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|Anonymous. (1984). Snow leopard trade in court.|
Dyikanova, C. (2004). A public awareness outreach programme on Snow Leopards for the Kyrgyz Republic, Final Report.
Abstract: The principle goal of the project was to raise awareness of local people, staff of frontier posts,
customs and foreign military base on snow leopard, and its conservation. In the framework of the
project the following steps were to be executed:
A) To disseminate printing materials: a booklet, poster, card and calendar.
b) To publish articles on snow leopard ecology and conservation issues and threats in
Kyrgyzstan regional newspapers (Issyk-Kul, Osh, and Chui areas)
C) To hold follow-up meeting with target groups
D) To evaluate project results
Keywords: project; awareness; local; local people; people; staff; Base; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; conservation; ecology; threats; threat; Kyrgyzstan; regional; areas; area; public; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; Kyrgyz; Kyrgyz-Republic; republic; Report; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; community
Harris, R. B. (1994). A note on snow leopards and local people in Nangqian County, Southern Qinghai Province. In J.L.Fox, & D. Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 79–84). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: China; Qinghai; attitude; local-peoples; herders; livestock; predator; prey; cub; capture; poaching; blue-sheep; Release; grazing; yaks; goats; horses; domestic; ungulates; hunting; bones; fur; pelts; coats; conservation; trapping; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; local; protected; area; peoples; 3250
Ikeda, N. (2004). Economic impacts of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia in the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal Himalaya (Vol. 31).
Abstract: It is necessary to fully understand the economic conditions of local herders in order to find solutions to the conflicts between wildlife conservation and livestock rearing in remote areas of low-income countries. In the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Nepal, livestock depredation by snow leopards impacts on yak herders' livelihoods. Retaliatory killings of snow leopard by the herders have been reported and the concerned authorities recently initiated snow leopard conservation programmes. In 2001, interviews with the yak herders who used the pastures in the Ghunsa valley in the preceding year collected data on the incidence of livestock death caused by snow leopards. The annual net cash income of the yak herders was estimated by obtaining baseline values of sales and expenditure per livestock head through field measurement of dairy products and interviews with a sample of herders. As yet, the average annual damage does not appear to have adversely affected fundamental livelihoods in households with an average herd size (36.6 head). However, in the worst scenario of livestock depredation, households with medium or small-sized herds (<40 head) might risk their living conditions becoming unsustainable or having to withdraw from yak pastoralism. A supplementary interview showed that the majority of the herders, except those who took completely neutral attitudes towards the regional conservation and development programme, had negative views of the snow leopard conservation policy. For the snow leopard conservation programme in the KCA to be a success, there must be a system to compensate the herders' households for livestock damage.
Keywords: herder; Kanchenjunga Conservation Area; local resident; park people conflict; wildlife conservation; yak.; snow leopard
Izold, J. (2008). Snow Leopard Enterprise: a conservation project that saves an endangered species and supports needy families. Anim.Keepers' Forum, 9(5), 359–364.
Abstract: The World Conservation Union listed the snow leopard (Uncia uncia) as endangered in 1974. With as few as 3,500 snow leopards left in the wild, scientists placed the snow leopard on the IUCN Red List of critically endangered species shared by animals such as the giant panda and tiger. In an effort to save the snow leopard from extinction, former zoo employee Helen Freeman founded the Snow Leopard Trust in 1981. The Snow Leopard Trust works to save this elusive cat by incorporating community-based conservation projects. One of these project Leopard Enterprise (SLE), impacts poverty stricken communities in Mongolia, Kyrgyz Republic, and Pakistan. It assists over 300 families in its conservation efforts. The economic incentives provided via SLE have led participating communities not to harm the snow leopard or its prey, and to practice sustainable herding. Since the project began in 1997, the number of snow leopards harmed around the communities' territories has dropped to near zero. Additionally, the annual income of families that utilize the benefits of SLE has increased by 25% to 40%. SLE creates this economic benefit by providing the training and equipment necessary to make desirable products from the wool of herd animals. Snow Leopard Trust then purchases these handicraft items from the local people and them globally. Zoos can expand their conservation efforts by simply offering these items in their gift shops. Woodland Park Zoo (WPZ) was the first zoological institution to sell the products, and WPZ continues to generate revenue from them. SLE is a golden opportunity for zoos to increase revenue, assist poor families, and save an endangered species and fragile ecosystem.
Keywords: snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; conservation; project; endangered; endangered species; endangered-species; species; Support; union; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; wild; Iucn; Animals; Animal; tiger; extinction; former; zoo; Freeman; trust; work; cat; community-based; projects; Sle; impact; poverty; community; Mongolia; Kyrgyz; Kyrgyz-Republic; republic; Pakistan; 300; economic; incentives; prey; sustainable; herding; number; territory; income; training; products; wool; local; local people; people; zoos; Woodland-Park-Zoo; park; zoological; ecosystem
Jack, R. (2008). DNA Testing and GPS positioning of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) genetic material in the Khunjerab National Park Northern Areas, Pakistan.
Abstract: The protection of Snow Leopards in the remote and economically disadvantaged Northern Areas of Pakistan needs local people equipped with the skills to gather and present information on the number and range of individual animals in their area. It is important for the success of a conservation campaign that the people living in the area are engaged in the conservation process. Snow Leopards are elusive and range through inhospitable terrain so direct study is difficult. Consequently the major goals for this project were twofold, to gather information on snow leopard distribution in this area and to train local university students and conservation management professionals in the techniques used for locating snow leopards without the need to capture or even see the animals. This project pioneered the use of DNA testing of field samples collected in Pakistan to determine the distribution of snow leopards and to attempt to identify individuals. These were collected in and around that country's most northerly national park, the Kunjurab National Park, which sits on the Pakistan China border. Though the Northern Areas is not a well developed part of Pakistan, it does possess a number of institutions that can work together to strengthen snow leopard conservation. The first of these is a newly established University with students ready to be trained in the skills needed. Secondly WWF-Pakistan has an office in the main town and a state of the art GIS laboratory in Lahore and already works closely with the Forest Department who manage the national park. All three institutions worked together in this project with WWF providing GIS expertise, the FD rangers, and the university students carrying out the laboratory work. In addition in the course of the project the University of the Punjab in Lahore also joined the effort, providing laboratory facilities for the students. As a result of this project maps have been produced showing the location of snow leopards in
two areas. Preliminary DNA evidence indicates that there is more than one animal in this
relatively small area, but the greatest achievement of this project is the training and
experience gained by the local students. For one student this has been life changing. Due to
the opportunities provided by this study the student, Nelofar gained significant scientific
training and as a consequence she is now working as a lecturer and research officer for the
Center for Integrated Mountain Research, New Campus University of the Punjab, Lahore
Keywords: project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; Dna; Gps; panthera; panthera uncia; Panthera-uncia; uncia; Khunjerab; Khunjerab-National-Park; national; national park; National-park; park; areas; area; Pakistan; protection; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; local; local people; people; information; number; range; Animals; Animal; study; distribution; management; professional; techniques; capture; use; field; country; China; border; work; art; Gis; Forest; manage; Wwf; maps; map; location; training; research; mountain
Jackson, R. (1999). Snow Leopards, Local People and Livestock Losses: Finding solutions using Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action (APPA) in the Markha Valley of Hemis National Park, Ladakh, October 6-26, 1999. Cat News, 31(Autumn), 22–23.
Abstract: Livestock depredation is emerging as a significant issue across the Himalaya, including the Hemis National Park (HNP) in Ladakh. Some consider that this protected area harbors the best snow leopard population in India, but local herders perceive the endangered snow leopard as a serious threat to their livelihood.
Keywords: snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; local; local people; people; livestock; loss; using; participatory; planning; action; valley; Hemis; national; national park; National-park; park; Ladakh
Jackson, R., Ahlborn, G.G. (1986). Appendix: Snow leopard managment recommendations provided to HMG in: Himalayan Snow Leopard Project: Final Progress Report, Phase I. Report: 1-7. Himalayan.
Abstract: Preliminary recommendations for the management of snow leopard and its prey are provided for the Langu Valley segment of the Shey-Pkoksundo National Park. Park-wide and country-wide conservation options and management recommendations await results of the surveys scheduled for 1987. The following management objectives are formulated: 1) Protection and ultimate restoration of all natural communities within the area 2) Special protection measures for snow leopard and musk deer (strict control of hunting and livestock grazing) 3) Secure natural resources around local villages 4) Respect traditional rights of villagers, while controlling high impact human activities 5) Secure cooperation of local people. These objectives are refined and recommendations for concrete conservation actions are made.
Notes: document is a part of the Himalayan Snow Leopard Project: Final Progress Report, Phase I
Keywords: action plan, CCT, conservation, Himalaya, human wildlife conflict, hunting, livestock, local participation, local people, management/protected
Liao, Y. F. (1985). The Geographical Distribution of Ounces in Qinghai Province. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 5(3), 183–188.
Abstract: This paper deals with the geographical distribution of ounces (Panthera uncia) in Qinghai Province. Ounces are distributed in 20 counties- Guide, Huzhu, Menyuan, Qilian, Tianjun, Dulan, Golmud, Guinan, Xinghai, Zhidoi, Zadoi, Nangqen, Yushu, Chindu, Qumarleb, Madio, Maqen, Jigzhi, Baima, Darlag. Among them, there fore 4 counties- Qilian, Tianjun, Dulan, Zadoi, in which the number of ounces are bigger. The number of ounces are shown in table 2. There are altogether 73 ounces (40 male, 33 female) which is supported to every park of China for ornamental, they were captured by fellow-villagers, and 44 ounces (23 male, 21 female) of them are below 6 months old, 9 ounces (6 male, 3 female) of them are 1 year old, 2 ounces (male) are 2 years old, and 18 ounces (9 male, 9 female) are adults.
Ounces live at an altitude of 3000-4100 metres above the sea, and prefer to eat Bharal (Pseudois noyour). Its breeding period goes from April to June, the number of embryos being 2-3.
A female ounce was successfully reproduced for the first time at Xining People's Park of China, in Spetember, 1984, and she gave birth to 3 young ounces.
Keywords: China; Qinghai; distribution; browse; 5470; ounce; panthera; panthera uncia; Panthera-uncia; uncia; province; 20; Qilian; number; 40; Male; Female; park; Adult; bharal; Pseudois; breeding; people; birth; young; Chinese
Mishra, C., Madhusudan, M. D., & Datta, A. (2006). Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs (Vol. 40).
Abstract: The high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh,India, located in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, remain zoologically unexplored and unprotected. We report results of recent mammal surveys in the high altitude habitats of western Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 35 mammal species (including 12 carnivores, 10 ungulates and 5 primates) were recorded, of which 13 are categorized as Endangered or Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. One species of primate, the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala, is new to science and the Chinese goral Nemorhaedus caudatus is a new addition to the ungulate fauna of the Indian subcontinent. We documented peoples' dependence on natural resources for grazing and extraction of timber and medicinal plants. The region's mammals are threatened by widespread hunting. The snow leopard Uncia uncia and dhole Cuon alpinus are also persecuted in retaliation for livestock depredation. The tiger Panthera tigris, earlier reported from the lower valleys, is now apparently extinct there, and range reductions over the last two decades are reported for bharal Pseudois nayaur and musk deer Moschus sp.. Based on mammal species richness, extent of high altitude habitat, and levels of anthropogenic disturbance, we identified a potential site for the creation of Arunachal's first high altitude wildlife reserve (815 km2). Community-based efforts that provide incentives for conservation-friendly practices could work in this area, and conservation awareness programmes are required, not just amongst the local communities and schools but for politicians, bureaucrats and the army.
Keywords: anthropogenic; area; Arunachal; assessment; awareness; bharal; biodiversity; carnivore; carnivores; community; community-based; conservation; deer; depredation; dhole; endangered; extinct; fauna; goral; grazing; habitat; habitats; High; Himalaya; hunting; incentives; India; indian; Iucn; leopard; livestock; livestock-depredation; livestock depredation; local; mammals; musk; musk-deer; nayaur; panthera; people; peoples; plant; plants; potential; Pseudois; Pseudois-nayaur; pseudois nayaur; range; recent; region; Report; reserve; resource; schools; snow; snow-leopard; snow leopard; species; survey; surveys; threat; threatened; threats; tiger; uncia; Uncia-uncia; Uncia uncia; ungulate; ungulates; valley; wildlife; work; Panthera-tigris; tigris