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Anonymous. (2000). A snow leopard conservation plan for Mongolia.
Abstract: The snow leopard faces multiple threats in the Himalayan region, from habitat degradation, loss of prey, the trade in pelts, parts and live animals, and conflict with humans, primarily pastoralists. Consequently, the populations are considered to be in decline and the species is listed as Endangered in the IUCN's Red List. As a 'flagship' and 'umbrella' species the snow leopard can be a unifying biological feature to raise awareness of its plight and the need for conservation, which will benefit other facets of Himalayan biodiversity as well. Some studies of snow leopards have been conducted in the Himalayan region. But, because of its elusive nature and preference for remote and inaccessible habitat, knowledge of the ecology and behaviour of this mystical montane predator is scant. The available information, however, suggests that snow leopards occur at low densities and large areas of habitat are required to conserve a viable population. Thus, many researchers and conservationists have advocated landscape-scale approaches to conservation within a regional context, rather than focusing on individual protected areas.This regional strategy for WWF's snow leopard conservation program is built on such an approach. The following were identified as important regional issues: 1) international trade in snow leopards and parts; 2) the human-snow leopard conflict; 3) the need for a landscape approach to conservation to provide large spatial areas that can support demographically and ecologically viable snow leopard metapopulations; 4) research on snow leopard ecology to develop long-term, science-based conservation management plans; and 5) regional coordination and dialog. While the issues are regional, the WWF's in the region have developed 5-year strategic actions and activities, using the regional strategies as a touchstone, which will be implemented at national levels. The WWF's will develop proposals based on these strategic actions, with estimated budgets, for use by the network for funding and fund-raising. WWF also recognizes the need to collaborate and coordinate within the network and with other organizations in the region to achieve conservation goals in an efficient manner, and will form a working group to coordinate activities and monitor progress.
Keywords: awareness; behaviour; biodiversity; conservation plan; decline; density; ecology; fund-raising; funding; habitat degradation; Himalayan; management; Mongolia; montane; pastoralists; pelt; predator; snow-leopard-conservation-plan; snow leopard; trade; Wwf
Jackson, R. (2000). Linking Snow Leopard Conservation and People-Wildlife Conflict Resolution, Summary of a multi-country project aimed at developing grass-roots measures to protect the endangered snow leopard from herder retribution. Cat News, 33, 12–15.
Keywords: livestock-depredation; livestock; pastoralists; herders; Pakistan; Nepal; Tibet; Mongolia; India; protected-areas; parks; reserves; refuge; snow-leopard-incentive-program; economics; tourism; pens; corrals; enclosures; trapping; poisoning; killing; cubs; dens; retribution; behavior; predator; prey; Qomolangma; habitat; feces; fecal-analysis; compensation; Dogs; guard-dogs; religion; conservation; browse; depredation; snow; leopard; incentive; program; fecal; analysis; guard; Dog; 4000
Mishra, C., Allen, P., McCarthy, T., Madhusudan, M. D., Agvaantserengiin, B., & Prins H. (2003). The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard (Vol. 17).
Abstract: Pastoralists and their livestock share much of the habitat of the snow leopard (Uncia uncia) across south and central Asia. The levels of livestock predation by the snow leopard and other carnivores are high, and retaliatory killing by the herders is a direct threat to carnivore populations. Depletion of wild prey by poaching and competition from livestock also poses an indirect threat to the region's carnivores. Conservationists working in these underdeveloped areas that face serious economic damage from livestock losses have turned to incentive programs to motivate local communities to protect carnivores. We describe a pilot incentive program in India that aims to offset losses due to livestock predation and to enhance wild prey density by creating livestock-free areas on common land. We also describe how income generation from handicrafts in Mongolia is helping curtail poaching and retaliatory killing of snow leopards. However, initiatives to offset the costs of living with carnivores and to make conservation beneficial to affected people have thus far been small, isolated, and heavily subsidized. Making these initiatives more comprehensive, expanding their coverage, and internalizing their costs are future challenged for the conservation of large carnivores such as the snow leopard.
Keywords: Central Asia; community; conservation; herder; incentive program; India; livestock; Mongolia; pastoralists; poaching; retaliatory killing; snow leopard; Uncia uncia
Murali, R., Redpath, S., Mishra, C. (2017). The value of ecosystem services in the high altitude Spiti Valley, Indian Trans-Himalaya. Elsevier, (28), 115–123.
Abstract: The high mountain ranges of South and Central Asia are increasingly being exposed to large-scale development
projects. These areas are home to traditional pastoralist communities and internationally important
biodiversity including the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia. Development projects rely on
economic cost-benefit analysis, but the ecosystem services in the high Himalayas are poorly understood
and are rarely accounted for. As a first step to fill this gap, we identified the main ecosystem services used
by local people in the Trans-Himalayan Spiti Valley (7591 km2), a region important for conservation of
snow leopards and high mountain biodiversity, and undertook an economic valuation. Stakeholders identified
a range of services, though these were dominated by provisioning services identified by 90% of
respondents. Only 5.4% of the respondents recognised regulatory services and 4.8% recognised cultural
services. The mean economic value of provisioning services was estimated at US$ 3622 ± 149 HH1
yr1, which was 3.8 times higher than the average annual household income. Our results underscore
the need to account for ecosystem services in the cost-benefit analyses of large-scale development projects
in addition to assessments of their environmental and social impact.
Keywords: Ecosystem services, Pastoralists, Local communities, Provisioning services Economic valuation, Panthera uncia