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Alexander, J. S., Cusack, J. J., Pengju, C, Kun, S., Riordan, P. (2015). Conservation of snow leopards: spill-over benefits for other carnivores? Oryx, (Fauna & Flora International), 1–5.
Abstract: In high-altitude settings of Central Asia the
Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia has been recognized
as a potential umbrella species. As a first step in assessing
the potential benefits of snow leopard conservation for
other carnivores, we sought a better understanding of the
presence of other carnivores in areas occupied by snow leopards
in China’s Qilianshan National Nature Reserve. We
used camera-trap and sign surveys to examine whether
other carnivores were using the same travel routes as snow
leopards at two spatial scales. We also considered temporal
interactions between species. Our results confirm that other
carnivores, including the red fox Vulpes vulpes, grey wolf
Canis lupus, Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx and dhole Cuon alpinus,
occur along snow leopard travel routes, albeit with low detection
rates. Even at the smaller scale of our camera trap survey
all five carnivores (snow leopard, lynx, wolf, red fox and
dhole) were observed. Kernel density estimates suggested a
high degree of temporal overlap between the snow leopard
and the fox, and the snow leopard and the lynx, as indicated
by high overlap coefficient estimates. There is an opportunity
to consider protective measures at the local scale that would
benefit various species simultaneously. However, it should
also be recognized that snow leopard conservation efforts
could exacerbate human–wildlife conflicts through their protective
effect on other carnivore species.
Aryal, A. (2009). Final Report On Demography and Causes of Mortality of Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve in Nepal.
Abstract: A total of 206 individual Blue sheep Pseudois nayaur were estimated in Barse and Phagune blocks of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR) and population density was 1.8 Blue sheep/sq.km. There was not significant change in population density from last 4 decades. An average 7 animals/herd (SD-5.5) were classified from twenty nine herds, sheep per herds varying from 1 to 37. Blue sheep has classified into sex ratio on an average 75 male/100females was recorded in study area. The sex ratio was slightly lower but not significantly different from the previous study. Population of Blue sheep was seen stable or not decrease even there was high poaching pressure, the reason may be reducing the number of predators by poison and poaching which has
supported to increase blue sheep population. Because of reducing the predators Wolf Canis lupus, Wild boar population was increasing drastically in high rate and we can observed wild boar above the tree line of DHR. The frequency of occurrence of different prey species in scats of different predators shows that, excluding zero values, the frequencies of different prey species were no significantly different (ö2= 10.3, df = 49, p > 0.05). Most of the scats samples (74%) of Snow leopard, Wolf, Common Leopard, Red fox's cover one prey species while two and three species were present in 18% and 8%, respectively. Barking deer Muntiacus muntjak was the most frequent (18%) of total diet composition of common leopards. Pika Ochotona roylei was the most frequent (28%), and Blue sheep was in second position for diet of snow leopards which cover 21% of total diet composition. 13% of diet covered non-food item such as soil, stones, and vegetable. Pika was most frequent on Wolf and Red fox diet which covered 32% and 30% respectively. There was good positive relationship between the scat density and Blue sheep consumption rate, increasing the scat density, increasing the Blue sheep consumption rate. Blue sheep preference by different predators such as Snow leopard, Common leopard, Wolf and Red fox were 20%, 6%, 13% and 2% of total prey species respectively.
Augugliaro, C., Christe, P., Janchivlamdan, C., Baymanday, H.,
Zimmermann, F. (2020). Patterns of human interaction with snow leopard and co-predators
in the Mongolian western Altai: Current issues and perspectives. Global Ecology and Conservation, 24, 1–21.
Abstract: Large carnivores can cause considerable economic damage,
mainly due to livestock depredation. These conficts instigate negative
attitude towards their conservation, which could in the extreme case
lead to retaliatory killing. Here we focus on the snow leopard (Panthera
uncia), a species of conservation concern with particularly large
spatial requirements. We conducted the study in the Bayan Olgii
province, one of the poorest provinces of Mongolia, where the majority
of the human population are traditional herders. We conducted a survey
among herders (N 261) through a semi-structured questionnaire with the
aim to assess: the current and future herding practices and prevention
measures, herders’ perceptions and knowledge of the environmental
protection and hunting laws; the perceived livestock losses to snow
leopard, wolf (Canis lupus), and wolverine (Gulo gulo), as well as to
non-predatory factors; the key factors affecting livestock losses to
these three large carnivores; and, finally, the attitudes towards these
three large carnivores. Non-predatory causes of mortality were slightly
higher than depredation cases, representing 4.5% and 4.3% of livestock
holdings respectively. While no depredation of livestock was reported
from wolverines, snow leopard and wolf depredation made up 0.2% and 4.1%
of total livestock holdings, respectively. Herders’ attitudes towards
the three large carnivores were negatively affected by the magnitude of
the damages since they had a positive overall attitude towards both snow
leopard and wolverine, whereas the attitude towards wolf was negative.
We discuss conservation and management options to mitigate herder-snow
leopard impacts. To palliate the negative consequences of the increasing
trend in livestock numbers, herd size reduction should be encouraged by
adding economic value to the individual livestock and/or by promoting
alternative income and/or ecotourism. Furthermore, co-management between
government and stakeholders would help tackle this complex problem, with
herders playing a major role in the development of livestock management
strategies. Traditional practices, such as regularly shifting campsites
and using dogs and corrals at night, could reduce livestock losses
caused by snow leopards.
Bagchi, S., Mishra, C., & Bhatnagar, Y. (2004). Conflicts between traditional pastoralism and conservation of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Trans-Himalayan mountains. Animal Conservation, 7, 121–128.
Abstract: There is recent evidence to suggest that domestic livestock deplete the density and diversity of wild herbivores in the cold deserts of the Trans-Himalaya by imposing resource limitations. To ascertain the degree and nature of threats faced by Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) from seven livestock species, we studied their resource use patterns over space, habitat and food dimensions in the pastures of Pin Valley National Park in the Spiti region of the Indian Himalaya. Species diet profiles were obtained by direct observations. We assessed the similarity in habitat use and diets of ibex and livestock using Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling. We estimated the influence of the spatial distribution of livestock on habitat and diet choice of ibex by examining their co-occurrence patterns in cells overlaid on the pastures. The observed co-occurrence of ibex and livestock in cells was compared with null-models generated through Monte Carlo simulations. The results suggest that goats and sheep impose resource limitations on ibex and exclude them from certain pastures. In the remaining suitable habitat, ibex share forage with horses. Ibex remained relatively unaffected by other livestock such as yaks, donkeys and cattle. However, most livestock removed large amounts of forage from the pastures (nearly 250 kg of dry matter/day by certain species), thereby reducing forage availability for ibex. Pertinent conservation issues are discussed in the light of multiple-use of parks and current socio-economic transitions in the region, which call for integrating social and ecological feedback into management planning.
Din, J. U., Ali, H., Ali, A., Younus, M., Mehmood,, T., Rashid, Y. N., Nawaz, M. A. (2017). Pastoralist-predator interaction at the roof of the world: Conflict dynamics and implications for conservation. Ecology and Society, 22(2).
Abstract: Pastoralism and predation are two major concomitantly known facts and matters of concern for conservation biologists worldwide. Pastoralist-predator conflict constitutes a major social-ecological concern in the Pamir mountain range encompassing Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan, and affects community attitudes and tolerance toward carnivores. Very few studies have been conducted to understand the dynamics of livestock predation by large carnivores like snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis
lupus), owing to the region�s remoteness and inaccessibility. This study attempts to assess the intensity of livestock predation (and resulting perceptions) by snow leopards and wolves across the Afghani, Pakistani, and Tajik Pamir range during the period January 2008�June 2012. The study found that livestock mortality due to disease is the most serious threat to livestock (an average 3.5 animal heads per household per year) and ultimately to the rural economy (an average of US$352 per household per year) as compared to
predation (1.78 animal heads per household per year, US$191) in the three study sites. Overall, 1419 (315 per year) heads of livestock were reportedly killed by snow leopards (47%) and wolves (53%) in the study sites. People with comparatively smaller landholdings and limited earning options, other than livestock rearing, expressed negative attitudes toward both wolves and snow leopards and vice versa. Education was found to be an effective solution to dilute people�s hatred for predators. Low public tolerance of the wolf and
snow leopard in general explained the magnitude of the threat facing predators in the Pamirs. This will likely continue unless tangible and informed conservation measures like disease control and predation compensation programs are taken among others.
Fox, J. L., & Chundawat, R. S. (1995). Wolves in the Transhimalayan region of India: The continued survival of a low-density population. Canadian Circumpolar Institute Occasional Publication No.35; Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world, 35, 95–103.
Abstract: Canadian Cirumpolar Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada/Second North American Symposium on Wolves, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, August 25-27, 1992
Kachel, S., Anderson, K., Shokirov, Q. (2022). Predicting carnivore habitat use and livestock depredation risk with false-positive multi-state occupancy models. Biological Conservation, 271(109588), 1–10.
Abstract: The cycle of livestock depredation and retaliatory killing constitutes a major threat to large carnivores worldwide and imposes considerable hardships on human communities. Mitigation efforts are often undertaken with little knowledge of ecological underpinnings and patterns of depredation, limiting conservationists' ability to develop, prioritize, and evaluate solutions. Carnivore detection and depredation data from interviews in affected communities may help address this gap, but such data are often prone to false-positive uncertainty. To address these challenges in the Pamir Mountains of Tajikistan we collected snow leopard, lynx, wolf, and bear detection and depredation reports from local communities via semi-structured interviews. We used a novel hierarchical multi-species multi-state occupancy model that accounted for potential false-positives to investigate carnivore site use and depredation concurrently with respondents' apparent vulnerability to that risk. Estimated false-positive probabilities were small, but failure to account for them overstated site use probabilities and depredation risk for all species. Although individual vulnerability was low, depredation was nonetheless commonplace. Carnivore site use was driven by clear habitat associations, but we did not identify any clearly important large-scale spatial correlates of depredation risk despite considerable spatial variation in that risk. Respondents who sheltered livestock in household corrals reinforced with wire mesh were less likely to report snow leopard depredations. Reducing depredation and retaliation at adequately large scales in the Pamirs will likely require a portfolio of species-specific strategies, including widespread proactive corral improvements. Our approach expanded inference on the often-cryptic processes surrounding human-carnivore conflict even though structured wildlife data were scarce.
Kachel, S. M., Karimov, K., Wirsing, A. J. (2022). Predator niche overlap and partitioning and potential interactions in the mountains of Central Asia. Journal of Mammalogy, XX(X), 1–11.
Abstract: Direct and indirect interactions among predators affect predator fitness, distribution, and overall community structure. Yet, outside of experimental settings, such interactions are difficult to observe and thus poorly understood. Patterns of niche overlap among predators reflect and shape community interactions and may therefore help elucidate the nature and intensity of intraguild interactions. To better understand the coexistence of two apex predators, snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus), we investigated their spatial, temporal, and dietary niche overlap in summer in the Pamir Mountains of Tajikistan. We estimated population- level space use via spatial capture–recapture models based on noninvasive genetics and camera traps, diel activity patterns based on camera trap detections, and diet composition from prey remains in carnivore scats, from which we estimated coefficients between 0 and 1 for overlap in space, time, and diet, respectively. Snow leopards and wolves displayed moderate spatial partitioning (0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17–37), but overlapping temporal (0.77, 95% CI: 0.64–0.90) and dietary (0.97, 95% CI: 0.80–0.99) niches. Both predators relied on seasonally abundant marmots (Marmota caudata) rather than wild ungulates, their typical primary prey, suggesting that despite patterns of overlap that were superficially conducive to exploitation competition and predator facilitation, prey were likely not a limiting factor. Therefore, prey-mediated interactions, if present, were unlikely to be a major structuring force in the ecosystem. By implication, carnivore conservation planning and monitoring in the mountains of Central Asia should more fully account for the seasonal importance of marmots in the ecosystem.
Kataevsky V.N. (2002). Mammals of Sary Chelek nature reserve.
Abstract: The 30 species of mammals are presented in Sary Chelek nature reserve, Kyrgyzstan. Comparison of status of mammal's diversity in Soviet period and present time is made. Number decrease for some mammals is noted. Number of snow leopard in Sary Chelek is 2 individuals, Turkestan lynx 3, wolf 10, bear 20, badger 20, fox 25, jackal 25, wild boar 100 individuals. Snow leopard included in national Red data Book and Global Red List.
Linnell, J., Swenson, J., Landa A., & and Kvam, T. (1998). Methods for monitoring European large carnivores – A worldwide review of relevant experience. NINA Oppdragsmelding, 549, 1–38.
Abstract: Against a background of recovering large carnivore populations in Norway, and many other areas of Europe, it is becoming increasingly important to develop methods to monitor their populations. A variety of parameters can monitored depending on objectives. These parameters include: presence/absense, distribution, population trend indices, minimum counts, statistical estimates of population size, reproductive parameters and health/condition. Three broad categories of monitoring techniques can be recognised each with increasing levels of fieldwork required. The first category includes those techniques that do not require original fieldwork. The second category involves fieldwork, but where individually recognisable carnivores are not available. The third category includes methods where fieldwork has recognisable individuals available. Different mehtods tend to have been used for different species, mainly because of limitations imposed by the different species' ecology. The most precise estimates of population size have been obtained in research projects with relatively small study sites and with the help of radio-telemetry. However, it may be difficult, or impossible, to apply these methods over large monitoring areas. Therefore, in terms of practical management, a combination of minimum counts, supported by an independent index may be more useful than statistical population estimates. All methods should be subject to a careful design process, and power analysis should be conducted to determine the sensitivity of the method to detect changes.
Based on the review of over 200 papers and reports we recommend a package of complementary monitoring methods for brown bear, wolverine, lynx and wolf in Norway. These include the use of observations from the public and reports of predation on livestock to determine broad patterns of distribution, and an index based on hunter observations per hunting day, for all four species. Minimum counts of reproductive units, natal dens, family groups, and packs, should be obtained from snow-tracking for wolverines, lynx and wolves respectively. In addition a track-count index should be obtained for wolverines and lynx. As much data as possible should be obtained of lynx and wolvereines killed in the annual harvest. Brown bears will be difficult to monitor without the use of radio-telemetry, therfore they may require periodic telemetry based, mark-recapture studies. Such a program can easily be constructed within existing central and regional wildlife management structures, but will require extensive involvement from hunters.