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Ahmad, A., Rawat, J. S., & Rai, S. C. (1990). An Analysis of the Himalayan Environment and Guidelines for its Management and Ecologically Sustainable Development. Environmentalist, 10(4), 281–298.
Abstract: The impacts of human activities on the bio-geophysical and socio-economic environment of the Himalayas are analysed. The main man-induced activities which have accelerated ecological degradation and threatened the equilibrium of Himalayan mountain ecosystems are stated as: unplanned land use, cultivation on steep slopes, overgrazing, major engineering activities, over-exploitation of village or community forests, lopping of broad leaved plant species, shifting cultivation (short cycle) in north-east India, tourism and recreation. The geomorphological conditions are major factors responsible for landslides which cause major havoc every year in the area. Wild fauna, like musk deer and the snow leopard are now under threat partially due to changes in their habitat and the introduction of exotic plant species. Population pressure and migration are major factors responsible for poverty in the hills. The emigration of the working male population has resulted in the involvement of women as a major work-force. Guidelines, with special emphasis on the application of environmental impact assessments for the management of the Himalayas, are proposed. -from Authors