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Hunter, D. O. (1991). Science and Spirit:GIS tracks the elusive snow leopard. GeoInfo Systems, Jan, 21–28.
Jackson, R. (1992). SSC Plan for Snow Leopard.
Jackson, R., & Ahlborn, G. (1989). Snow leopards (Panthera- uncia) in Nepal – home range and movements. National Geographic Research, 5(2), 161–175.
McCarthy, T. (2000). Ecology and Conservation of Snow Leopards, Gobi Brown Bears, and Wild Bactrian Camels in Mongolia. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, .
Abstract: Snow leopard ecology, distribution and abundance in Mongolia were studied between 1993 and 1999. I placed VHF and satellite radio-collars on 4 snow leopards, 2 males and 2 females, to determine home ranges, habitat use, movements, and activity. Home ranges of snow leopards in Mongolia were substantially larger than reported elsewhere. Males ranged over 61 – 142 km2 and female 58 to 1,590 km2. Cats had crepuscular activity patterns with daily movements averaging 5.1 km. Intraspecific distances averaged 1.3 km for males to 7.8 km for males. Leopards selected moderately to very-broken habitat with slopes > 20o, in areas containing ibex. Leopard distribution and abundance was determined using sign surveys. Leopard range in Mongolia is approximately 103,000 km2 but cats are not uniformly distributed within that range. High-density areas include the eastern and central Transaltai Gobi and the northern Altai ranges. Relative leopard densities compared well with relative ibex densities on a regional basis. A snow leopard conservation plan was drafted for Mongolia that identifies problems and threats, and provides an action plan. Wild Bactrian camels occur in the Great Gobi National Park (GGNP) and are thought to be declining due to low recruitment. I surveyed camels by jeep and at oases, observing 142 (4.2% young) and 183 (5.3% young) in 1997 and 1998. Current range was estimated at 33,300 km2. Some winter and calving ranges were recently abandoned. Track sizes and tooth ages from skulls were used to assess demographics. A deterministic model was produced that predicts camel extinction within 25 to 50 years under current recruitment rates and population estimates. Gobi brown bears are endemic to Mongolia and may number less than 35. Three population isolates may occur. I collected genetic material from bears at oases using hair traps. Microsatellite analyses of nuclear DNA determined sixteen unique genotypes, only two of which occurred at more than one oases. Genetic diversity was very low with expected heterozygosity = 0.32, and alleles per locus = 2.3. Mitochondrial DNA sequences were compared to other clades of brown bear and found to fall outside of all known lineages.
Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association. (2010). Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association Report March 2010.
Abstract: In accordance with order of the Ministry of Nature and Tourism,
zoologists of our association have made surveys in three ways such as
reasons why snow leopards attack domestic animals, “Snow leopard” trial
operation to count them and illegal hunting in territories of Khovd,
Gobi-Altai, Bayankhongor, Uvurkhangai and Umnugobi provinces from
September 2009 to January 2010. As result of these surveys it has made
the following conclusions in the followings: Reason to hunt them illegally: the principal reason is that
administrative units have been increased and territories of
administrative units have been diminished. There have been four
provinces in 1924 to 1926, 18 since 1965, 21 since 1990. Such situation
limits movements of herdsmen completely and pastures digressed much than
ever before. As result of such situation, 70% of pastures become desert.
Such digression caused not only heads of animals and also number of
species. Guarantee is that birds such as owls, cuckoo, willow grouse in
banks of Uyert river, Burkhanbuudai mountain, located in Biger soum,
Gobi-Altai province, which are not hunted by hunters, are disappearing
in the recent two decades. For that reason we consider it is urgently
necessary for the government to convert administrative unit structures
into four provinces. This would influence herdsmen moving across
hundreds km and pastures could depart from digression.
Second reason: cooperative movement won. The issues related to management and strengthening of national
cooperatives, considered by Central Committee of Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party in the meeting in March 1953 was the start of
cooperatives' movement. Consideration by Yu. Tsedenbal, chairman of
Ministers Council, chairman of the MPRP, on report "Result of to unify
popular units and some important issues to maintain entity management of
agricultural cooperatives" in the fourth meeting by the Central
Committee of Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party /MPRP/ on December
16-17, 1959, proclaimed complete victory of cooperative. At the end of
1959, it could unify 767 small cooperative into 389 ones, unify 99.3 %
of herdsmen and socialize 73.3 % of animals. The remaining of animals
amount 6 million 163 thousands animals, and equals to 26.7% of total
animals. This concerned number of animals related to the article
mentioned that every family should have not more that 50 animals in
Khangai zone and not more 75 animals in Gobi desert. It shows that such
number could not satisfy needs of family if such number is divided into
five main animals in separating with reproduction animals and adult
animals. So herdsmen started hunt hoofed animals secretly and illegally
in order to satisfy their meat needs. Those animals included main food
of snow leopard such as ibex, wild sheep, and marmot. Third reason is that the state used to hunt ibex, which are main
nutrition of snow leopards, every year. The administrative unit of the
soum pursued policy to hunt ibex in order to provide meat needs of
secondary schools and hospitals. That's why this affected decrease of
ibex population. Preciously from 1986 to 1990 the permissions to hunt
one thousands of wild sheep and two thousands of ibexes were hunt for
domestic alimentary use every year. Not less than 10 local hunters of every soum used to take part in big
game of ibexes. Also they hunted many ibexes, chose 3-10 best ibexes and
hid them in the mountains for their consummation during hunting.
Fourth reason: hunting of wolves. Until 1990 the state used to give
prizes to hunter, who killed a wolf in any seasons of the year. Firstly
it offered a sheep for the wolf hunter and later it gave 25 tugrugs /15
USD/. Every year, wolf hunting was organized several times especially
picking wolf-cubs influenced spread and population of wolves. So snow
leopard came to the places where wolves survived before and attack
domestic animals. Such situation continued until 1990. Now population of
ibexes has decreased than before 1990 since the state stopped hunting
wolves, population of wolves increased in mountainous zones. We didn't
consider it had been right since it was natural event. However
population of ibexes decreased. Fifth reason: Global warming. In recent five years it has had a drought
and natural disaster from excessive snow in the places where it has
never had such natural disasters before. But Mongolia has 40 million
heads of domestic animals it has never increased like such quantity in
its history before. We consider it is not incorrect that decrease of
domestic animals could give opportunities to raise population of wild
animals. Our next survey is to make attempt to fix heads of snow leopards
correctly with low costs.
Schaller, G. B., Tserendeleg, J., & Amarsana, G. (1994). Observations on snow leopards in Mongolia. In J.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 33–42). Usa: Islt.