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Han, X. M., D. G., Zhang, E., Jones, M., and Jin, T.. (2001). Far eastern leopard and Siberian tiger conservation measures. (pp. 102–103). Harbin: Widlife Conservation Society.
Abstract: Workshop to develop a recovery plan for the wild north China tiger population. October 20th to 23th, 2000, Harbin.
Like the Siberian Tiger, the Far Eastern Leopard is one of China's largest Felidae and lives mainly in the eastern mountains of Jilin Province. The number of leopards is very low and it is even more endangered than the tiger. There is a very close relationship between leopard and tiger conservation, especially in areas where overlap occurs. In these areas, special emphasis has to be placed on each of the species' specific conservation needs. There is urgent need to step up our efforts to study and monitor leopard populations and to develop a conservation strategy. This document contains information of the status and main threats of the Far Eastern leopard and makes recommendations on needed conservation measures.
Jiang, Z. (2005). Snow leopards in the Dulan International Hunting Ground, Qinghai, China.
Abstract: From March to May, 2006œªwe conducted extensive snow leopard surveys in the Burhanbuda Mountain Kunlun Mountains, Qinghai Province, China. 32 linear transect of 5~15 km each, which running through each vegetation type, were surveyed within the study area. A total of 72 traces of snow leopard were found along 4 transects (12.5% of total transects). The traces included pug marks or footprints, scrapes and urine marks. We estimated the average density of wild ungulates in the region was 2.88ñ0.35 individuals km-2(n=29). We emplaced 16 auto2 trigger cameras in different environments and eight photos of snow leopard were shot by four cameras and the capture rate of snow leopard was 71.4%. The minimum snow leopard population size in the Burhanbuda Mountain was two, because two snow leopards were phototrapped by different cameras at almost same time. Simultaneously, the cameras also shot 63 photos of other wild animals, including five photos are unidentified wild animals, and 20 photos of livestock. We evaluated the human attitudes towards snow leopard by interviewing with 27 Tibetan householders of 30 householders live in the study area. We propose to establish a nature reserve for protecting and managing snow leopards in the region. Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is considered as a unique species because it lives above the snow line, it is endemic to alpines in Central Asia, inhabiting in 12 countries across Central Asia (Fox, 1992). Snow leopard ranges in alpine areas in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Gansu and Sichuan in western China (Liao, 1985, 1986; Zhou, 1987; Ma et al., 2002; Jiang & Xu, 2006). The total population and habitat of snow leopards in China are estimated to be 2,000~2,500 individuals and 1,824,316 km2, only 5% of which is under the protection of nature reserves. The cat's current range is fragmented (Zou & Zheng, 2003). Due to strong human persecutions, populations of snow leopards decreased significantly since the end of the 20th century. Thus, the
snow leopards are under the protection of international and domestic laws. From March to May, 2006, we conducted two field surveys in Zhiyu Village, Dulan County in Burhanbuda Mountain, Kunlun Mountains, China to determine the population, distribution and survival status of snow leopards in the area. The aim of the study was to provide ecologic data for snow leopard conservation.
Liao, Y. F. (1985). The Geographical Distribution of Ounces in Qinghai Province. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 5(3), 183–188.
Abstract: This paper deals with the geographical distribution of ounces (Panthera uncia) in Qinghai Province. Ounces are distributed in 20 counties- Guide, Huzhu, Menyuan, Qilian, Tianjun, Dulan, Golmud, Guinan, Xinghai, Zhidoi, Zadoi, Nangqen, Yushu, Chindu, Qumarleb, Madio, Maqen, Jigzhi, Baima, Darlag. Among them, there fore 4 counties- Qilian, Tianjun, Dulan, Zadoi, in which the number of ounces are bigger. The number of ounces are shown in table 2. There are altogether 73 ounces (40 male, 33 female) which is supported to every park of China for ornamental, they were captured by fellow-villagers, and 44 ounces (23 male, 21 female) of them are below 6 months old, 9 ounces (6 male, 3 female) of them are 1 year old, 2 ounces (male) are 2 years old, and 18 ounces (9 male, 9 female) are adults.
Ounces live at an altitude of 3000-4100 metres above the sea, and prefer to eat Bharal (Pseudois noyour). Its breeding period goes from April to June, the number of embryos being 2-3.
A female ounce was successfully reproduced for the first time at Xining People's Park of China, in Spetember, 1984, and she gave birth to 3 young ounces.
Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association. (2010). Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association Report March 2010.
Abstract: In accordance with order of the Ministry of Nature and Tourism,
zoologists of our association have made surveys in three ways such as
reasons why snow leopards attack domestic animals, “Snow leopard” trial
operation to count them and illegal hunting in territories of Khovd,
Gobi-Altai, Bayankhongor, Uvurkhangai and Umnugobi provinces from
September 2009 to January 2010. As result of these surveys it has made
the following conclusions in the followings: Reason to hunt them illegally: the principal reason is that
administrative units have been increased and territories of
administrative units have been diminished. There have been four
provinces in 1924 to 1926, 18 since 1965, 21 since 1990. Such situation
limits movements of herdsmen completely and pastures digressed much than
ever before. As result of such situation, 70% of pastures become desert.
Such digression caused not only heads of animals and also number of
species. Guarantee is that birds such as owls, cuckoo, willow grouse in
banks of Uyert river, Burkhanbuudai mountain, located in Biger soum,
Gobi-Altai province, which are not hunted by hunters, are disappearing
in the recent two decades. For that reason we consider it is urgently
necessary for the government to convert administrative unit structures
into four provinces. This would influence herdsmen moving across
hundreds km and pastures could depart from digression.
Second reason: cooperative movement won. The issues related to management and strengthening of national
cooperatives, considered by Central Committee of Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party in the meeting in March 1953 was the start of
cooperatives' movement. Consideration by Yu. Tsedenbal, chairman of
Ministers Council, chairman of the MPRP, on report "Result of to unify
popular units and some important issues to maintain entity management of
agricultural cooperatives" in the fourth meeting by the Central
Committee of Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party /MPRP/ on December
16-17, 1959, proclaimed complete victory of cooperative. At the end of
1959, it could unify 767 small cooperative into 389 ones, unify 99.3 %
of herdsmen and socialize 73.3 % of animals. The remaining of animals
amount 6 million 163 thousands animals, and equals to 26.7% of total
animals. This concerned number of animals related to the article
mentioned that every family should have not more that 50 animals in
Khangai zone and not more 75 animals in Gobi desert. It shows that such
number could not satisfy needs of family if such number is divided into
five main animals in separating with reproduction animals and adult
animals. So herdsmen started hunt hoofed animals secretly and illegally
in order to satisfy their meat needs. Those animals included main food
of snow leopard such as ibex, wild sheep, and marmot. Third reason is that the state used to hunt ibex, which are main
nutrition of snow leopards, every year. The administrative unit of the
soum pursued policy to hunt ibex in order to provide meat needs of
secondary schools and hospitals. That's why this affected decrease of
ibex population. Preciously from 1986 to 1990 the permissions to hunt
one thousands of wild sheep and two thousands of ibexes were hunt for
domestic alimentary use every year. Not less than 10 local hunters of every soum used to take part in big
game of ibexes. Also they hunted many ibexes, chose 3-10 best ibexes and
hid them in the mountains for their consummation during hunting.
Fourth reason: hunting of wolves. Until 1990 the state used to give
prizes to hunter, who killed a wolf in any seasons of the year. Firstly
it offered a sheep for the wolf hunter and later it gave 25 tugrugs /15
USD/. Every year, wolf hunting was organized several times especially
picking wolf-cubs influenced spread and population of wolves. So snow
leopard came to the places where wolves survived before and attack
domestic animals. Such situation continued until 1990. Now population of
ibexes has decreased than before 1990 since the state stopped hunting
wolves, population of wolves increased in mountainous zones. We didn't
consider it had been right since it was natural event. However
population of ibexes decreased. Fifth reason: Global warming. In recent five years it has had a drought
and natural disaster from excessive snow in the places where it has
never had such natural disasters before. But Mongolia has 40 million
heads of domestic animals it has never increased like such quantity in
its history before. We consider it is not incorrect that decrease of
domestic animals could give opportunities to raise population of wild
animals. Our next survey is to make attempt to fix heads of snow leopards
correctly with low costs.
Schaller, G. B., Jurang, R., & Mingjiang, Q. (1988). Status of snow leopard (Panthera-uncia) in Qinghai-Province and Gansu Province-China. Biological Conservation, 45(3), 179–194.
Abstract: The status and distribution of the snow leopard Panthera uncia was investigated in two provinces of China. The cats occur over about 65,000km2 or 9% of the Qinghai Province, and in a few places along the western edge of Gansu Province. In many areas the animals have in recent decades been decimated or locally eradicated, as have their prey. Counts of wild ungulates in 9 mountain block, totalling 1375km2, known for abundant wildlife, had an average of 1.4-5.4 animals km2, principally blue sheep Psuedois nayaur, which together with marmot Marmota himalayana, represent the snow leopards main prey. Possibly 650 snow leopards survive in Qinghai but shooting and trapping of this legally protected animal and the hunting of blue sheep for local consumtion and export threaten their existence.
Shi, K., Jun, Z. F. S., Zhigang, D., Riordan, P., & MacDonald, D. (2009). Reconfirmation of snow leopards in Taxkurgan Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Oryx, 43(2), 169–170.
Abstract: China may hold a greater proportion of the global snow leopard Panthera uncia population than any other country, with the area of good quality suitable habitat, estimated at nearly 300,000 km2, comprising .50% of that available across the species' entire range. We can now reconfirm the presence of snow leopard in the Taxkurgan area of Xinjiang Province in north-west China after a period of 20 years.
Tsherbakov B.V. (1982). About rare and endangered mammal species in the East Kazakhstan region.
Abstract: Given is data concerning numbers and distribution of yellow lemming on the Korjun cape and in the Karakas tract; dhole in the tundra zoneof the Azu-Tau ridge (South Alati) between Matabay and Urunkhaikoy, in the Salkanchok mountains; concering an encounter with snow leopard (March 25, 1981) in the upper river Bukhtarma near eastern extremity of the South Altai ridge, and argali in the mountain group Kalby-Baicha, the Taldy, Koktau, Monraka mountains (an area between Kusty and Kizil-Gain), near summit Shorbas.