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Kuznetzov B.A. (1963). Materials on mammal fauna in Central Asia. Central Asian mountainous province.
Abstract: It provides a list of mammals of Central Asia (species and sub-species) indicating their main habitats, and undertakes an attempt to zone fauna of Central Asia based on data collected by the world science community concerning distribution of various mammal species over the country. Snow leopard Uncia uncia Schr. was indicated to inhabit the mountains of Central Asia.
LI. J, W. A. N. G. D., YIN. H, ZHAXI. D, JIAGONG. Z, SCHALLER. G. B, MISHRA. C, MCCARTHY. T. M, WANG. H, WU. L, XIAO. L, BASANG. L, ZHANG. Y, ZHOU. Y, LU. Z. (2013). Role of Tibetan Buddhist Monasteries in Snow Leopard Conservation. Conservation Biology, 00, 1–8.
Abstract: The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits the rugged mountains in 12 countries of Central Asia,
including the Tibetan Plateau. Due to poaching, decreased abundance of prey, and habitat degradation, it was listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1972. Current conservation strategies, including nature reserves and incentive programs, have limited capacities to protect snow leopards. We investigated the role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation in the Sanjiangyuan region in China’s Qinghai Province on the Tibetan Plateau. From 2009 to 2011, we systematically surveyed snow leopards in the Sanjiangyuan region. We used the MaxEnt model to determine the relation of their presence to environmental variables (e.g., elevation, ruggedness) and to predict snow leopard distribution. Model results showed 89,602 km2 of snow leopard habitat in the Sanjiangyuan region, of which 7674 km2 lay within Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve’s core zones. We analyzed the spatial relation between snow leopard habitat and Buddhist monasteries and found that 46% of monasteries were located in snow leopard habitat and 90% were within 5 km of snow leopard habitat. The 336 monasteries in the Sanjiangyuan region could protect more snow leopard habitat (8342 km2) through social norms and active patrols than the nature reserve’s core zones. We conducted 144 household interviews to identify local herders’ attitudes and behavior toward snow leopards and other wildlife. Most local herders claimed that they did not kill wildlife, and 42% said they did not kill wildlife because it was a sin in Buddhism. Our results indicate monasteries play an important role in snow leopard conservation. Monastery-based snow leopard conservation could be extended to other Tibetan Buddhist regions that in total would encompass about 80% of the global range of snow leopards.
Ming, M. (2008). A diary of infrared photography. Man & the Biosphere, 54(6), 26–35.
Abstract: The vivid and interesting stories recorded by the diary which is written by the professor Ma Ming tell us specific details of surveying Snow Leopard in the Tianshan Mountains. The members of the team overcame all kinds of difficulties and dangers with persistent enthusiasm for this work, finally, satisfactorily finishing the field survey. Recently, Ma Ming just has accomplished the preliminary investigation of snow leopards in Kunlun Mountains. If you want to share the experience of the surveying, please read this diary (http://maming3211.blog.163.com).
Ming, M., Baowen, H., Yu, M., & McCarthy, T. (2010). Survey on Bird Species and Analysis on Bird Diversity in the Central Kunlun Mountains in the Early Winter. Arid Zone Research, 27(2), 227–232.
Ming, M., Chundawat R.S., Jumabay, K., Wu, Y., Aizeizi, Q., & Zhu, M. H. (2006). Camera trapping of snow leopards for the photo capture rate and population size in the Muzat Valley of Tianshan Mountains. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 52(4), 788–793.
Abstract: The main purpose of this work was to study the use of infrared trapping cameras to estimate snow leopard Uncia uncia population size in a specific study area. This is the first time a study of this nature has taken place in China. During 71 days of field work, a total of 36 cameras were set up in five different small vales of the Muzat Valley adjacent to the Tomur Nature Reserve in Xinjiang Province, E80ø35' – 81ø00' and N42ø00' – 42ø10', elevation 2'300 – 3'000 m, from 18th October to 27th December 2005. We expended approximately 2094 trap days and nights total (c. 50'256 hours). At least 32 pictures of snow leopards, 22 pictures of other wild species (e.g. chukor, wild pig, ibex, red fox, cape hare) and 72 pictures of livestock were taken by the passive Cam Trakker (CT) train monitor in about 16 points of the Muzat Valley. The movement distance of snow leopard was 3-10 km/day. And the capture rate or photographic rate of snow leopard was 1.53%. Meanwhile, 20 transects were run and 31 feces sample were collected. According to 32 photos, photographic rate and sign survey after snowing on the spot, were about 5-8 individuals of snow leopards in the research area, and the minimum density of snow leopard in Muzat Valley was 2.0 – 3.2 individuals/100 km2. We observed the behavior of ibex for 77.3 hours, and found about 20 groups and a total of approximately 264 ibexes in the research area.
Ming, M., Munkhtsog, B., Xu, F., Turghan, M., Yin, S. -jing, & Wei, S. - D. (2005). Markings as Indicator of Snow Leopard in Field Survey, in Xinjiang.
Abstract: The Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) was a very rare species in China. The survey on the markings of Snow Leopard in Ahay and Tianshan Mountains is the major activity of the Project of Snow Leopard in Xinjiang, supported by International Snow Leopard Trust(ISLT)and Xinjiang Conservation Fund(XCF). During the field work from Sep to Nov 2004 the Xinjiang Snow Leopard Group(XSLG) set 67 transects of a total length of 47 776 m with mean transect length is 7 1 3 m at 9 locations.Total of 1 l 8 markings of Snow Leopards were found in 27 transects the mean density is 247km. The markings of Snow Leopard included the pug marks or footprints, scrapes, feces, bloodstain, scent spray, urine, hair or fur, claw rake, remains of prey corpse, sleep site, roar and others. From the quantity and locations of marks the XSLG got the information on habitat selection distribution region and relative abundance of the Snow Leopard in the study areas. The survey also provided knowledge on distribution and abundance of major prey potential conservation problems and human attitudes to Snow Leopards by taking 200 questionnaires in the study areas.
Ming, M., Yun, G., & Bo, W. (2008). Man & the Biosphere: The special series for the conservation of Snow Leopards in China (Vol. 54).
Abstract: The Chinese magazine <Man & the Biosphere> (Series No. 54, No. 6, 2008) -- A special series for the conservation of Snow Leopards was published by the Chinese National Committee for Man & the Biosphere in 15th December 2008. It is about 80 pages including ten articles with 200 color pictures. The special editors of this issue are the experts from SLT/XCF Prof. MaMing, Mrs. Ge Yun and Mr. Wen Bo. The first paper is “A King of Snow Peaks, Another Endangered Flagship Species” by Dr. Thomas McCarthy, Dr. Urs Breitenmmoser and Dr. Christine Breitenmoser-Wursten (Page 1-1). Another paper “ Conservation : Turning Awareness to Action ” is also from Dr. Thomas McCarthy (Pages from 6-17). There are four articles including the diary and story of the Surveys in Tomur Mountain and Kunlun Mountains written by Prof. MaMing, Mr. XuFeng, Miss Chen Ying and Miss Cheng Yun from the Xinjiang Snow Leopard Group and XCF, the Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The last is “Snow Leopard Enterprises ” -- A Story from Mongolia by Mrs. Jennifer Snell Rullman and Mrs. Agvaantseren Bayarjargal (Bayara). It is a very useful copy for the conservation in China. Cited as:
Ma Ming, GeYun and WenBo (Special editors of this issue). 2008. The special series for the conservation of Snow Leopards in China. Man & the Biosphere 2008(6): 1-80. Contents 1, A king of snow peaks, another endangered flagship species (Synopsis) ------------- 1-1 The contents --------------------------------------------- ( pages from 2-3 )
2, Protecting Snow Leopard means protecting a healthy eco-systems -------------- 4-5
3, Conservation: Turning awareness into action -------------- 6-17
4, Chinese Snow Leopard Team goes into action -------------- 18-25
5, A diary of infrared photography -------------- 26-35
6, Why have the snow leopards in the Tianshan Mountains begun to attack livestock? --- 36-43
7, The mystery of the Snow Leopards coming down the Tianshan Mountains ----------- 44-45
8, Snow leopards secluded Home on the Plateau ------------- 46-59
9, He saw Snow Leopards 30 years ago ------------- 60-69
10, Snow Leopard Enterprises -- A story from Mongolia ------------- 70-80
Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association. (2010). Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association Report March 2010.
Abstract: In accordance with order of the Ministry of Nature and Tourism,
zoologists of our association have made surveys in three ways such as
reasons why snow leopards attack domestic animals, “Snow leopard” trial
operation to count them and illegal hunting in territories of Khovd,
Gobi-Altai, Bayankhongor, Uvurkhangai and Umnugobi provinces from
September 2009 to January 2010. As result of these surveys it has made
the following conclusions in the followings: Reason to hunt them illegally: the principal reason is that
administrative units have been increased and territories of
administrative units have been diminished. There have been four
provinces in 1924 to 1926, 18 since 1965, 21 since 1990. Such situation
limits movements of herdsmen completely and pastures digressed much than
ever before. As result of such situation, 70% of pastures become desert.
Such digression caused not only heads of animals and also number of
species. Guarantee is that birds such as owls, cuckoo, willow grouse in
banks of Uyert river, Burkhanbuudai mountain, located in Biger soum,
Gobi-Altai province, which are not hunted by hunters, are disappearing
in the recent two decades. For that reason we consider it is urgently
necessary for the government to convert administrative unit structures
into four provinces. This would influence herdsmen moving across
hundreds km and pastures could depart from digression.
Second reason: cooperative movement won. The issues related to management and strengthening of national
cooperatives, considered by Central Committee of Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party in the meeting in March 1953 was the start of
cooperatives' movement. Consideration by Yu. Tsedenbal, chairman of
Ministers Council, chairman of the MPRP, on report "Result of to unify
popular units and some important issues to maintain entity management of
agricultural cooperatives" in the fourth meeting by the Central
Committee of Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party /MPRP/ on December
16-17, 1959, proclaimed complete victory of cooperative. At the end of
1959, it could unify 767 small cooperative into 389 ones, unify 99.3 %
of herdsmen and socialize 73.3 % of animals. The remaining of animals
amount 6 million 163 thousands animals, and equals to 26.7% of total
animals. This concerned number of animals related to the article
mentioned that every family should have not more that 50 animals in
Khangai zone and not more 75 animals in Gobi desert. It shows that such
number could not satisfy needs of family if such number is divided into
five main animals in separating with reproduction animals and adult
animals. So herdsmen started hunt hoofed animals secretly and illegally
in order to satisfy their meat needs. Those animals included main food
of snow leopard such as ibex, wild sheep, and marmot. Third reason is that the state used to hunt ibex, which are main
nutrition of snow leopards, every year. The administrative unit of the
soum pursued policy to hunt ibex in order to provide meat needs of
secondary schools and hospitals. That's why this affected decrease of
ibex population. Preciously from 1986 to 1990 the permissions to hunt
one thousands of wild sheep and two thousands of ibexes were hunt for
domestic alimentary use every year. Not less than 10 local hunters of every soum used to take part in big
game of ibexes. Also they hunted many ibexes, chose 3-10 best ibexes and
hid them in the mountains for their consummation during hunting.
Fourth reason: hunting of wolves. Until 1990 the state used to give
prizes to hunter, who killed a wolf in any seasons of the year. Firstly
it offered a sheep for the wolf hunter and later it gave 25 tugrugs /15
USD/. Every year, wolf hunting was organized several times especially
picking wolf-cubs influenced spread and population of wolves. So snow
leopard came to the places where wolves survived before and attack
domestic animals. Such situation continued until 1990. Now population of
ibexes has decreased than before 1990 since the state stopped hunting
wolves, population of wolves increased in mountainous zones. We didn't
consider it had been right since it was natural event. However
population of ibexes decreased. Fifth reason: Global warming. In recent five years it has had a drought
and natural disaster from excessive snow in the places where it has
never had such natural disasters before. But Mongolia has 40 million
heads of domestic animals it has never increased like such quantity in
its history before. We consider it is not incorrect that decrease of
domestic animals could give opportunities to raise population of wild
animals. Our next survey is to make attempt to fix heads of snow leopards
correctly with low costs.
Novikov G.A. (1956). Sub-genus UNCIA Gray.
Abstract: Identification features of the sub-genus Uncia (colour; length of body and tail; shoulder height, and skull measurements) are given. Distribution, habitat, way of life, reproduction biology, behavioural patterns, migration routes, commercial value of snow leopard in the USSR is described.
Rothschild, B. M., Rothschild, C., & Woods, R. J. (1998). Inflammatory arthritis in large cats: An expanded spectrum of spondyloarthropathy. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 29(3), 279–284.
Abstract: Spondyloarthropathy was documented for the first time in 14 (3.7%) of 386 large cats, affecting eight species belonging to three genera. The limited distribution of joint erosions, associated with spine and sacroiliac joint pathology, was indistinguishable from that occurring in humans with spondyloarthropathy of the reactive type. This form of inflammatory arthritis is almost twice as common as osteoarthritis (for felids as a whole), and animal well-being may be enhanced by its recognition and by initiation of specific treatment.