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Bhatnagar, Y. V., Mathur, V. B., & McCarthy, T. (2002). A Regional Perspective for Snow Leopard Conservation In the Indian Trans-Himalaya.. Islt: Islt.
Abstract: The Trans-Himalaya is a vast biogeographic region in the cold and arid rain-shadow of
the Greater Himalaya and is spread over three Indian states. From the conservation
standpoint this region has several unique characteristics. Unlike most other
biogeographic regions of the country, it has wildlife, including large mammals, spread
over the entire region. Another feature is that the harsh climate and topography
provides limited agricultural land and pastures, all of which are currently utilized by
people. The harsh environment has given rise to a specialized assemblage of flora and fauna in
the region that include the endangered snow leopard, a variety of wild sheep and goat,
Tibetan antelope, Tibetan gazelle, kiang and wild yak. The snow leopard is one of the
most charismatic species of the Trans-Himalaya. This apex predator, with a wide
distribution, has ecological importance and international appeal, and is eminently
suitable to be used as both a 'flagship' and an 'umbrella species' to anchor and guide
conservation efforts in the Trans-Himalayan region. Among the 10 Biogeographic Zones in the country, the Trans-Himalaya has a
comparatively large Protected Area (PA) coverage, with over 15,000 km2 (8.2 %) of
the geographical area under the network. In spite of this, the bulk of the large mammal
populations still exist outside the PAs, which include highly endangered species such
as snow leopard, chiru, wild yak, Ladakh urial, kiang and brown bear. Given the sparse resource availability in the Trans-Himalaya and the existing human
use patterns, there are few alternatives that can be provided to resource dependent
human communities in and around PAs. The existing PAs themselves pose formidable
conservation challenges and a further increase in their extent is impractical. The
problem is further compounded by the fact that some of the large PAs have unclear
boundaries and include vast stretches that do not have any direct wildlife values. These
issues call for an alternative strategy for conservation of the Trans-Himalayan tracts
based on a regional perspective, which includes reconciling conservation with
development. In this paper we stress that conservation issues of this region, such as competition for
forage between wild and domestic herbivores and human-wildlife conflicts need to be
addressed in a participatory manner. We suggest an alternative scheme to look at the
zonation of existing PAs and also the Trans-Himalayan region as a whole, to facilitate
better conservation in the region. Also, we emphasize that there is a vital need for
additional resources and a formal setup for regional planning and management under a
centrally sponsored scheme such as the 'Project Snow Leopard'.
Chundawat, R. S., & Qureshi, Q. (1999). Planning Wildlife Conservation in Leh and Kargil Districts of Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir. Dehradun, India.
Forrest, J. L., Wikramanayake, E., Shrestha, R., Areendran, G., Gyeltshen, K., Maheshwari, A., Mazumdar, S., Naidoo, R., Thapa, G. J., Thapa, K. (2012). Conservation and climate change: Assessing the vulnerability of snow leopard habitat to treeline shift in the Himalaya. Biological Conservation, 150, 129–135.
Abstract: Climate change is likely to affect the persistence of large, space-requiring species through habitat shifts,
loss, and fragmentation. Anthropogenic land and resource use changes related to climate change can also
impact the survival of wildlife. Thus, climate change has to be integrated into biodiversity conservation
plans. We developed a hybrid approach to climate-adaptive conservation landscape planning for snow
leopards in the Himalayan Mountains. We first mapped current snow leopard habitat using a mechanistic
approach that incorporated field-based data, and then combined it with a climate impact model using a
correlative approach. For the latter, we used statistical methods to test hypotheses about climatic drivers
of treeline in the Himalaya and its potential response to climate change under three IPCC greenhouse gas
emissions scenarios. We then assessed how change in treeline might affect the distribution of snow leopard
habitat. Results indicate that about 30% of snow leopard habitat in the Himalaya may be lost due to a
shifting treeline and consequent shrinking of the alpine zone, mostly along the southern edge of the range
and in river valleys. But, a considerable amount of snow leopard habitat and linkages are likely to remain
resilient to climate change, and these should be secured. This is because, as the area of snow leopard habitat
fragments and shrinks, threats such as livestock grazing, retaliatory killing, and medicinal plant collection
can intensify. We propose this approach for landscape conservation planning for other species
with extensive spatial requirements that can also be umbrella species for overall biodiversity.
2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
Jackson, R. (1999). Snow Leopards, Local People and Livestock Losses: Finding solutions using Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action (APPA) in the Markha Valley of Hemis National Park, Ladakh, October 6-26, 1999. Cat News, 31(Autumn), 22–23.
Abstract: Livestock depredation is emerging as a significant issue across the Himalaya, including the Hemis National Park (HNP) in Ladakh. Some consider that this protected area harbors the best snow leopard population in India, but local herders perceive the endangered snow leopard as a serious threat to their livelihood.
Jackson, R. (2000). Community Participation: Tools and Examples. (pp. 1–9). Management Planning Workshop for the Trans-Himalayan Protected Areas, 25-29 August, 2000, Leh, Ladak.
Abstract: In response to dwindling wildlife populations and habitat, governments established national parks and protected areas, often with little input from people living in the immediate area. In some cases communities were relocated, but in most they are left to pursue traditional agricultural and pastoral livelihoods under a new set of rules. Important questions of land tenure remained unresolved, with a “fences and fines” approach to protected area management (Stolton and Dudley 1999).
Jackson, R., & Wangchuk, R. (2004). A Community-Based Approach to Mitigating Livestock Depredation by Snow Leopards (Vol. 9).
Abstract: Livestock depredation by the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia) _is an increasingly contentious issue in Himalayan villages, especially in or near protected areas. Mass attacks in which as many as 100 sheep and goats are killed in a single incident inevitably result in retaliation by local villagers. This article describes a community-based conservation initiative to address this problem in Hemis National Park, India. Human-wildlife conflict is alleviated by predator-proofing villagers' nighttime livestock pens and by enhancing household incomes in environmentally sensitive and culturally compatible ways. The authors have found that the highly participatory strategy described here (Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action-APPA) leads to a sense of project ownership by local stakeholders, communal empowerment, self-reliance, and willingness to co-exist with
snow leopards. The most significant conservation outcome of this process is the protection from retaliatory poaching of up to five snow leopards for every village's livestock pens that are made predator-proof._
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2001). Visitor Attitude and Market Survey for Planning Community-based Tourism Initiatives in Rural Ladakh (Vol. SLC Field Series Document No. 2.). Los Gatos, California.
Abstract: Bounded by two of the world's highest mountain ranges, the Great Himalaya and the Karakoram, Ladakh is a land of exhilarating mountain landscapes, rocky gorges and a unique cultural heritage. It is also home to distinctive wildlife such as the snow leopard, blue sheep and Tibetan wild ass, all living in a unique high altitude desert ecosystem. Not surprisingly, Ladakh is becoming a sought after tourist destination for international and domestic visitors alike. Over the past two decades tourism has grown substantially, although erratically, with both positive and less positive results for Ladakh's environment and people. People are recognizing that it is important to act now and engage in an informed dialogue in order to conserve the natural and cultural resources on which the future of tourism and related incomes depend. The Snow Leopard Conservancy (SLC) is working in collaboration with local communities and nongovernmental organizations to foster co-existence between people and predators like the endangered snow leopard by reducing livestock depredation losses and improving household incomes in environmentally friendly, socially responsible and economically viable ways. Well-balanced tourism is one income generating option.
Villarrubia, C., & Jackson, R. (1994). Snow Leopard Conservation on a Regional Basis: Elements in Planning Protected Areas. In J.L.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 253–263). Usa: Islt.
Williams, N. (2008). 2008 International Conference on Range-wide Conservation Planning for Snow Leopards: Saving the Species Across its Range. Cat News, 48, 33–34.
Abstract: Over 100 snow leopard experts, enthusiasts, and government officials gathered in the outskirts of Beijing, China from March 7–11, 2008 for the firstever International Conference on Range-wide Conservation Planning for Snow Leopards. Conference organizers included Panthera, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Snow Leopard Trust (SLT), Snow Leopard Network (SLN), and the Chinese Institute of Zoology.