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Ahmad, I., Hunter, D. O., & Jackson, R. (1997). A Snow Leopard and Prey Species Survey in Khunjerab National Park, Pakistan. In R.Jackson, & A.Ahmad (Eds.), (pp. 92–95). Lahore, Pakistan: Islt.
Keywords: Slims; Islt; Wwf; predator; prey; Pakistan; Khunjerab; parks; park; reserve; reserves; refuge; Marco-Polo-sheep; blue-sheep; surveys; survey; transect; sighn; markings; marking; scrape; spray; ibex; tracks; pug marks; feces; livestock; kill; herder; herders; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; international snow leopard trust; world wildlife fund; marco polo sheep; marco polo; pug; marks; protected area; protected areas; protected; area; areas; 2810
Ale S. (2005). Have snow leopards made a comeback to the Everest region of Nepal?.
Abstract: In the 1960s, the endangered snow leopard was locally extirpated from the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) region of Nepal. In this Sherpa-inhabited high Himalaya, the flourishing tourism since the ascent of Mt Everest in 1953, has caused both prosperity and adverse impacts, the concern that catalyzed the establishment of Mt. Everest National Park in the region in 1976. In the late 1980s, there were reports that some transient snow leopards may have visited the area from adjoining Tibet, but no biological surveys exist to confirm the status of the cats and their prey. Have snow leopards finally returned to the top of the world? Exploring this question was the main purpose of this research project. We systematically walked altogether 24 sign transects covering over 13 km in length in three valleys, i.e. Namche, Phortse and Gokyo, of the park, and counted several snow leopard signs. The results indicated that snow leopards have made a comeback in the park in response to decades of protective measures, the virtual cessation of hunting and the recovery of the Himalayan tahr which is snow leopard's prey. The average sign density (4.2 signs/km and 2.5 sign sites/km) was comparable to that reported from other parts of the cats' range in the Himalaya. On this basis, we estimated the cat density in the Everest region between 1 to 3 cats per 100 sq km, a figure that was supported by different sets of pugmarks and actual sightings of snow leopards in the 60 km2 sample survey area. In the study area, tahr population had a low reproductive rate (e.g. kids-to-females ratio, 0.1, in Namche). Since predators can influence the size and the structure of prey species populations through mortality and through non-lethal effects or predation risk, snow leopards could have been the cause of the population dynamics of tahr in Sagarmtha, but this study could not confirm this speculation for which further probing may be required.
Keywords: snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; region; Nepal; Report; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; 1960; endangered; Sagarmatha; High; Himalaya; tourism; impact; establishment; national; national park; National-park; park; 1980; area; Tibet; surveys; survey; status; Cats; cat; prey; research; project; sign; transects; transect; length; valley; Response; hunting; recovery; Himalayan; tahr; density; densities; range; pugmarks; sighting; 60; study; population; predators; predator; structure; prey species; prey-species; species; populations; mortality; effects; predation; population dynamics
|Ale, S., Shrestha, B., and Jackson, R. (2014). On the status of Snow Leopard Panthera Uncia (Schreber 1775) in Annapurna, Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa, (6(3)), 5534–5543.|
Ale, S. B., Yonzon, P., & Thapa, K. (2007). Recovery of snow leopard Uncia uncia in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park, Nepal (Vol. 41).
Abstract: From September to November 2004 we conducted surveys of snow leopard Uncia uncia signs in three major valleys in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park in Nepal using the Snow Leopard Information Management System, a standardized survey technique for snow leopard research. We walked 24 transects covering c. 14 km and located 33 sites with 56 snow leopard signs, and 17 signs incidentally in other areas. Snow leopards appear to have re-inhabited the Park, following their disappearance c. 40 years ago, apparently following the recovery of Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus and musk deer Moschus chrysogaster populations. Taken together the locations of all 73 recent snow leopard signs indicate that the species is using predominantly grazing land and shrubland/ open forest at elevations of 3,000-5,000 m, habitat types that are also used by domestic and wild ungulates. Sagarmatha is the homeland of c. 3,500 Buddhist Sherpas with .3,000 livestock. Along with tourism and associated developments in Sagarmatha, traditional land use practices could be used to ensure coexistence of livestock and wildlife, including the recovering snow leopards, and ensure the wellbeing of the Sherpas.
Keywords: Nepal; recovery; Sagarmatha Mount Everest National Park; snow leopard; Uncia uncia; surveys; survey; snow; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia-uncia; valley; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; using; information; management; system; research; transects; transect; sign; areas; area; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; 40; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; location; recent; species; grazing; land; Forest; habitat; domestic; wild; ungulates; ungulate; livestock; tourism; development; traditional; land use; land-use; use; wildlife
Durbach, I., Borchers, D., Sutherland, C., Sharma, K. (2020). Fast, flexible alternatives to regular grid designs for spatial
Abstract: Spatial capture–recapture (SCR) methods use the location of
detectors (camera traps, hair snares and live-capture traps) and the
locations at which animals were detected (their spatial capture
histories) to estimate animal density. Despite the often large expense
and effort involved in placing detectors in a landscape, there has been
relatively little work on how detectors should be located. A natural
criterion is to place traps so as to maximize the precision of density
estimators, but the lack of a closed-form expression for precision has
made optimizing this criterion computationally demanding. 2. Recent
results by Efford and Boulanger (2019) show that precision can be well
approximated by a function of the expected number of detected
individuals and expected number of recapture events, both of which can
be evaluated at low computational cost. We use these results to develop
a method for obtaining survey designs that optimize this approximate
precision for SCR studies using count or binary proximity detectors, or
multi-catch traps. 3. We show how the basic design protocol can be
extended to incorporate spatially varying distributions of activity
centres and animal detectability. We illustrate our approach by
simulating from a camera trap study of snow leopards in Mongolia and
comparing estimates from our designs to those generated by regular or
optimized grid designs. Optimizing detector placement increased the
number of detected individuals and recaptures, but this did not always
lead to more precise density estimators due to less precise estimation
of the effective sampling area. In most cases, the precision of density
estimators was comparable to that obtained with grid designs, with
improvement in some scenarios where approximate CV(¬D) < 20% and density
varied spatially. 4. Designs generated using our approach are
transparent and statistically grounded. They can be produced for survey
regions of any shape, adapt to known information about animal density
and detectability, and are potentially easier and less costly to
implement. We recommend their use as good, flexible candidate designs
for SCR surveys when reasonable knowledge of model parameters exists. We
provide software for researchers to construct their own designs, in the
form of updates to design functions in the r package oSCR.
Farrington, J. (2005). A Report on Protected Areas, Biodiversity, and Conservation in the Kyrgyzstan Tian Shan with Brief Notes on the Kyrgyzstan Pamir-Alai and the Tian Shan Mountains of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and China. Ph.D. thesis, , Kyrgyzstan.
Abstract: Kyrgyzstan is a land of towering mountains, glaciers, rushing streams, wildflowercovered meadows, forests, snow leopards, soaring eagles, and yurt-dwelling nomads. The entire nation lies astride the Tian Shan1, Chinese for “Heavenly Mountains”, one of the world's highest mountain ranges, which is 7439 m (24,400 ft) in elevation at its highest point. The nation is the second smallest of the former Soviet Central Asian republics. In
spite of Kyrgyzstan's diverse wildlife and stunning natural beauty, the nation remains little known, and, as yet, still on the frontier of international conservation efforts. The following report is the product of 12 months of research into the state of conservation and land-use in Kyrgyzstan. This effort was funded by the Fulbright Commission of the U.S. State Department, and represents the most recent findings of the author's personal environmental journey through Inner Asia, which began in 1999. When I first started my preliminary research for this project, I was extremely surprised to learn that, even though the Tian Shan Range has tremendous ecological significance for conservation efforts in middle Asia, there wasn't a single major international conservation organization with an office in the former Soviet Central Asian republics. Even more surprising was how little awareness there is of conservation issues in the Tian Shan region amongst conservation workers in neighboring areas who are attempting to preserve similar species assemblages and ecosystems to those found in the Tian Shan. Given this lack of awareness, and the great potential for the international community to make a positive contribution towards improving the current state of biodiversity conservation in Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia, I have summarized my findings on protected areas and conservation in Kyrgyzstan and the Tian Shan of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Xinjiang in the chapters below. The report begins with some brief background information on geography and society in the Kyrgyz Republic, followed by an overview of biodiversity and the state of conservation in the nation, which at the present time closely parallels the state of conservation in the other former Soviet Central Asian republics. Part IV of the report provides a catalog of all major protected areas in Kyrgyzstan and the other Tian Shan nations, followed by a list of sites in Kyrgyzstan that are as yet unprotected but merit protection. In the appendices the reader will find fairly comprehensive species lists of flora and fauna found in the Kyrgyz Republic, including lists of mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, trees and shrubs, wildflowers, and endemic plants. In addition, a
draft paper on the history and current practice of pastoral nomadism in Kyrgyzstan has been included in Appendix A. While the research emphasis for this study was on eastern Kyrgyzstan, over the course of the study the author did have the opportunity to make brief journeys to southern Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Xinjiang. While falling short of being a definitive survey of protected areas of the Tian Shan, the informational review which
follows is the first attempt at bringing the details of conservation efforts throughout the entire Tian Shan Range together in one place. It is hoped that this summary of biodiversity and conservation in the Tian Shan will generate interest in the region amongst conservationists, and help increase efforts to protect this surprisingly unknown range that forms an island of meadows, rivers, lakes, and forests in the arid heart of Asia.
Keywords: Report; protected; protected areas; protected area; protected-areas; protected-area; areas; area; biodiversity; conservation; Kyrgyzstan; Tian; Tian-Shan; shan; Pamir-Alai; mountains; mountain; Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; China; environmental; study; former; soviet; central; Central Asia; asia; land; Forest; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; Chinese; range; republic; wildlife; International; research; land-use; land use; recent; inner; project; ecological; Middle; Middle Asia; Organization; awareness; region; preserve; species; ecosystems; ecosystem; potential; community; Biodiversity conservation; Xinjiang; information; Kyrgyz; Kyrgyz-Republic; protection; flora; fauna; mammals; birds; reptiles; amphibians; endemic; plants; plant; history; Southern; survey; protect; river; heart
Ferguson, D. A. (1997). International Cooperation for Snow Leopard and Biodiversity Conservation: The Government Perspective. In R.Jackson, & A.Ahmad (Eds.), (pp. 178–193). Lahore, Pakistan: Islt.
Keywords: snow leopard; biodiversity; management; development; India; Pakistan; conservation; hunting; poaching; hunter; pelt; skin; fur; coat; livestock; habitat; herder; herders; Ussr; park; parks; reserves; reserve; refuge; Slims; field study; survey; surveys; transects; transect; Khunjerab; protected area; browse; U.S.S.R.; 2990
|Fox, J. L. (1986). Indo-US Snow Leopard Project, Progress Report on Field Work as of December 30, 1985 (Vol. 9). Seattle: Islt.|
|Fox, J. L. (1989). A review of the status and ecology of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia).|
Fox, J. L., & Chundawat, R. S. (1997). Evaluation of Snow Leopard Sign Abundance in the Upper Indus Valley. In R.Jackson, & A.Ahmad (Eds.), (pp. 66–74). Lahore, Pakistan: Islt.
Keywords: India; Ladakh; Jammu; Kashmir; transect; survey; habitat; park; parks; reserves; reserve; refuge; field-study; marks; scrape; scrapes; spray; marking; behavior; tracks; autocad; predator; prey; ibex; blue-sheep; marmot; livestock; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; protected; area; 2730
Fox, J. L., Sinya, S. P., Chundawat, R. S., & Das, P. K. (1986). A Survey of Snow Leopard and Associated Species in the Himalaya of Northwestern India, Project Completion Report.
Keywords: Himalaya; India; prey; distribution; Arunachal; Jammu; Himachal-Pradesh; Uttar-Pradesh; Sikkim; hunting; poaching; pelts; livestock; surveys; field-work; herders; herding; parks; preserves; reserves; habiatat; conflict; human-interaction; behaviour; sanctuaries; scrapes; sprays; tracks; browse; 4220
|Freeman, H. (1996). What's Happening in Mongolia (Vol. xiv). Seattle: Islt.|
Froede, K. and J., R. (2001). Snow Leopard Manual Field Study Techniques for the Kingdom Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: WWF Nepal.
Abstract: The publication of this manual aims sharing and facilitating the study on snow leopard and its prey species among mid-level professionals interested in conducting fieldwork on their own. The manual is derived from the 1996 “Snow Leopard Survey and Conservation Handbook” written by Dr. Rodney Jackson and Dr. Don Hunter and published by International Snow Leopard Trust (ISLT) based in seatle, Washington, USA. The first section introduces the topic, the second and third section deal with presence/ absence and abundance survey methods. The various survey-froms with instructions are given in the annexes.
Keywords: analysis, census, data, field work, forms, manual, method, methods, monitoring, research, signs, snow leopard, survey, techniques, transects, Uncia uncia
Ghoshal, A., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Pandav, B., Sharma, K., Mshra, C. (2017). Assessing changes in distribution of the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia and its wild prey over 2 decades in the Indian Himalaya through interviewbased occupancy surveys. Oryx, , 1–13.
Abstract: Understanding species distributions, patterns of
change and threats can form the basis for assessing the conservation
status of elusive species that are difficult to survey.
The snow leopard Panthera uncia is the top predator of the
Central and South Asian mountains. Knowledge of the distribution
and status of this elusive felid and its wild prey is
limited. Using recall-based key-informant interviews we estimated
site use by snow leopards and their primary wild
prey, blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and Asiatic ibex Capra
sibirica, across two time periods (past: �; recent:
�) in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. We
also conducted a threat assessment for the recent period.
Probability of site use was similar across the two time periods
for snow leopards, blue sheep and ibex, whereas for wild
prey (blue sheep and ibex combined) overall there was an
% contraction. Although our surveys were conducted in
areas within the presumed distribution range of the snow
leopard, we found snow leopards were using only % of
the area (, km). Blue sheep and ibex had distinct distribution
ranges. Snow leopards and their wild prey were not
restricted to protected areas, which encompassed only %
of their distribution within the study area. Migratory livestock
grazing was pervasive across ibex distribution range
and was the most widespread and serious conservation
threat. Depredation by free-ranging dogs, and illegal hunting
and wildlife trade were the other severe threats. Our
results underscore the importance of community-based, landscape-
scale conservation approaches and caution against reliance
on geophysical and opinion-based distribution maps that have been used to estimate national and global snow leopard ranges.
Harris, R. B., Pletscher, D. H., Loggers, C. O., & Miller, D. J. (1999). Status and trends of Tibetan plateau mammalian fauna, Yeniugou, China. Biological Conservation, 87, 13–19.
Abstract: We conducted surveys focusing on the unique and vulnerable ungulate species in Yeniugou, Qinghai province, China, during September 1997 to compare population estimates with those from the early 1990s. The status of two ungulate species appeared essentially unchanged since 1990ñ1992: wild yak Bos grunniens (about 1200 to 1300 animals) and Tibetan gazelle Procapra picti- caudata. The status of one ungulate species, the white-lipped deer Cervus albirostris, appeared to improve, from a very few to close to 100. We are unsure how the status of the Tibetan wild ass Equus kiang compares with that of the early 1990s. The status of three species declined during the period: blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and argali Ovis ammon declined slightly (possibly due to a weather event), and the Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni declined dramatically (probably due primarily to poaching), from over 2000 estimated in 1991 to only two seen during 1997. Poaching of antelope has become a serious problem throughout the Tibetan plateau in recent years, and this survey provides evidence that an entire subpopulation can disappear (either through mortality, movement away from human disturbance or a combination) within a relatively short time-frame. That some species (e.g. wild yak, white-lipped deer) continue to thrive in Yeniugou is heartening, but even they remain vulnerable to market-driven poaching.#1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: argali; blue sheep; China; conservation; Qinghai; survey; Tibetan antelope; Tibetan gazelle; Tibetan wild ass; white-lipped deer; wild; yak; Yeniugou; 5210
Henschel, P., & Ray, J. (2003). Leopards in African Rainforests: Survey and Monitoring Techniques (Wildlife Conservation Society, Ed.).
Abstract: Monitoring Techniques Forest leopards have never been systematically surveyed in African forests, in spite of their potentially vital ecological role as the sole large mammalian predators in these systems. Because leopards are rarely seen in this habitat, and are difficult to survey using the most common techniques for assessing relative abundances of forest mammals, baseline knowledge of leopard ecology and responses to human disturbance in African forests remain largely unknown. This technical handbook sums up the experience gained during a two-year study of leopards by Philipp Henschel in the Lop‚ Reserve in Gabon, Central Africa, in 2001/2002, supplemented by additional experience from carnivore studies conducted by Justina Ray in southwestern Central African Republic and eastern Congo (Zaire) . The main focus of this effort has been to develop a protocol that can be used by fieldworkers across west and central Africa to estimate leopard densities in various forest types. In developing this manual, Henschel tested several indirect methods to assess leopard numbers in both logged and unlogged forests, with the main effort devoted to testing remote photography survey methods developed for tigers by Karanth (e.g., Karanth 1995, Karanth & Nichols 1998; 2000; 2002), and modifying them for the specific conditions characterizing African forest environments. This handbook summarizes the results of the field testing, and provides recommendations for techniques to assess leopard presence/absence, relative abundance, and densities in African forest sites. We briefly review the suitability of various methods for different study objectives and go into particular detail on remote photography survey methodology, adapting previously developed methods and sampling considerations specifically to the African forest environment. Finally, we briefly discuss how camera trapping may be used as a tool to survey other forest mammals. Developing a survey protocol for African leopards is a necessary first step towards a regional assessment and priority setting exercise targeted at forest leopards, similar to those carried out on large carnivores in Asian and South American forests.
Keywords: forest leopards; african rainforests; survey; monitoring techniques; lope reserve; gabon; central africa; congo; zaire; field testing; populations; wild meat; relative abundance; density; live-trapping; presence and absense surveys; ad-hoc survey; bushmeat; systematic survey; monitoring; individual identification; tracks; Discriminant Function Analysis; genotyping; scat; Hair; Dna; remote photography; camera trapping; capture rates; Trailmaster; Camtrakker; bait; duikers; pigs; elephant; bongo; okapi; human hunters; 5300
|Hillard, D. (1985). Update on the Himalayan Snow Leopard Project (Vol. No. 8). Seattle: Islt.|
|Hung, L., Talipu, Hua, L., Mingjiang, Q., & Schaller, G. B. (1985). A Snow Leopard Survey in the Taxkorgan Region, XInjiang, China.|
Hunter, D. O., Jackson, R., Freeman, H., & Hillard, D. (1994). Project snow leopard: a model for conserving central Asia biodiversity. In J.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 247–252). Usa: International Snow Leopard Trust.
Keywords: conservation; habitat; Himalaya; parks; reserves; park; reserve; refuge; survey; methods; Slims; education; protected-area; anthropogenic-degradation; asia; China; Bhutan; India; Pakistan; Nepal; Afghanistan; Mongolia; Russia; Ussr; Soviet-Union; Kazakhstan; Kirghizstan; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan; Project-snow-leopard; network; preybase; Islt; Usfws; Ners; Information-Network; kazakstan; browse; protected; area; anthropogenic; degradation; soviet; union; project; snow; leopard; international snow leopard trust; information; 2660
|Hussain, S. Shafqat Hussain Research Proposal for Pakistan.|
|Inayat, S., & Khan, A. (1998). Identifying Womens Roles in Snow Leopard Conservation (Vol. xvi). Seattle: Islt.|
|International Snow Leopard Trust. (1986). Indo-US Snow Leopard Project (Vol. No. 10). Seattle: Islt.|
|International Snow Leopard Trust. (1992). Assessing Presence, relative abundance and habitat of snow leopards and their prey: a handbook of field techniques.|
International Snow Leopard Trust. (2000). Snow Leopard News Autumn/ Winter 2000. Seattle, Wa: Islt.
Keywords: McCarthy; Mongolia; field-work; surveys; collars; habitat; research; home-ranges; tourism; parks; preserves; reserves; Islt; Nepal; women; conservation; awareness; herders; crafts; livestock; pelts; furs; bones; hunting; incentives; browse; 4370
International Snow Leopard Trust. (2000). Snow Leopard News Spring 2000. Seattle, Wa: Islt.
Keywords: Rutherford; Freeman; Morse; Jackson; Hillard; Natural-Partnerships-Program; Pakistan; Islt; Slims; training; Chitrol-Gol; parks; preserves; reserves; protected-areas; surveys; Hemis; Conflict-Resolution-Workshop; conflict; herders; leh; Jammu; Kashmir; Ladakh; corrals; predator; prey; livestock; depradation; human-wildlife-conflict; Uzbekistan; Gissar; Peace-Corps; Mongolia; Macne; fiction; populations; browse; 4390