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Ale S. (2005). Have snow leopards made a comeback to the Everest region of Nepal?.
Abstract: In the 1960s, the endangered snow leopard was locally extirpated from the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) region of Nepal. In this Sherpa-inhabited high Himalaya, the flourishing tourism since the ascent of Mt Everest in 1953, has caused both prosperity and adverse impacts, the concern that catalyzed the establishment of Mt. Everest National Park in the region in 1976. In the late 1980s, there were reports that some transient snow leopards may have visited the area from adjoining Tibet, but no biological surveys exist to confirm the status of the cats and their prey. Have snow leopards finally returned to the top of the world? Exploring this question was the main purpose of this research project. We systematically walked altogether 24 sign transects covering over 13 km in length in three valleys, i.e. Namche, Phortse and Gokyo, of the park, and counted several snow leopard signs. The results indicated that snow leopards have made a comeback in the park in response to decades of protective measures, the virtual cessation of hunting and the recovery of the Himalayan tahr which is snow leopard's prey. The average sign density (4.2 signs/km and 2.5 sign sites/km) was comparable to that reported from other parts of the cats' range in the Himalaya. On this basis, we estimated the cat density in the Everest region between 1 to 3 cats per 100 sq km, a figure that was supported by different sets of pugmarks and actual sightings of snow leopards in the 60 km2 sample survey area. In the study area, tahr population had a low reproductive rate (e.g. kids-to-females ratio, 0.1, in Namche). Since predators can influence the size and the structure of prey species populations through mortality and through non-lethal effects or predation risk, snow leopards could have been the cause of the population dynamics of tahr in Sagarmtha, but this study could not confirm this speculation for which further probing may be required.
Keywords: snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; region; Nepal; Report; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; 1960; endangered; Sagarmatha; High; Himalaya; tourism; impact; establishment; national; national park; National-park; park; 1980; area; Tibet; surveys; survey; status; Cats; cat; prey; research; project; sign; transects; transect; length; valley; Response; hunting; recovery; Himalayan; tahr; density; densities; range; pugmarks; sighting; 60; study; population; predators; predator; structure; prey species; prey-species; species; populations; mortality; effects; predation; population dynamics
|Ale, S. B. (1994). Snow Leopard in Remote Districts of Nepal (Vol. xii). Seattle: Islt.|
Ale, S. B. (1997). The Annapurna Conservation Area Project: A Case Study of an Integrated Conservation and Development Project in Nepal. In R. Jackson, & A. Ahmad (Eds.), (pp. 155–169). Lahore, Pakistan: Islt.
Keywords: conservation; annapurna; park; parks; reserve; reserves; refuge; management; habitat; livestock; herders; herder; Acap; education; community-development; tourism; women; protected-area; browse; community; development; protected; area; 2960
|Ale, S. B. (1998). Religion and Snow Leopards in Nepal (Vol. xvi). Seattle: Islt.|
Ale, S. B., Yonzon, P., & Thapa, K. (2007). Recovery of snow leopard Uncia uncia in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park, Nepal (Vol. 41).
Abstract: From September to November 2004 we conducted surveys of snow leopard Uncia uncia signs in three major valleys in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park in Nepal using the Snow Leopard Information Management System, a standardized survey technique for snow leopard research. We walked 24 transects covering c. 14 km and located 33 sites with 56 snow leopard signs, and 17 signs incidentally in other areas. Snow leopards appear to have re-inhabited the Park, following their disappearance c. 40 years ago, apparently following the recovery of Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus and musk deer Moschus chrysogaster populations. Taken together the locations of all 73 recent snow leopard signs indicate that the species is using predominantly grazing land and shrubland/ open forest at elevations of 3,000-5,000 m, habitat types that are also used by domestic and wild ungulates. Sagarmatha is the homeland of c. 3,500 Buddhist Sherpas with .3,000 livestock. Along with tourism and associated developments in Sagarmatha, traditional land use practices could be used to ensure coexistence of livestock and wildlife, including the recovering snow leopards, and ensure the wellbeing of the Sherpas.
Keywords: Nepal; recovery; Sagarmatha Mount Everest National Park; snow leopard; Uncia uncia; surveys; survey; snow; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia-uncia; valley; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; using; information; management; system; research; transects; transect; sign; areas; area; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; 40; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; location; recent; species; grazing; land; Forest; habitat; domestic; wild; ungulates; ungulate; livestock; tourism; development; traditional; land use; land-use; use; wildlife
Anandakrishnan, M. B. (1998). The snow leopard: Elusive and endangered. The Environmental Magazine, 9(5), 18–19.
Abstract: The snow leopard has never been common, but there may be fewer than 4,000 left in its Himalayan habitat, and poaching and tourism-related development in the region could drive its numbers down further.
Keywords: Himalayan; poaching; tourism; development; Nepal; asia; snow-leopard; snow leopard; browse; 1070
Anonymous. (1999). Livestock Predation Control Workshop.
Keywords: Lahul-Spiti; Ladakh; Hemis; parks; reserves; refuge; protected-area; argali; abix; blue-sheep; wolves; distribution; status; population; poaching; hunting; trade; skins; livestock; pelts; coat; fur; bones; medicine; prey-depletion; herders; habitat; habitat-degradation; tourism; Tmi; Islt; predator; prey; conflict; compensation; trekking; blue; sheep; browse; protected; area; depletion; degradation; international snow leopard trust; 3940
|Brown, M. (1997). Community-Based Natural Resources Management in Snow Leopard Habitat. In R.Jackson, & A.Ahmad (Eds.), (pp. 146–147). Lahore, Pakistan: Islt.|
|Fox, J. L. (1992). Conservation in Ladakh's Hemis National Park: Predator and Prey (Vol. x). Seattle: Islt.|
|Fox, J. L. (1995). Snow Leopard Conservation and Related Developements in Ladakh (Vol. xiii). Seattle: Islt.|
|Fox, J. L., & Nurbu, C. (1990). Hemis, a national park for snow leopards in India's Trans-Himalaya. Int.Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards, 6, 71–84.|
|Freeman, H. (1988). Resolutions Conservation of Snow Leopard, Fifth International Snow Leopard Symposium. (pp. 267–269). Usa.|
|Gurung, C. P. (1997). Ecotourism: Nepal's Experience. In R.Jackson, & A.Ahmad (Eds.), (pp. 170–177). Lahore, Pakistan: Islt.|
Hanson, J. H., Schutgens, M., Baral, N. What explains tourists support for snow leopard conservation in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal? Human Dimensions of Wildlife, , 1–15.
Abstract: Wildlife tourism is increasingly important for the conservation of
threatened species such as snow leopards. However, what tourists
know or value about snow leopards, and to what extent they support
the conservation of this species, has received limited empirical attention.
This paper investigates tourist knowledge about snow leopards,
beliefs and values toward the species, and support for its conservation
in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. Survey data were
collected from 406 foreign tourists between March and May 2014.
Although knowledge about snow leopards varied among respondents,
there was widespread support for their conservation.
Knowledge about snow leopards was best explained by education
level and environmental organization membership. Improved knowledge
about the species, and a variety of intrinsic conservation values,
were found to increase tourist support for snow leopard conservation.
These results provide important insights to help tailor tourism
initiatives to support the conservation of snow leopards.
Keywords: Flagship species; Himalayas; knowledge-attitude-practice model; Panthera uncia; protected area management; tourism
Hanson, J. H., Schutgens, M., Baral, N., Leader-Williams, N. (2022). Assessing the potential of snow leopard tourism-related products and services in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Tourism Planning & Development, , 1–20.
Abstract: Conservation Enterprise is increasingly promoted to support the conservation of species and landscapes through incentives, such as ecotourism, including in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal. Yet the elusive behaviour of snow leopards here limits opportunities for conservation enterprise, particularly those linked to conventional ecotourism forms. Furthermore, the potential to explicitly link local snow leopard-friendly livestock production systems with the tourist market in the area, via eco-certified livestock products, has not been investigated. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the interest, from supply and demand perspectives, in introducing snow leopard ecotourism services and eco-certified products into the ACA tourist market. Questionnaire data were gathered from 406 tourists and 403 local residents. Our results, of interest to managers and researchers alike, show that there is potential to generate funds and support for both snow leopard conservation and community development, and add to the literature on utilising enterprise initiatives as conservation tools.
Keywords: Eco-certified products; ecotourism; conservation enterprise; large carnivores; tourism impacts; South Asia
Hussain, I. (1999). Conserving Biodiversity through Institutional Diversity: Concept Paper.
Keywords: Iunc; status; distribution; Baltistan; Pakistan; herders; farmers; conservation; killing; poaching; conflict; livestock; predator; prey; retaliatory-killing; economy; corral; capture; trapping; Project-snow-leopard; ecotourism; tourism; compensation; markhor; trekking; browse; retaliatory; 3910
Hussain, S. (2000). Protecting the snow leopard and enhancing farmers' livelihoods: A pilot insurance scheme in Baltistan. Mountain-Research-and-Development., 20, 226–231.
Abstract: Snow leopards that prey on poor farmers' livestock pose a twofold problem: they endanger farmers' precarious mountain livelihoods as well as the survival of the snow leopard as a unique species since farmers engage in retaliatory killings. Project Snow Leopard (PSL), a recent pilot initiative in Baltistan, involves a partnership between local farmers and private enterprise in the form of an insurance scheme combined with ecotourism activities. Farmers jointly finance the insurance scheme through the payment of premiums per head of livestock they own, while the remaining funds are provided by profits from trekking expeditions focusing on the snow leopard. The insurance scheme is jointly managed by a village management committee and PSL staff. The scheme is structured in such a way that villagers monitor each other and have incentives to avoid cheating the system.
Keywords: Uncia-uncia; snow-leopard; Felidae; protection; Human; Hominidae; farmer; livestock; Mammalia; Project-snow-leopard; economic-evaluation; ecotourism-activities; farmer-livelihood; insurance-scheme; mountain-livelihood; retaliatory-killings; snow leopard; browse; Uncia uncia; uncia; project snow leopard; economic evaluation; evaluation; economic; ecotourism activities; ecotourism; activities; farmer livelihood; livelihood; mountain livelihood; mountain; retaliatory killings; retaliatory; killings; 20
International Snow Leopard Trust. (2000). Snow Leopard News Autumn/ Winter 2000. Seattle, Wa: Islt.
Keywords: McCarthy; Mongolia; field-work; surveys; collars; habitat; research; home-ranges; tourism; parks; preserves; reserves; Islt; Nepal; women; conservation; awareness; herders; crafts; livestock; pelts; furs; bones; hunting; incentives; browse; 4370
International Snow Leopard Trust. (2001). Snow Leopard News Fall 2001. Seattle, WA: Islt.
Keywords: seattle; fund-raising; volunteers; annual-appeal; Woodland-Park-Zoo; Tserendeleg; Mongolia; Macne; Islt; Pakistan; Afganastan; Malik; September-11th; war; conservation; China; Slims; Tnc; Yunnan; Slss; Snow-Leopard-Survival-Summit; Sullenberger; Munktsog; irbis-enterprises; Cnn; Abc; tourism; travel; crafts; Dolijinsuren; browse; 4340
|International Snow Leopard Trust. (2002). Snow Leopard News, Spring 2002. Seattle, Washington: Islt.|
Jackson, R. (2000). Linking Snow Leopard Conservation and People-Wildlife Conflict Resolution, Summary of a multi-country project aimed at developing grass-roots measures to protect the endangered snow leopard from herder retribution. Cat News, 33, 12–15.
Keywords: livestock-depredation; livestock; pastoralists; herders; Pakistan; Nepal; Tibet; Mongolia; India; protected-areas; parks; reserves; refuge; snow-leopard-incentive-program; economics; tourism; pens; corrals; enclosures; trapping; poisoning; killing; cubs; dens; retribution; behavior; predator; prey; Qomolangma; habitat; feces; fecal-analysis; compensation; Dogs; guard-dogs; religion; conservation; browse; depredation; snow; leopard; incentive; program; fecal; analysis; guard; Dog; 4000
|Jackson, R., & Fox, J. L. Snow Leopard and Prey Species Workshop in Bhutan.|
Kadamshoev M. (1990). Establishment of highland nature reserves required (Vol. Part 1.).
Abstract: Human population growth in the Mountain Badakhshan autonomous province will result in changes of wild life habitat. The first highland nature reserve (Muksu river basin) is proposed to be established within the habitat of Marco Polo sheep, Siberian ibex, Tien Shan brown bear, snow leopard, Himalayan and Tibetan snow-cock, bar-headed goose, bearded and Himalayan vultures. The Mountain Badakhshan nature reserve will serve as a reference for other highland landscapes of the USSR, a `fiduciary' of gene bank containing valuable endemic, rare, and endangered animal and plant species.
Keywords: Tajikistan; Pamir; Mountain Badakhshan; nature reserves; endemics; rare species; snow leopard; tourism.; 7030; Russian
Maheshwari, A., Sathyakumar, S. (2019). Snow leopard stewardship in mitigating human-wildlife conflict in Hemis National Park, Ladakh, India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, , 1–5.
Abstract: Among large predators, snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and co-predators (e.g., wolves
Canis lupus, lynx Lynx lynx) often cause economic losses, engendering animosity from
local communities in the mountain ecosystem across south and central Asia (Din et al.,
2017; Jackson & Lama, 2016; Maheshwari, Takpa, Kujur, & Shawl, 2010; Schaller, 2012).
These economic losses range from around US $50 to nearly $300 per household,
a significant sum given per capita annual incomes of $250 – $400 (Jackson & Wangchuk,
2004; Mishra, 1997). Recent efforts such as improved livestock husbandry practices
(predator-proof livestock corrals – closed night shelters with covered roof with wiremesh
and a closely fitting iron or wooden door that can be securely locked at night) and
community-based ecotourism (e.g., home stays, guides, porters, pack animals, campsites)
are providing alternative livelihood opportunities and mitigating large carnivores – human
conflict in the snow leopard habitats (Hanson, Schutgens, & Baral, 2018; Jackson, 2015;
Jackson & Lama, 2016; Vannelli, Hampton, Namgail, & Black, 2019). Snow leopard-based
ecotourism provides an opportunity to secure livelihoods and reduce poverty of the
communities living in ecotourism sites across Ladakh (Chandola, 2012; Jackson, 2015).
To understand the role of snow leopard-based ecotourism in uplifting the financial profile
of local communities, mitigating large carnivore – human conflict and eventually changing
attitudes towards large carnivores in Hemis National Park, Ladakh, India, we compared
the estimated financial gains of a snow leopard-based ecotourism to stated livestock
predation losses by snow leopards and wolves.
Keywords: Snow leopard; human-wildlife conflict; ecotourism; livelihood; India
McCarthy, T. (1999). Snow Leopard Conservation Plan for the Republic of Mongolia.
Keywords: Mongolia; conservation; legal-status; Iunc; Cites; distribution; status; Altay; gobi; parks; preserves; habitat; reserves; refuge; protected-area; poaching; hunting; trade; furs; pelts; skins; coats; bones; trapping; livestock; herders; killing; habitat-fragmentation; threats; Disease; prey; diet; Mne; laws; education; management; Macne; Wwf; Islt; regulations; monitoring; Slims; tourism; conflict; browse; legal status; legal; protected; area; fragmentation; world wildlife fund; international snow leopard trust; 3890