper livestock guarding. This requires further study.
Proper guarding system is required especially in winter season in winter pastures. It is also suggested
that there should be changes in the composition of livestock species by promoting more yaks and
discouraging or minimising goats. Yaks and large animals are less depredated and small animals like
goats and sheep are highly depredated by snow leopard. A trend was also observed in Phoo village
where there is an increase in the number of yaks and a decrease in the number of goats over last few
years. This could be a management response of the herders to livestock depredation. Other protective
measures of the livestock at the corrals have also been recommended including promotion of guard
dogs and other measures.
Since the area is opened for tourism, it is suggested that the tourism opportunity for the economic
development of the area should be grasped so that the heavy dependence on livestock raising would be
minimised. This will help minimise the number of human – snow leopard conflicts.
Keywords: phoo; annapurna conservation area; Nepal; livestock; human interaction; conflict management; yaks; goats; sheep; horse; corral; 5280
Harris, R. B. (1994). A note on snow leopards and local people in Nangqian County, Southern Qinghai Province. In J.L.Fox, & D. Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 79–84). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: China; Qinghai; attitude; local-peoples; herders; livestock; predator; prey; cub; capture; poaching; blue-sheep; Release; grazing; yaks; goats; horses; domestic; ungulates; hunting; bones; fur; pelts; coats; conservation; trapping; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; local; protected; area; peoples; 3250
Harris, R. B., Pletscher, D. H., Loggers, C. O., & Miller, D. J. (1999). Status and trends of Tibetan plateau mammalian fauna, Yeniugou, China. Biological Conservation, 87, 13–19.
Abstract: We conducted surveys focusing on the unique and vulnerable ungulate species in Yeniugou, Qinghai province, China, during September 1997 to compare population estimates with those from the early 1990s. The status of two ungulate species appeared essentially unchanged since 1990ñ1992: wild yak Bos grunniens (about 1200 to 1300 animals) and Tibetan gazelle Procapra picti- caudata. The status of one ungulate species, the white-lipped deer Cervus albirostris, appeared to improve, from a very few to close to 100. We are unsure how the status of the Tibetan wild ass Equus kiang compares with that of the early 1990s. The status of three species declined during the period: blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and argali Ovis ammon declined slightly (possibly due to a weather event), and the Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni declined dramatically (probably due primarily to poaching), from over 2000 estimated in 1991 to only two seen during 1997. Poaching of antelope has become a serious problem throughout the Tibetan plateau in recent years, and this survey provides evidence that an entire subpopulation can disappear (either through mortality, movement away from human disturbance or a combination) within a relatively short time-frame. That some species (e.g. wild yak, white-lipped deer) continue to thrive in Yeniugou is heartening, but even they remain vulnerable to market-driven poaching.#1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: argali; blue sheep; China; conservation; Qinghai; survey; Tibetan antelope; Tibetan gazelle; Tibetan wild ass; white-lipped deer; wild; yak; Yeniugou; 5210
Ikeda, N. (2004). Economic impacts of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia in the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal Himalaya (Vol. 31).
Abstract: It is necessary to fully understand the economic conditions of local herders in order to find solutions to the conflicts between wildlife conservation and livestock rearing in remote areas of low-income countries. In the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Nepal, livestock depredation by snow leopards impacts on yak herders' livelihoods. Retaliatory killings of snow leopard by the herders have been reported and the concerned authorities recently initiated snow leopard conservation programmes. In 2001, interviews with the yak herders who used the pastures in the Ghunsa valley in the preceding year collected data on the incidence of livestock death caused by snow leopards. The annual net cash income of the yak herders was estimated by obtaining baseline values of sales and expenditure per livestock head through field measurement of dairy products and interviews with a sample of herders. As yet, the average annual damage does not appear to have adversely affected fundamental livelihoods in households with an average herd size (36.6 head). However, in the worst scenario of livestock depredation, households with medium or small-sized herds (<40 head) might risk their living conditions becoming unsustainable or having to withdraw from yak pastoralism. A supplementary interview showed that the majority of the herders, except those who took completely neutral attitudes towards the regional conservation and development programme, had negative views of the snow leopard conservation policy. For the snow leopard conservation programme in the KCA to be a success, there must be a system to compensate the herders' households for livestock damage.
Keywords: herder; Kanchenjunga Conservation Area; local resident; park people conflict; wildlife conservation; yak.; snow leopard
Kashkarov, E. (2017). ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERIES IN WESTERN BERINGIA.208–217.
Abstract: Among zoogeographical discoveries of the frontier of XXI century there is nothing more interesting
than discoveries of Rodion Sivolobov in Western Beringia. Beringia has surprised us by
paleontological discoveries many centuries ago, and also surprised by modern one. Somehow they
came out of attention of all International environmental foundations and Academies of the world, as
if on purpose to show their professional incompetence. It is the only way to describe the
organization, not to notice the appearance of such big cats as the Snow leopard and Amur tiger for
5,000 kilometers from the border of main range, as well as large Pleistocene relict � the Irkuyembear.
All three endangered species of mammals found by Sivolobov in Koryakia and Chukotka, and
for the snow leopard he took the world's first photo in Beringia.
New facts suggests two things: (1) the ancient refuges of big cats locate to Koryakia and
Chukotka much closer of main ranges, (2) global warming, changing natural environment on the
waves of hundred-year rhythms, periodically pushing irbis and tiger on the ways of ancient
Beringian migrations stored in their genetic memories. Irkuyem is a contemporary of the mammoth.
Unlike it, this bear lived up to our days, but remained undetected even by the large “mammoths” of
Keywords: zoogeographical discoveries, Snow leopard, Irbis, Amur tiger, Irkuyem-bear, global warming, hundred-year rhythm, Beringia, Koryakia, Chukotka.
Kattel, B., & Bajimaya, S. S. (1997). Status and Conservation of Snow Leopard in Nepal. In R.Jackson, & A.Ashiq (Eds.), (pp. 21–27). Lahore, Pakistan: International Snow Leopard Trust.
Keywords: Nepal; conservation; status; management; predator; prey; blue-sheep; distribution; ecology; habitat; parks; park; reserves; reserve; refuge; livestock; herders; Dogs; herder; yak; goat; hunting; poaching; bone; trade; fur; pelt; pelts; coats; bones; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; protected; area; protected area; 2280
Miller, D. J., & Jackson, R. (1994). Livestock and Snow Leopards:making room for competing users on the Tibetian Plateau. In J.L.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 315–328). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: livestock; Tibet; herder; herders; predator; prey; protected-areas; parks; reserves; refuge; Tibetian-Plateau; ungulates; wild-yak; blue-sheep; pika; marmots; gazelle; antelope; Qomolangma; Namcha-Barwa; Chang-Tang; habitat; grazing; wolves; pens; enclosures; bounties; bounty; pelts; skins; coats; furs; poisoning; medicine; bones; land-use; conservation; ecology; blue; sheep; browse; tibetian; plateau; wild; yak; namcha; barwa; change; tang; land use; land; 2800
|Norbu, U. P. (1997). Status and Conservation of Snow Leopard In Bhutan. In R.Jackson, & A.Ahmad (Eds.), (pp. 28–34). Lahore, India: International Snow Leopard Trust.|